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1.
Am J Bot ; 107(4): 658-675, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253761

RESUMO

PREMISE: Not all ferns grow in moist and shaded habitats. One well-known example is Notholaena standleyi, a species that thrives in deserts of the southwestern United States and Mexico. This species exhibits several "chemotypes" that differ in farina (flavonoid exudates) color and chemistry. By integrating data from molecular phylogenetics, cytology, biochemistry, and biogeography, we circumscribed the major evolutionary lineages within N. standleyi and reconstructed their diversification histories. METHODS: Forty-eight samples were selected from across the geographic distribution of N. standleyi. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using four plastid and five nuclear markers. Ploidy levels were inferred using spore sizes calibrated by chromosome counts, and farina chemistry was compared using thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Four clades are recognized, three of which roughly correspond to previously recognized chemotypes. The diploid clades G and Y are found in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively; they are estimated to have diverged in the Pleistocene, congruent with the postulated timing of climatological events separating these two deserts. Clade P/YG is tetraploid and partially overlaps the distribution of clade Y in the eastern Chihuahuan Desert. It is apparently confined to limestone, a geologic substrate rarely occupied by members of the other clades. The cryptic (C) clade, a diploid group known only from southern Mexico and highly disjunct from the other three clades, is newly recognized here. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a complex intraspecific diversification history of N. standleyi, traceable to a variety of evolutionary drivers including classic allopatry, parapatry with or without changes in geologic substrate, and sympatric divergence through polyploidization.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Pteridaceae , México , Filogenia , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos
2.
Oecologia ; 193(1): 1-13, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076818

RESUMO

Recent observational evidence suggests that nighttime temperatures are increasing faster than daytime temperatures, while in some regions precipitation events are becoming less frequent and more intense. The combined ecological impacts of these climatic changes on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants and their interactions with other functional groups (i.e., grass communities) remain poorly understood. Here we developed a growth chamber experiment to investigate how two CAM-grass communities in desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico respond to asymmetric warming and increasing rainfall variability. Grasses generally showed competitive advantages over CAM plants with increasing rainfall variability under ambient temperature conditions. In contrast, asymmetric warming caused mortality of both grass species (Bouteloua eriopoda and Bouteloua curtipendula) in both rainfall treatments due to enhanced drought stress. Grass mortality indirectly favored CAM plants even though the biomass of both CAM species Cylindropuntia imbricata and Opuntia phaeacantha significantly decreased. The stem's volume-to-surface ratio of C. imbricata was significantly higher in mixture than in monoculture under ambient temperature (both P < 0.0014); however, the difference became insignificant under asymmetric warming (both P > 0.1625), suggesting that warming weakens the negative effects of interspecific competition on CAM plant growth. Our findings suggest that while the increase in intra-annual rainfall variability enhances grass productivity, asymmetric warming may lead to grass mortality, thereby indirectly favoring the expansion of co-existing CAM plants. This study provides novel experimental evidence showing how the ongoing changes in global warming and rainfall variability affect CAM-grass growth and interactions in dryland ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas , Mudança Climática , México , Poaceae , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929573

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) are contaminants of concern for fish in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). We explored Hg and Se in fish tissues (2,324 individuals) collected over 50 years (1962-2011) from the UCRB. Samples include native and non-native fish collected from lotic waterbodies spanning 7 major tributaries to the Colorado River. There was little variation of total mercury (THg) in fish assemblages basin-wide and only 13% (272/1959) of individual fish samples exceeded the fish health benchmark (0.27 µg THg/g ww). Most THg exceedances were observed in the White-Yampa tributary whereas the San Juan had the lowest mean THg concentration. Risks associated with THg are species specific with exceedances dominated by Colorado Pikeminnow (mean = 0.38 and standard error ± 0.08 µg THg/g ww) and Roundtail Chub (0.24 ± 0.06 µg THg/g ww). For Se, 48% (827/1720) of all individuals exceeded the fish health benchmark (5.1 µg Se/g dw). The Gunnison river had the most individual exceedances of the Se benchmark (74%) whereas the Dirty Devil had the fewest. We identified that species of management concern accumulate THg and Se to levels above risk thresholds and that fishes of the White-Yampa (THg) and Gunnison (Se) rivers are at the greatest risk in the UCRB.


Assuntos
Peixes , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/classificação , Modelos Lineares , Dente Molar/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rios/química , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 241-259, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686228

RESUMO

Recent analyses on the length of drought recovery in forests have shown multi-year legacies, particularly in semi-arid, coniferous ecosystems. Such legacies are usually attributed to ecophysiological memory, although drought frequency itself, and its effect on overlapping recovery times, could also contribute. Here, we describe a multi-decadal study of drought legacies using tree-ring carbon-isotope ratios (δ13C) and ring-width index (RWI) in Pinus ponderosa at 13 montane sites traversing a winter-summer precipitation gradient in the Southwestern U.S. Sites and trees were selected to avoid collection biases that exist in archived tree-ring databanks. The spatial hydroclimate gradient and winter-summer seasonal patterns were well predicted by seasonal and inter-annual correlations between δ13C and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Using VPD, we found that the probability of extreme drought has increased up to 70% in this region during the past two decades. When the recent increase in drought frequency was not considered, multi-year legacies in both δ13C and RWI were observed at most sites. When the increase in drought frequency was detrended from tree-ring chronologies, some sites exhibited short legacies (1-2 years) in both δ13C and RWI, and there was a sight trend for longer legacies in RWI. However, when considered broadly across the region and multiple decades, no significant legacies were observed, which contrasts with past studies. Our results reveal that a contribution to observed multi-year legacies is related to shifts in the climate system itself, an exogenous factor, that must be considered along with physiological memory.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
5.
J Safety Res ; 70: 71-77, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Violence-related events and roadway incidents are the leading causes of injury among taxi drivers. Fatigue is under-recognized and prevalent in this workforce and is associated with both injury outcomes. We describe the association of individual, business-related, and work environment factors with driving tired among taxi drivers in two very different cities. METHOD: We developed a comprehensive survey for licensed taxi drivers. We trained surveyors to administer the 30-min survey using systematic sampling among taxi drivers waiting for fares in two large U.S. cities: the Southwest (City 1) and the West (City 2). A driving tired scale of the Occupational Driver Behavior Questionnaire was the outcome. Multivariate logistic models described driving tired behavior in city-specific models using adjusted Odds Ratios (ORadj). RESULTS: City 1 and City 2 had 496 and 500 participants, respectively. Each driving tired behavior was significantly more prevalent in City 2 than City 1 (p < .05). There were more variables and a greater diversity of variables in the models describing drowsy driving in City 1 than City 2. In City 1, variables describing negative safety climate (ORadj = 1.15), socio-demographic groups (identifying as Asian, educational attainment), passenger-related violence (ORadj = 1.79), and company tenure (ORadj =1.15) were associated with driving tired. In City 2, high perceived safety training usefulness (ORadj = 0.48) was associated with driving tired. A risk factor for driving tired that was common to both cities was job demands (ORadj = 1.21 in City 1; 1.43 in City 2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent two diverse taxi populations driving in two geographically distinct regions that differ in safety regulation. It is important that safety measures that include fatigue awareness training are reaching all drivers. Fatigue management training should be integrated into driver safety programs regardless of location. Practical applications: Fatigue management strategies that recognize individual factors, business-related characteristics, and work environment are an important component of road safety and are particularly relevant for occupational drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cidades , Comércio , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Zootaxa ; 4695(5): zootaxa.4695.5.1, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719332

RESUMO

The robber fly genus Wilcoxia is revised based on external morphological features of adults. For each species the following is provided: type specimen information, diagnostic features, description, natural history including associated prey data, and geographical distribution (derived from georeferenced localities for both examined specimens and literature records). A key to adults of Wilcoxia, supplemented with photographs of habitus and selected morphological features, is included. The genus comprises eight species, distributed primarily in the southwestern United States. Three new species are described: W. apache (type locality: New Mexico, Quay County, Apache Canyon), W. flavipennis (type locality: Arizona, Pima County, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), and W. forbesi (type locality: New Mexico, Doña Ana County, 1 mi. NW Tortugas Mt.). There appear to be two reasonably well-defined species groups (cinerea and martinorum groups, with four species in each), based on structural features, seasonality and natural history. Identified prey items (for W. apache, W. forbesi and W. martinorum) include representatives from Hemiptera (eight families), Coleoptera (one family), Hymenoptera (five families) and Diptera (10 families). A discussion on the structural heterogeneity of Wilcoxia and a history of its classification are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Animais , Arizona , New Mexico , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
7.
Zootaxa ; 4567(3): zootaxa.4567.3.8, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715888

RESUMO

Atopsyche is the largest genus of hydrobiosids, comprising 139 species in three subgenera (Atopsyche, Atopsaura, and Dolochorema), distributed from southwestern United States to northeastern Uruguay. Atopsyche (Atopsaura) is the most diverse subgenus with 65 species, Atopsyche (Atopsyche) with 51, and Atopsyche (Dolochorema) with three. This paper provides a taxonomic study of Atopsyche, including descriptions of A. (Atopsyche) bravoi n. sp. from Ecuador, A. (Atopsaura) beckeri n. sp. from Cuba, A. (Atopsaura) japi n. sp. from Brazil, and the redescription of A. (Atopsaura) usingeri. Additionally, the morphological variations of A. (Atopsaura) antisuya and A. (Atopsaura) diamantina are presented, as well new records. These results contribute to taxonomical knowledge of Atopsyche and increase the number of described species to 142.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Cuba , Equador , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Uruguai
8.
Sleep Health ; 5(6): 587-591, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Sleep Health Index was developed to address limitations with existing sleep scales, particularly in the measurement of healthy sleep in non-clinical populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine this measure in relation to two widely-used sleep scales and two standardized stress scales. METHODS: A sample of 416 undergraduate students completed an online survey that included the Sleep Health Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Insomnia Severity Index, Perceived Stress Scale, and Index of College Students' Recent Life Events. RESULTS: Sleep health was negatively correlated with self-perceived stress and life-events (-.41 and- .45, respectively), insomnia severity (-.59), and poor sleep quality (-.58). CONCLUSIONS: Although other measures assessing sleep health exist, there is a paucity of data-driven support for their validity. Our findings provide support for the Sleep Health Index as a measure of healthy sleep and demonstrate an association between psychological stress and sleep health in an undergraduate student population.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etnologia , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1784-1795, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289976

RESUMO

Adolescent perceived behavioral control (self-efficacy) plays a key role in influencing decision-making processes within the context of suicide prevention programming. Guided by Theory of Planned Behavior, models tested attitudinal and social factors predicting adolescent intentions and actual engagement in suicide prevention behaviors. Participants included 233 racially and ethnically diverse high school students (54% female) in a southwestern U.S. school district. Measures included attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior over follow-up. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived behavioral control, rather than intentions, was the direct predictor of behaviors. For adolescents, beliefs about effectively utilizing learned suicide prevention behavior may be more important than intentions. The design of suicide prevention efforts should account for this important influence on adolescent decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Am J Bot ; 106(7): 922-934, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294835

RESUMO

PREMISE: Physiological responses to temperature extremes are considered strong drivers of species' demographic responses to climate variability. Plants are typically classified as either avoiders or tolerators in their freezing-resistance mechanism, but a gradient of physiological-threshold freezing responses may exist among individuals of a species. Moreover, adaptive significance of physiological freezing responses is poorly characterized, particularly under warming conditions that relax selection on cold hardiness. METHODS: Freezing responses were measured in winter and again for new foliage in spring for 14 populations of Artemisia tridentata collected throughout its range and planted in a warm common garden. The relationships of the freezing responses to survival were evaluated in the warm garden and in two colder gardens. RESULTS: Winter and spring freezing resistance were not correlated and appeared to be under differing selection regimes, as evident in correlations with different population climate of origin variables. All populations resisted considerably lower temperatures in winter than in spring, with populations from more continental climates showing narrower freezing safety margins (difference in temperatures at which ice-nucleation occurs and 50% reduction in chlorophyll fluorescence occurs) in spring. Populations with greater winter freezing resistance had lower survivorship in the warmest garden, while populations with greater spring freezing resistance had lower survivorship in a colder garden. CONCLUSIONS: These survivorship patterns relative to physiological thresholds suggest excess freezing resistance may incur a survival cost that likely relates to a trade-off between carbon gain and freezing resistance during critical periods of moisture availability. This cost has implications for seed moved from cooler to warmer environments and for plants growing in warming environments.


Assuntos
Artemisia/fisiologia , Clima Frio , Congelamento , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estações do Ano , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Água/fisiologia
12.
Ecol Appl ; 29(8): e01979, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332869

RESUMO

Higher tree density, more fuels, and a warmer, drier climate have caused an increase in the frequency, size, and severity of wildfires in western U.S. forests. There is an urgent need to restore forests across the western United States. To address this need, the U.S. Forest Service began the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) to restore four national forests in Arizona. The objective of this study was to evaluate how restoration of ~400,000 ha under the 4FRI program and projected climate change would influence carbon dynamics and wildfire severity from 2010 to 2099. Specifically, we estimated forest carbon fluxes, carbon pools and wildfire severity under a moderate and fast 4FRI implementation schedule and compared those to status quo and no-harvest scenarios using the LANDIS-II simulation model and climate change projections. We found that the fast-4FRI scenario showed early decreases in ecosystem carbon due to initial thinning/prescribed fire treatments, but total ecosystem carbon increased by 9-18% over no harvest by the end of the simulation. This increased carbon storage by 6.3-12.7 million metric tons, depending on the climate model, equating to removal of carbon emissions from 55,000 to 110,000 passenger vehicles per year until the end of the century. Nearly half of the additional carbon was stored in more stable soil pools. However, climate models with the largest predicted temperature increases showed declines by late century in ecosystem carbon despite restoration. Our study uses data from a real-world, large-scale restoration project and indicates that restoration is likely to stabilize carbon and the benefits are greater when the pace of restoration is faster.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fogo , Arizona , Carbono , Ecossistema , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Árvores
13.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(5): 571-577, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to identify underlying cardiovascular risk factors among college students including lifestyle characteristics, health behaviors and knowledge, and perception of the risk factors. METHOD: College students (N = 293), aged 19-36 years, enrolled at either a Midwestern or a Southwestern University in the United States, responded to three questionnaires: sociodemographic, knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors, and perception of cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric measures collected included blood pressure (BP), glucose, lipid panel, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: There were significant regional and gender differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Southwestern and Midwestern college students. Students from the Southwest had a higher risk of developing CVD in 30 years compared to those in the Midwest; they also had a higher perceived risk. Males were more at risk of developing CVD than females but had a lower perceived risk than females. Dietary habits were similar between the two populations, and we found no significant differences in BMI. The two regions varied in BP levels, but the Midwestern students had significantly higher prevalence of elevated BP and Stage 2 hypertension. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that college students are a high-risk population and tend to underestimate and misperceive their risk for developing CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nursing ; 49(7): 49-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166246

RESUMO

Thermal comfort helps patients maintain normothermia, decreases preoperative anxiety, and increases their sense of well-being. This article details an initiative to improve surgical patient satisfaction with thermal comfort using reflective blankets at a 115-bed major medical center and Level III trauma center in the Southwest US.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 504-518, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153605

RESUMO

Much of the western United States is experiencing longer fire seasons with an increased frequency of high-severity fires and fire risk. Fire managers in the southwestern United States have increased efforts to reduce fire risk by managing more fires to meet resource objectives (e.g. thin forests, reduce hazardous fuel loads, and restore the landscape). However, little is known about the situational circumstances and decision space that inform the strategic response to wildland fire. Using generalized and time-to-event modeling techniques, we examined how fire management decisions are reached in a context informed by weather, burning conditions, and subsequent fire behavior. Modeling results captured daily containment probabilities along a gradient from limiting natural conditions to suppression invoked containment. Results inform fire management decisions, future research efforts, and the simulation of wildland fires with resource objectives.


Assuntos
Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , Florestas , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0207833, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170152

RESUMO

Insect herbivores and their hostplants constitute much of Earth's described biological diversity, but how these often-specialized associations diversify is not fully understood. We combined detailed hostplant data and comparative phylogenetic analyses of the lepidopteran family Momphidae to explore how shifts in the use of hostplant resources, not just hostplant taxon, contribute to the diversification of a phytophagous insect lineage. We inferred two phylogenetic hypotheses emphasizing relationships among species in the nominate genus, Mompha Hübner. A six-gene phylogeny was constructed with reared exemplars and collections from hostplants in the family Onagraceae from western and southwestern USA, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) phylogeny was inferred from collections and publicly available accessions in the Barcode of Life Data System. Species delimitation analyses combined with morphological data revealed ca. 56 undescribed species-level taxa, many of which are hostplant specialists on Onagraceae in the southwestern USA. Our phylogenetic reconstructions divided Momphidae into six major clades: 1) an Onagraceae flower- and fruit-boring clade, 2) a Melastomataceae-galling clade, 3) a leafmining clade A, 4) a leafmining clade B, 5) a Zapyrastra Meyrick clade, and 6) a monobasic lineage represented by Mompha eloisella (Clemens). Ancestral trait reconstructions using the COI phylogeny identified leafmining on Onagraceae as the ancestral state for Momphidae. Our study finds that shifts along three hostplant resource axes (plant taxon, plant tissue type, and larval feeding mode) have contributed to the evolutionary success and diversification of momphids.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Mariposas/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Melastomataceae , Onagraceae , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 138: 139-155, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112780

RESUMO

Notholaenids are an unusual group of ferns that have adapted to, and diversified within, the deserts of Mexico and the southwestern United States. With approximately 40 species, this group is noted for being desiccation-tolerant and having "farina"-powdery exudates of lipophilic flavonoid aglycones-that occur on both the gametophytic and sporophytic phases of their life cycle. The most recent circumscription of notholaenids based on plastid markers surprisingly suggests that several morphological characters, including the expression of farina, are homoplasious. In a striking case of convergence, Notholaena standleyi appears to be distantly related to core Notholaena, with several taxa not before associated with Notholaena nested between them. Such conflicts can be due to morphological homoplasy resulting from adaptive convergence or, alternatively, the plastid phylogeny itself might be misleading, diverging from the true species tree due to incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, or other factors. In this study, we present a species phylogeny for notholaenid ferns, using four low-copy nuclear loci and concatenated data from three plastid loci. A total of 61 individuals (49 notholaenids and 12 outgroup taxa) were sampled, including 31 out of 37 recognized notholaenid species. The homeologous/allelic nuclear sequences were retrieved using PacBio sequencing and the PURC bioinformatics pipeline. Each dataset was first analyzed individually using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and the species phylogeny was inferred using *BEAST. Although we observed several incongruences between the nuclear and plastid phylogenies, our principal results are broadly congruent with previous inferences based on plastid data. By mapping the presence of farina and their biochemical constitutions on our consensus phylogenetic tree, we confirmed that the characters are indeed homoplastic and have complex evolutionary histories. Hybridization among recognized species of the notholaenid clade appears to be relatively rare compared to that observed in other well-studied fern genera.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Núcleo Celular/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Pteridaceae/classificação , Pteridaceae/genética , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , México , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Ploidias , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(6): 722-729, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144828

RESUMO

This examination of 237 African American and Hispanic mothers of young children explored the longitudinal linkages between romantic partner relationship quality and maternal depressive symptoms among low-income ethnic minority populations. Most studies to date have largely focused on majority non-Hispanic White populations, as well as married partner dyads, and few have utilized longitudinal designs. At 3 time points, participants completed a series of questionnaires including the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) for partner relationship quality and a revised version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD-R) Scale for maternal depressive symptoms during home-visit interviews. Both concurrent and prospective correlations were significant and negative, indicating a higher level of relationship quality was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. After adjusting for potential confounders, partner relationship quality was prospectively associated with maternal depressive symptoms but not vice versa. This pattern did not differ by maternal ethnicity. The findings of this study support and contribute to the limited research conducted to date to uncover patterns and influences of associations between romantic partner relationship quality and depressive symptoms in representative samples of ethnic minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141560

RESUMO

FAT TALK AND CITIZEN SCIENCE: Fat talk is a spontaneous verbal interaction in which interlocutors make self-disparaging comments about the body, usually as a request for assessment. Fat talk often reflects concerns about the self that stem from broader sociocultural factors. It is therefore an important target for sociocultural linguistics. However, real-time studies of fat talk are uncommon due to the resource and time burdens required to capture these fleeting utterances. This limits the scope of data produced using standard sociolinguistic methods. Citizen science may alleviate these burdens by producing a scale of social observation not afforded via traditional methods. Here we present a proof-of-concept for a novel methodology, citizen sociolinguistics. This research approach involves collaborations with citizen researchers to capture forms of conversational data that are typically inaccessible, including fat talk. AIMS AND OUTCOMES: This study had two primary aims. Aim 1 focused on scientific output, testing a novel research strategy wherein citizen sociolinguists captured fat talk data in a diverse metropolitan region (Southwestern United States). Results confirm that citizen sociolinguistic research teams captured forms of fat talk that mirrored the scripted responses previously reported. However, they also capture unique forms of fat talk, likely due to greater diversity in sample and sampling environments. Aim 2 focused on the method itself via reflective exercises shared by the citizen sociolinguists throughout the project. In addition to confirming that the citizen sociolinguistic method produces reliable, scientifically valid data, we contend that citizen sociolinguist inclusion has broader scientific benefits which include applied scientific training, fostering sustained relationships between professional researchers and the public, and producing novel, meaningful scientific output that advances professional discourse.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Linguística , Sociologia , Adulto , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências Sociais , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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