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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4085-4088, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018896

RESUMO

A wide variety of electrochemical sweat sensors are recently being developed for real-time monitoring of biomarkers. However, from a physiological perspective, little is known about how sweat biomarkers change over time. This paper presents a method to collect and analyze sweat to identify inter and intraindividual variations of electrolytes during exercise. A new microfluidic sweat collection system is developed which consists of a patch covering the collection surface and a sequence of reservoirs. Na+, Cl- and K+ are measured with ion chromatography afterwards. The measurements show that with the new collector, variations in these ion concentrations can be measured reliably over time.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Suor , Eletrólitos , Exercício Físico , Sudorese
5.
Maturitas ; 140: 72-79, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: we aimed to explore the use of an estro-androgenic symptom questionnaire in women (EASQ-W), including items typically associated with menopausal hypoestrogenism and some others possibly related to androgen insufficiency that may be relevant to further characterize women reporting VVA/GSM at midlife. METHODS: web-based survey involving a representative sample of 1505 Italian women (age range: 40-65 years). The responders completed a structured, online questionnaire, reporting symptoms (yes/no option) and rating them (from 1 to 10), if present during the past 4 weeks. A factor analysis methodology (principal component analysis and K-MEANS clustering algorithm) was used to segment women. Statistically significant differences between groups were determined at the 95 % level of confidence. RESULTS: more than half of our study sample were aged 50-65 years (n = 901; 59.9 %) and 55 % were postmenopausal women (PMW). We obtained 8 principal domains of the EASQ-W with PMW reporting significantly more severe symptoms in the majority of domains related to well-being at mid-life. The K-MEANS clustering algorithm identified 4 clusters of women characterized by different symptoms: vasomotor (VMS; n = 341), sexual (SEX; n = 301), poorly symptomatic (LOWSYMPT; n = 766), sexual and anatomic, mainly at genital level (SEX + ANAT; n = 97), independently from the menopausal status. The cluster SEX + ANAT was the one reporting overall more symptoms in each of the other principal domains. Some symptoms (impression of being diminished in height, deterioration in work performance, more memory lapses/confusion than before, more wrinkles/signs of aging in the mirror, put on more tummy than usual) and the entire urological (UROL) cluster were significantly more reported by women in the cluster SEX + ANAT. Even when only severe symptoms were analysed, women in the SEX + ANAT cluster were the ones more symptomatic. The SEX only cluster identified younger women, with significantly less day and night hot flushes and sweats and less vaginal dryness and low lubrication associated with sexual pain as compared to SEX + ANAT. CONCLUSION: our results provide insight into the constellation of symptoms associated with VVA/GSM by identifying women with distinct clusters of complaints that may require a tailored diagnostic and therapeutic approach across age and menopause.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/patologia , Vagina/patologia , Vulva/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fogachos , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sudorese , Avaliação de Sintomas
6.
Zentralbl Chir ; 145(5): 421-424, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This video is a step-by-step description of thoracoscopic sympathectomy. INDICATION: Sweating is essential for thermoregulation. Hyperhidrosis is a condition of excess sweating from the eccrine glands and is associated with severe suffering for patients of all ages. It often worsens during adolescence. A generalised and focal type of hyperhidrosis which affects mainly the face, armpits, hands and feet can be distinguished from the focal variant. Thoracic sympathectomy has become the standard treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis worldwide. METHODS: The procedure is performed in the supine position with the upper body elevated about 30° in an adolescent patient. Both arms are abducted at 90° and single tube endotracheal ventilation is employed. A 3 mm trocar is placed in the anterior axillary line for a 3 mm 30° optic. A 5 mm trocar placed on the anterior axillary line (or breast fold in female patients) of the 4th or 5th intercostal space is used for the bipolar forceps. The sympathetic trunk and ganglia T 2 - 4 are identified and coagulated over the heads of ribs. CONCLUSION: The thoracoscopic approach to focal palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis allows clear identification of the sympathetic structures on each side. Under direct vision, selective ablation of the ganglia and sympathetic trunk provides long-term benefit for patients.


Assuntos
Hiperidrose , Adolescente , Axila , Feminino , Mãos/cirurgia , Humanos , Hiperidrose/cirurgia , Sudorese , Simpatectomia , Toracoscopia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(12): 997-998, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551877

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, in part due to the highly infectious nature of the disease. Because SARS-CoV-2 is new, much is unknown regarding mechanisms of transmission, and such information is urgently needed. Here, based on previous findings from related human betacoronaviruses, it is suggested that one possible route of transmission may be via infectious sweat. It is suggested that research be conducted in order to determine whether sweat in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals harbors virus in quantities that can infect others. Findings could be used for formulations of mitigation strategies and empirically based public health messaging.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Suor/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Sudorese/fisiologia
9.
Maturitas ; 136: 1-6, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence and specificity of sociodemographic and psychological factors on the perception of symptoms associated with menopause. STUDY DESIGN: Data are based on a nationwide cross-sectional survey study in Germany. A representative sample of 1350 females aged 14-95 years was examined. Sociodemographic factors, perceived stress, and self-efficacy were assessed. Women were divided into three age groups (young women ≤ 44 years; perimenopausal women 45-60 years; older women ≥ 61 years), and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used over the entire life span. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total score on the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and hot flushes/sweating assessed via the MRS. RESULTS: The MRS total score increased with age. Both MRS total score and hot flushes were positively associated with perceived stress in all three age groups. The MRS total score was negatively associated with self-efficacy; for hot flushes, this association could be shown for perimenopausal women only. Furthermore, interaction effects between perceived stress and self-efficacy were found: in perimenopausal and older women, the association between perceived stress and the MRS total score was stronger the lower self-efficacy was. This interaction effect was not observed in younger women. No interaction effect was found in any age group for hot flushes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that self-efficacy influences the severity of symptoms measured with the MRS. Interventions aimed to reduce stress and strengthen self-efficacy could lead to a lower symptom burden in perimenopausal women.


Assuntos
Climatério/fisiologia , Climatério/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Fogachos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(10): 646-651, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455452

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether basal concentrations of testosterone, cortisol or the ratio testosterone/cortisol were related to sweat Na+ loss, sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]) and sweat rate during exercise. Twenty-two female elite soccer players participated in the study. Testosterone and cortisol were measured in blood samples before exercise. Sweat samples were collected during a training session (~20°C, ~30% RH, and ~0.55 m/s of wind speed) to measure sweat [Na+]. Sweat rate was determined by considering the difference between post-and pre-body weight, along with the amount of liquid consumed. During exercise, sweat Na+ loss (0.33[0.19] g/h) and sweat rate (0.49[0.20] L/h) were related to basal testosterone concentration (1.4[0.4] pg/mL) (r=0.54; r=0.55, respectively; p<0.05), but not with basal cortisol concentration (119.2[24.2] ng/mL) nor testosterone/cortisol ratio (0.012[0.003]) (p>0.05). However, when Na+ loss was adjusted to sweat rate, no association was found between Na+ loss and testosterone (p>0.05). In addition, no differences were found between players with high vs. low Na+ loss adjusted to sweat loss in menstrual phase or intensity during exercise (p>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that in these specific environmental conditions, basal levels of testosterone might increase sweat rate and therefore, the amount of Na+ lost during exercise in elite women soccer players.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Futebol/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408694

RESUMO

This preliminarily study was made to examine the differences in sweat excretions from human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in dynamic exercise and heat conditions. Sweat samples were collected from six young males while they were either running on a treadmill or sitting in a sauna cabinet. Sweat samples of at least 5 mL from the eccrine (upper-back) and apocrine (armpit) sweat glands were collected during a 20-min running (or inactive overheating) period. The samples were then analyzed for urea, uric acid, and electrolyte (Na+, Cl-, and K+) excretions. The results from a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the secretions of urea and K+ were significantly higher during running than during inactive overheating for both glands, as were Na+ secretions for the apocrine glands (all P < 0.05). Under the same sweating conditions, urea and K+ excretions from the apocrine glands were also higher than those from the eccrine glands (all P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the Na+ secretions of the apocrine and eccrine glands under the running condition. The effects of various sweating methods and sweat glands on Cl- secretions were nonsignificant, and little uric acid was excreted. A higher urea excretion level during running rather than in hot conditions could be attributed to an elevated metabolic rate.


Assuntos
Glândulas Apócrinas , Exercício Físico , Temperatura Alta , Suor , Glândulas Écrinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Suor/química , Glândulas Sudoríparas , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233779

RESUMO

Military and civilian emergency situations often involve prolonged exposures to warm and very humid environments. We tested the hypothesis that increases in core temperature and body fluid losses during prolonged exposure to warm and very humid environments are dependent on dry bulb temperature. On three occasions, 15 healthy males (23 ± 3 yr) sat in 32.1 ± 0.1°C, 33.1 ± 0.2°C, or 35.0 ± 0.1°C and 95 ± 2% relative humidity normobaric environments for 8 h. Core temperature (telemetry pill) and percent change in body weight, an index of changes in total body water occurring secondary to sweat loss, were measured every hour. Linear regression models were fit to core temperature (over the final 4 h) and percent changes in body weight (over the entire 8 h) for each subject. These equations were used to predict core temperature and percent changes in body weight for up to 24 h. At the end of the 8-h exposure, core temperature was higher in 35°C (38.2 ± 0.4°C, P < 0.01) compared with 32°C (37.2 ± 0.2°C) and 33°C (37.5 ± 0.2°C). At this time, percent changes in body weight were greater in 35°C (-1.9 ± 0.5%) compared with 32°C (-1.4 ± 0.3%, P < 0.01) but not 33°C (-1.6 ± 0.6%, P = 0.17). At 24 h, predicted core temperature was higher in 35°C (39.2 ± 1.4°C, P < 0.01) compared with 32°C (37.6 ± 0.9°C) and 33°C (37.5 ± 0.9°C), and predicted percent changes in body weight were greater in 35°C (-6.1 ± 2.4%) compared with 32°C (-4.6 ± 1.5%, P = 0.04) but not 33°C (-5.3 ± 2.0%, P = 0.43). Prolonged exposure to 35°C, but not 32°C or 33°C, dry bulb temperatures and high humidity is uncompensable heat stress, which exacerbates body fluid losses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exposição Ambiental , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Militares , Medicina Submarina , Adulto , Deslocamentos de Líquidos Corporais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Sudorese , Fatores de Tempo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(7): 1221-1231, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193595

RESUMO

Seasonal variations in day length and light intensity can affect the circadian rhythm as well as some characteristics of temperature regulation. We investigated characteristics of autonomic (ATR), behavioural (BTR) and nocturnal (NTR) temperature regulation during spring and autumn. Eleven participants underwent experiments in both seasons. To assess ATR, participants performed a 30-min bout of submaximal upright exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed by 100 min of water immersion (28 °C). Thresholds for the onset of shivering and sweating and vasomotor response were measured. BTR was assessed using a water-perfused suit, with participants regulating the water-perfused suit temperature (Twps) within a range, considered as thermally comfortable. The Twps changed in a saw-tooth manner from 10 to 50 °C; by depressing a switch, the direction of the Twps changed, and this limit defined the thermal comfort zone (TCZ) for each participant. A 24-h proximal (calf)-distal (toe) skin temperature gradient (∆Tc-t) was measured to assess NTR. Initiation of vasomotor tone, shivering and sweating was similar between trials. Width of the TCZ was 8.1 °C in spring and 8.6 °C in autumn (p = 0.1), with similar upper and lower regulated temperatures. ∆Tc-t exhibited a typical circadian rhythm with no difference between seasons. Minor changes in skin temperature and oxygen consumption (p Ë‚ 0.05) between the seasons may indicate a degree of seasonal adaptation over the course of winter and summer, which persisted in spring and autumn. Other factors, such as country, race, sex and age could however modify the outcome of the study.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Cutânea , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Sudorese , Temperatura
15.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(6): 833-840, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101792

RESUMO

During play, ice hockey goaltenders routinely dehydrate through sweating and lose ≥2% body mass, which may impair thermoregulation and performance. PURPOSE: This randomized, crossover study examined the effects of mild dehydration on goaltender on-ice thermoregulation, heart rate, fatigue, and performance. METHODS: Eleven goaltenders played a 70-minute scrimmage followed by a shootout and drills to analyze reaction time and movements. On ice, they either consumed no fluid (NF) and lost 2.4% (0.3%) body mass or maintained body mass with water (WAT) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Save percentage, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, and core temperature were recorded throughout, and a postskate questionnaire assessed perceived fatigue. RESULTS: Relative to NF, intake of both fluids decreased heart rate (interaction: P = .03), core temperature (peak NF = 39.0°C [0.1°C], WAT = 38.6°C [0.1°C], and CES = 38.5°C [0.1°C]; P = .005), and rating of perceived exertion in the scrimmage (post hoc: P < .04), as well as increasing save percentage in the final 10 minutes of scrimmage (NF = 75.8% [1.9%], WAT = 81.7% [2.3%], and CES = 81.3% [2.3%], post hoc: P < .04). In drills, movement speed (post hoc: P < .05) and reaction time (post hoc: P < .04) were slower in the NF versus both fluid conditions. Intake of either fluid similarly reduced postskate questionnaire scores (condition: P < .0001). Only CES significantly reduced rating of perceived exertion in drills (post hoc: P < .05) and increased peak movement power versus NF (post hoc: P = .02). Shootout save percentage was similar between conditions (P = .37). CONCLUSIONS: Mild dehydration increased physiological strain and fatigue and decreased ice hockey goaltender performance versus maintaining hydration. Also, maintaining hydration with a CES versus WAT may further reduce perceived fatigue and positively affect movements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia
16.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(3): 485-499, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016640

RESUMO

Evaporative cooling is the critical heat dissipation mechanism for working individuals wearing thermal protective clothing in hot environments. However, until now, there is no knowledge on garment size design for evaporative cooling optimization, especially when the human body is in movements. In this study, to understand the dynamic effect of garment size on evaporative cooling, we performed experiments on a sweating thermal manikin with seven garment sizes and three walking speeds. The evaporative cooling of global and local manikin body with this wide range garment sizes was present. Results demonstrated that the effect of garment size on evaporative cooling depended on the walking speed. At lower walking speeds, the global evaporative cooling tended to decrease with greater garment size, while at higher walking speeds, the global evaporative cooling tended to increase with greater garment size. Similarly, according to effects of garment size on local evaporative cooling, body segments could be divided into three categories for evaporative cooling optimization. Further, we analyzed factors which influenced the positive effect of walking speed on the evaporative cooling. Results showed that, for most cases, the increase of evaporative cooling caused by walking showed positive linear relationship with the garment size. Further increase of walking speed led to a greater increase rate of evaporative heat loss for body segments with the small air gap. This study provides insights into clothing local characteristics of evaporative cooling with different garment sizes under dynamic conditions and may help clothing design to optimize the evaporative cooling of working individuals in hot environments.


Assuntos
Manequins , Caminhada , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Roupa de Proteção , Sudorese
17.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(1): 1-6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056980

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference in sudomotor function between healthy males and females in their early twenties by measuring skin surface area and activated sweat gland density (ASGD). The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART), a method for evaluating autonomic nervous system activity, was used for quantification. In QSART, the sweat glands are activated directly or indirectly by the subcutaneous application of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, through iontophoresis. This series of mechanisms is called the sudomotor axon reflex. After recording age, height, weight, and several measurements of the forearm, QSART was performed on 101 healthy controls aged 21-26 years to measure ASGD. The mean temperature and humidity on the measurement days were 11.4°C and 58.1% on May 3, 2018, and 14.7°C and 70.3% on May 10, 2018. The result of independent sample t-test showed higher ASGD in women (P < 0.05). The body surface area and the surface area of the forearms were higher in men (P < 0.001), but the number of activated sweat glands was not significantly different according to sex. The activated sweat gland counts of the body and forearms were analyzed through linear regression by age for males and females. Except for the activated sweat gland count of the male body, the analysis showed a tendency to decrease with increasing age but was not statistically significant in any case (P > 0.05). Showing insufficient coefficient of determination (R2), multiple regression analyses with sex and ages did not correct this insignificance between age and activated sweat gland count.


Assuntos
Glândulas Sudoríparas , Sudorese , Adulto , Axônios , Feminino , Humanos , Iontoforese , Masculino , Reflexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Maturitas ; 133: 32-41, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VSM), hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: The study sample comprised 8881 women (aged 45-50 years) with available hospital separation data from the 1946-51 cohort (1996-2016) of the ongoing Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a national prospective cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease events were obtained through linkage with hospital admission data, the National Death Index, and Medicare Benefits Schedule. Hot flushes and night sweats were assessed via questionnaires at each main survey. Additionally, we calculated the duration of symptoms based on whether or not women reported vasomotor menopausal symptoms in each survey. RESULTS: There were 925 cardiovascular disease, 484 coronary heart disease and 154 cerebrovascular disease events. There was no consistent evidence of any association with vasomotor menopausal symptoms, hot flushes and night sweats. We did find marginally statistically significant associations between presence of night sweats and cardiovascular disease (Hazard Ratio = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.01-1.38), and between the duration of vasomotor menopausal symptoms [years] and coronary heart disease (Hazard Ratioper year = 1.03, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.00-1.05). However, given the number of associations tested, these findings could very well have arisen by chance. CONCLUSION: In this large longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up and clinical outcomes we did not find a convincing association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms, hot flushes, night sweats and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Sudorese , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
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