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2.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2105-2118, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of altering dietary sodium intake for 3 days preceding exercise on sweat sodium concentration [Na+], and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory variables. METHODS: Fifteen male endurance athletes (runners n = 8, cyclists n = 7) consumed a low (LNa, 15 mg kg-1 day-1) or high (HNa, 100 mg kg-1 day-1) sodium diet, or their usual free-living diet [UDiet, 46 (37-56) mg kg-1 day-1] for 3 days in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, collecting excreted urine (UNa) and refraining from exercise. On day 4, they completed 2 h running at 55% [Formula: see text]O2max or cycling at 55% maximum aerobic power in Tamb 35 °C. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were collected, and sweat from five sites using absorbent patches along the exercise protocol. RESULTS: UNa on days 2-3 pre-exercise [mean (95% CI) LNa 16 (12-19) mg kg-1 day-1, UDiet 46 (37-56) mg kg-1 day-1, HNa 79 (72-85) mg kg-1 day-1; p < 0.001] and pre-exercise aldosterone [LNa 240 (193-286) mg kg-1 day-1, UDiet 170 (116-224) mg kg-1 day-1, HNa 141 (111-171) mg kg-1 day-1; p = 0.001] reflected sodium intake as expected. Pre-exercise total body water was greater following HNa compared to LNa (p < 0.05), but not UDiet. Estimated whole-body sweat [Na+] following UDiet was 10-11% higher than LNa and 10-12% lower than HNa (p < 0.001), and correlated with pre-exercise aldosterone (1st h r = - 0.568, 2nd h r = - 0.675; p < 0.01). Rectal temperature rose more quickly in LNa vs HNa (40-70 min; p < 0.05), but was similar at the conclusion of exercise, and no significant differences in heart rate or perceived exertion were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Three day altered sodium intake influenced urinary sodium excretion and sweat [Na+], and the rise in rectal temperature, but had no effect on perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise in hot ambient conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Suor/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
4.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 331-338, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466771

RESUMO

The human eccrine sweat gland is central to the evolution of the human genus, permitting an enormous thermoregulatory sweating capacity that was essential to the human niche of high physical activity in open, hot, semi-arid environments. Despite a century of research inventorying the structure and function of eccrine glands and the physiological responses of human heat acclimation, we do not have a clear understanding of how intraspecific differences in eccrine density affect thermoregulation. Similarly, existing data does not comprehensively catalogue modern human diversity in this trait, nor do we understand the relative influences of evolutionary forces and phenotypic plasticity in shaping this diversity.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Glândulas Écrinas/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
5.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 35(9): 762-766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266379

RESUMO

Vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) are the most common symptoms affecting women during the menopause. Besides, affective symptoms may share with VMS a common biological pathophysiology. The current multicenter quantitative research was based on an online survey aimed to evaluate the impact of VMS in peri- and post-menopausal Italian women and to identify the main barriers to seeking help. The most frequent bothersome VMSs were hot flashes (41%), night sweats (31%), and over-heating (31%). Almost 87% of women experienced three or more simultaneous symptoms. Emotions verbalized by women indicate how intensely hot flushes and neuro-vegetative symptoms impact life: embarrassment, confusion, depression, impact on social/personal relationships, and guiltiness. Up to 43% of all women suffering from VMS were not treating the symptoms. Although 92% of women reported prior knowledge of the VMS condition, only 12% do something about it straight away after the appearance of VMS. This survey provided real-life observational data from a large population of peri-menopausal women and highlighted the important impact of VMS, its neurovegetative comorbidities and its significant burden effect on social life. Physicians must be more adaptive and inquisitive to evaluate and detect incipient VMS, as this will indicate the vulnerability to severe symptomatology and pathological brain aging.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Fogachos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sudorese/fisiologia
6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(5): 1481-1488, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main therapeutic method of treatment for local hyperhidrosis is endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Generally, resections of the sympathetic trunk or ganglia are performed between the second rib and sixth rib. However, this procedure can result in compensatory sweating, in which excess sweating occurs on the back, chest, and abdomen. Compensatory sweating has been regarded as a thermoregulatory response and thought to be untreatable. This study suggests that compensatory sweating is not a physiologic reaction and is indeed treatable. METHODS: Eight patients with severe compensatory sweating were treated by observing blood perfusion of the skin with laser speckle flowgraphy, which determines the sympathetic nerves related to the area of skin with compensatory sweating. When intraoperative monitoring with laser speckle flowgraphy indicated the position of compensatory sweating by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic ganglion, ganglionectomy was performed. RESULTS: The skin domain that each sympathetic nerve controls was able to be detected by laser speckle flowgraphy. In all patients, compensatory sweating was resolved after interruption of the ganglia or sympathetic nerves related to compensatory sweating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that compensatory sweating is caused by denatured sympathetic nerves influenced by endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy and is not the result of a physiological response. With laser speckle flowgraphy, the sympathetic nerve related to the sweating of various parts of the body could be identified. The treatment of compensatory sweating on the back, chest, and stomach was previously considered to be difficult; however, compensatory sweating is demonstrated to be treatable with this technique.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Hiperidrose , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Simpatectomia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Adulto , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Ganglionectomia/métodos , Humanos , Hiperidrose/diagnóstico , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Hiperidrose/fisiopatologia , Hiperidrose/terapia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Glândulas Sudoríparas/inervação , Sudorese/fisiologia , Simpatectomia/efeitos adversos , Simpatectomia/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 160: 419-433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277866

RESUMO

The evaluation of autonomic function requires indirect assessment of neurophysiologic function using specialized equipment that is often available only at tertiary care centers, with few specialists available. However, the evaluation of autonomic function is rooted in basic physiology, and the results can be interpreted by careful consideration of the context of the problem. Many automated devices have become widely available to test autonomic function, but they tend to gather inadequate data leading to frequent misdiagnosis and clinical confusion. We review the details necessary for the neurophysiologist to properly perform, and interpret, autonomic function testing.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Manobra de Valsalva/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Teste da Mesa Inclinada/métodos
8.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol ; 32(5): 235-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) exists in the cutaneous vasculature and eccrine sweat glands. We previously showed that in young habitually active men, exogenous PAR2 activation via the agonist SLIGKV-NH2 had no effect on heat loss responses of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating during rest or exercise in the heat. However, ageing is associated with altered mechanisms governing these responses. Thus, the effect of exogenous PAR2 activation on cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in older individuals may differ from that in young adults. METHODS: Local cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were measured in 9 older males (62 ± 4 years) at four forearm skin sites treated with the following: (1) lactated Ringer solution (control), (2) 0.05 mM, (3) 0.5 mM, or (4) 5 mM SLIGKV-NH2. Measurements were performed while participants rested in a non-heat-stress environment (25°C) for ∼60 min and an additional 50 min thereafter in the heat (40°C). Participants then performed 50 min of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat load of 200 W/m2 (to maintain the same thermal drive for heat loss between participants) followed by a 30-min recovery. RESULTS: CVC during non-heat-stress resting was elevated from the control site with 5 mM SLIGKV-NH2 (p ≤ 0.05), but this response was not observed during ambient heat exposure. By contrast, 5 mM SLIGKV-NH2 lowered CVC during the early stage (10 and 20 min) of exercise compared to the control site (all p ≤ 0.05). Although sweating during non-heat-stressed and heat-stressed resting was not affected by any dose of SLIGKV-NH2, it was reduced with all SLIGKV-NH2 doses relative to the control site during and following exercise (all p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: We show that while exogenous PAR2 activation induces cutaneous vasodilatation at rest under non-heat-stressed conditions, it attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating during and following an exercise-induced heat stress in older men.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Receptor PAR-2/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Idoso , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptor PAR-2/agonistas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Sudorese/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Sports Sci ; 37(20): 2356-2366, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230518

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to expand our previously published sweat normative data/analysis (n = 506) to establish sport-specific normative data for whole-body sweating rate (WBSR), sweat [Na+], and rate of sweat Na+ loss (RSSL). Data from 1303 athletes were compiled from observational testing (2000-2017) using a standardized absorbent sweat patch technique to determine local sweat [Na+] and normalized to whole-body sweat [Na+]. WBSR was determined from change in exercise body mass, corrected for food/fluid intake and urine/stool loss. RSSL was the product of sweat [Na+] and WBSR. There were significant differences between sports for WBSR, with highest losses in American football (1.51 ± 0.70 L/h), then endurance (1.28 ± 0.57 L/h), followed by basketball (0.95 ± 0.42 L/h), soccer (0.94 ± 0.38 L/h) and baseball (0.83 ± 0.34 L/h). For RSSL, American football (55.9 ± 36.8 mmol/h) and endurance (51.7 ± 27.8 mmol/h) were greater than soccer (34.6 ± 19.2 mmol/h), basketball (34.5 ± 21.2 mmol/h), and baseball (27.2 ± 14.7 mmol/h). After ANCOVA, significant between-sport differences in adjusted means for WBSR and RSSL remained. In summary, due to the significant sport-specific variation in WBSR and RSSL, American football and endurance have the greatest need for deliberate hydration strategies. Abbreviations: WBSR: whole body sweating rate; SR: sweating rate; Na+: sodium; RSSL: rate of sweat sodium loss.


Assuntos
Sódio/análise , Esportes/fisiologia , Suor/química , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Beisebol/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 311(7): 555-562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152230

RESUMO

Little attention has been given to the involvement of sweat glands/ducts in the pathogenesis of prurigo nodularis (PN). According to recent studies, PN is likely to develop under conditions characterized by dry skin, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), suggesting a strong impact of skin dryness on PN development. No therapeutic modalities produced complete resolution of PN without exacerbations. We previously reported that increases in skin dryness by sweating disturbance could initiate the development of AD. We investigated whether sweating responses were impaired in refractory PN lesions; and, if so, we asked whether the PN lesions could resolve by restoring sweating disturbance. Using the impression mold technique, which allows an accurate quantification of individual sweat gland/duct activity, we examined basal sweating under quiescent conditions and inducible sweating responses to thermal stimulus in PN lesions and normal-appearing skin in the same patients before and after treatment with a moisturizer or topical corticosteroids. Sweating disturbance, either basal or inducible, was most profoundly detected in the "hub" structure corresponding to the center of PN papule before the treatment. This sweating disturbance was immunohistochemically associated with the leakage of sweat into the dermis. This disturbance was restored by treatment with a moisturizer. Our limitations include a relatively small patient cohort and lack of blinding. Sweating disturbance could be one of the aggravating factors of PN development. Refractory PN with low skin hydration may resolve by restoring sweating disturbance.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Heparinoides/farmacologia , Prurigo/etiologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sudorese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Clobetasol/farmacologia , Clobetasol/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Heparinoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prurigo/tratamento farmacológico , Prurigo/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Creme para a Pele/farmacologia , Creme para a Pele/uso terapêutico , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(3): 307-317, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169467

RESUMO

Purpose: Heat intolerance (HI) is determined in the Israel Defense Force according to a heat tolerance test (HTT) before returning to duty after an exertional heat stroke (EHS) event. Recently, increased numbers of female combatants resulted in an increased number of EHS cases among women and a higher percentage of heat intolerance (HI) individuals. We aimed to evaluate the differences between tolerance to heat among women performing an HTT in relation to their menstrual cycle phase. Method: Thirty-three female participants were sorted into two groups: HI and heat tolerant (HT) according to two HTTs performed during both the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle or while consuming and during a break from consuming contraceptives. Results: HT women had an 18% higher maximal oxygen uptake (p < .005, 95% CI [2.6,9.8]) and 1.2% lower skin temperature in the HTT at the during and follicular phases (p < .01, 95% CI [0.12,0.77]) and 1.7% lower at the off and luteal phases (p < .001, 95% CI [0.34,0.92]). The mean sweat rate was 14% lower among the HI group only at the HTT at the during and follicular phases (p < .05, 95% CI (3,88)]). Conclusion: We found that HT can be predicted using aerobic capacity and core body temperature. Moreover, during the luteal phase, women presented altered thermoregulation that decreased the probability of being HT. This emphasizes the importance of considering the HT/HI criteria in the HTT for women, according to their aerobic ability and menstrual-cycle phase.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Golpe de Calor/fisiopatologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Israel , Militares , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(8): 1599-1605, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083027

RESUMO

Endurance exercise can cause a decrease in serum ionized calcium (iCa) and increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and c-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), which may be due to Ca loss in sweat. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether exercise in a warm environment exaggerates the decrease in iCa and increases in PTH and CTX compared with a cool environment in older adults. METHODS: Twelve women and men 61-78 yr old performed two identical 60-min treadmill bouts at ~75% of maximal heart rate under warm and cool conditions. Serum iCa, PTH, and CTX were measured every 15 min starting 15 min before and continuing for 60 min after exercise. Sweat Ca loss was estimated from sweat volume and sweat Ca concentration. RESULTS: Sweat volume was low and variable; there were no differences in sweat volume or Ca concentration between conditions. iCa decreased after 15 min of exercise, and the change was similar in both conditions. Increases in PTH (warm: 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2, 26.5 pg·mL; cool: 17.3, 95% CI = 8.1, 26.4 pg·mL) and CTX (warm: 0.08, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.11 ng·mL; cool: 0.08, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.16 ng·mL) from before to immediately after exercise were statistically significant and similar between conditions. Adjusting for plasma volume shifts did not change the results. CONCLUSION: The increases in PTH and CTX, despite the low sweat volume, suggest that dermal Ca loss is not a major factor in the decrease in iCa and increases in PTH and CTX observed during exercise in older adults.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/sangue , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Temperatura Alta , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Temperatura Baixa , Colágeno Tipo I/urina , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/urina , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2735-2744, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Axillary osmidrosis (AO) is common in plastic surgery. But there is no perfect way to treat AO. We systematically compared the efficacy of 10 AO treatments with network meta-analysis in order to provide reference for the clinical treatment of axillary odor. MATERIAL AND METHODS Chinese and English databases were searched by computer. Some relevant studies were collected for network meta-analysis. RESULTS We identified 56 studies, including a total of 8618 patients for meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis showed that 21 out of 45 pairs of 10 AO treatments had no statistical significance. In statistical comparison, subcutaneous curettage and swelling suction subcutaneous pruning were better than a single treatment. In addition, the effects of both laser and electric ion therapy were inferior to those of other treatments. The order of therapeutic effects predicted by surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA), curve was swelling aspiration+subcutaneous pruning >subcutaneous pruning >subcutaneous curettage+subcutaneous pruning >spindle excision >botulinum toxin A injection >swelling aspiration >subcutaneous curettage >YAG laser therapy >CO2 laser therapy >electric ion therapy. CONCLUSIONS In operative treatment of AO, swelling aspiration+subcutaneous pruning is the best operative treatment, and botulinum toxin A injection is the best in non-operative treatment. Overall, the effect of surgical treatment was more significant than that of non-surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Glândulas Apócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Apócrinas/cirurgia , Odorantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Glândulas Sudoríparas/terapia , Glândulas Apócrinas/fisiopatologia , Axila , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Curetagem , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças das Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Glândulas Sudoríparas/cirurgia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(8): 1710-1719, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors. METHODS: A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5-C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1-T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6-L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures and local sweat rate (LSR) on the forehead and upper back were measured throughout. RESULTS: Change in Tes was greatest in TP (1.86°C ± 0.32°C vs 0.29°C ± 0.07°C, P < 0.001) and greater in HP compared with LP and AB, reaching 1.20°C ± 0.50°C, 0.66°C ± 0.23°C, and 0.53°C ± 0.12°C, respectively (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the variability in end-trial ΔTes was described by SCI level in paraplegics (adjusted R = 0.490, P = 0.005). Esophageal temperature onset thresholds of sweating at the forehead and upper back were similar among HP, LP, and AB, whereas no sweating was observed in TP. Thermosensitivity (ΔTes vs ΔLSR) was also similar, except for LP demonstrating lower thermosensitivity than AB at the upper back (0.78 ± 0.26 vs 1.59 ± 0.89 mg·cm·min, P = 0.039). Change in skin temperature was greatest in denervated regions, most notably at the calf in all SCI groups (TP, 2.07°C ± 0.93°C; HP, 2.73°C ± 0.68°C; LP, 2.92°C ± 1.48°C). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show the relationship between ΔTes and SCI level in athletes with paraplegia after removing variability arising from differences in metabolic heat production and mass. Individual variability in ΔTes is further reduced among athletes with TP because of minimal evaporative heat loss secondary to an absence of sweating.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Paraplegia/fisiopatologia , Quadriplegia/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Esôfago/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Paraplegia/etiologia , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(190): 86-91, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186193

RESUMO

Higher sweat rate values have been reported during intermittent compared to continuous type exercise in hot conditions in the laboratory. Studies in the training field are scarce. Objective: Document sweat rate, rehydration and core temperature (Tc) during training in long duration-continuous (CON) and intermittent (INT ) type sports, and determine the presence of a mutation in the CFTR gene in athletes with high sodium concentration ([Na+]) in sweat.Methods: Athletes (CON =50 and INT=123) were tested during training in tropical climate. Sweat rate, sweat [Na+], Tc, de-hydration level, and presence of ∆ F508 gene mutation in the CFTR gene in athletes with high sweat [Na+] were evaluated. Results: Sweat rate was higher in CON (1.5 ± 0.4 L/h) compared to INT (1.2 ± 0.5 L/h) and CON athletes finished training with higher dehydration (2.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.2 ± 0.7%) P < 0.05. Sweat [Na+] was higher in INT (62.0 ± 21.1 mmol/L) compared to CON (53.9 ± 18.1 mmol/L), P < 0.05. A tennis player with high [Na+] was heterozygous for the ΔF508 mutation. Average and highest Tc was similar for CON (38.4 ± 0.3 and 38.8 ± 0.4 oC) and INT (38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.7 ± 0.4 oC), P > 0.05. Conclusion: During training in a tropical climate, sweat loss and dehydration level are lower, and fluid intake is higher in intermittent compared to continuous type sports. Core temperature may rise to a similar level in intermittent type sports due to the repeated high intensity bouts and/or the effects of clothing worn while training in hot venues. Healthy athletes with high [Na+] in sweat who are heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations may be at increased risk for hyponatremic dehydration and whole-body muscle cramps


Se reportan tasas de sudoración más altas durante ejercicio intermitente comparado con continuo en condiciones de calor en el laboratorio. Estudios en el campo de entrenamiento son escasos. Objetivo: Documentar la tasa de sudoración, rehidratación y temperatura central (Tc) durante entrenamiento para deportes de tipo continuo (CON) e intermitente (INT ), y determinar presencia de mutación genética en el gen CFTR en atletas con alta concentración de sodio ([Na+]) en sudor.Metodología: Se evaluó la tasa de sudoración, la [Na+] en sudor, la Tc, y el nivel de deshidratación en atletas (CON = 50; INT =123) durante entrenamiento en clima tropical, y la presencia de la mutación genética ∆F508 en el gen CFTR en aquellos con alta [Na+] en sudor.Resultados: La tasa de sudoración fue mayor en CON (1,5 ± 0,4 L/h) comparado con INT (1,2 ± 0,5 L/h) y los atletas en CON terminaron el entrenamiento con mayor deshidratación (2,1 ± 0,8 vs 1,2 ± 0,7%) P < 0,05. La [Na+] en sudor fue más alta en INT (62,0 ± 21,1 mmol/L) comparado con CON (53,9 ± 18,1 mmol/L), P < 0,05. Un tenista con alta [Na+] era heterocigoto para la mutación ΔF508. La Tc promedio y más alta fueron similares para CON (38,4 ± 0,3 y 38,8 ± 0,4 oC) e INT (38,3 ± 0,3 y 38,7 ± 0,4 oC), P > 0,05. Conclusión: Durante el entrenamiento en clima tropical, la pérdida de sudor y el nivel de deshidratación son más bajos, y la ingesta de líquido es más alta en deportes intermitentes que en deportes continuos. La temperatura interna puede aumentar a nivel similar en deportes intermitentes debido a periodos repetidos de alta intensidad y/o la vestimenta usada durante el entrenamiento. Atletas saludables con alta [Na+] en sudor que son heterocigóticos para mutaciones de CFTR pueden estar en mayor riesgo de deshidratación hiponatrémica y calambres musculares


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Atletas , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/classificação , Clima Tropical , Sudorese/fisiologia , Suor/química , Sódio/análise , Sudorese/genética , Hidratação
16.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 54(201): 5-11, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182685

RESUMO

Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar el efecto de la rehidratación en la condición física y técnica de 12 jugadores de fútbol semiprofesionales (21,14 ± 1,69 años) que se sometieron a un entrenamiento regular de fútbol (129 ± 7 min). Los participantes ingirieron agua ad libitum o se hidrataron de acuerdo con las recomendaciones estandarizadas. En cada sesión se midieron la temperatura, la altura máxima del salto vertical y la precisión en 4 lanzamientos de penalti, con estímulo visual y auditivo, antes y después de las sesiones de entrenamiento. La deshidratación lograda y la tasa de sudoración fueron mayores cuando los jugadores bebieron libremente, contra una rehidratación recomendada (1,3 ± 0,8 vs. 0,5 ± 0,6%; p = 0,01) (730,3 ± 275,6 vs. 516,9 ± 111,2 ml/h; p = 0,02). En la temperatura timpánica de un solo movimiento en la sesión donde se programó la hidratación (p = 0,06 vs. p < 0,01) hubo interacción entre el tratamiento y el tiempo (p = 0,01). La altura del salto después del entrenamiento fue mayor que la inicial (p < 0,01) y también fue más alta que la del grupo ad libitum (p = 0,04). En el caso de los lanzamientos, hubo una diferencia significativa en la relación temporal del tratamiento (p = 0,01), lo que indica que la hidratación fue efectiva para reducir el número de errores. Estos datos indican que una deshidratación moderada podría afectar a la fuerza muscular de la pierna y reducir la precisión motora durante un lanzamiento simulado del penalti de fútbol


This study aimed to determine the effect of rehydration on the physical condition and technique of twelve semi-professional soccer players (21.14 ± 1.69 years) underwent regular soccer training (129 ± 7 min). On one occasion, participants ingest water ad libitum or were hydrated according to standardized recommendations. In each session, temperature, three maximum vertical jump height and accuracy were measured in a four penalty kick with auditory and visual stimulus, before and after the training sessions. The dehydration achieved and the rate of sweating was greater when the players drank freely at will against a recommended rehydration (1.3 ± 0.8% vs. 0.5 ± 0.6%, P = .01) (730.3 ± 275.6 vs. 516.9 ± 111.2 mL/h, P = .02). The tympanic temperature of a single movement in the session where the hydration scheduled (P = .06 vs. P < .01), in this case and there was interaction between the treatment and the time (P < .01). Jump height after training was higher than the initial (P < .01) and also higher than ad libitum group (P = .04). In the case of shots there was a significant difference in the time relationship of the treatment (P = .01), indicating that hydration was effective to reduce the number of errors. These data indicate that moderate dehydration could affect muscle strength of the leg and reduce motor accuracy during a simulated football penalty kick


Aquest estudi té com a objectiu determinar l'efecte de la rehidratació en la condició física i la tècnica de 12 jugadors de futbol semiprofessionals (21,14 ± 1,69 anys) que es van sotmetre a un entrenament regular de futbol (129 ± 7 min). Els participants van ingerir aigua ad libitum, o es van hidratar d'acord amb les recomanacions estandarditzades. A cada sessió es mesurà la temperatura, l'altura màxima del salt vertical i la precisió en 4 llançaments de penal, amb estímul visual i auditiu, abans i després de les sessions d'entrenament. La deshidratació aconseguida i la taxa de sudoració foren més grans quan els jugadors bevien lliurement a voluntat, contra una rehidratació recomanada (1,3 ± 0,8% vs. 0,5 ± 0,6%; p = 0,01) (730,3 ± 275,6 vs. 516,9 ± 111,2 ml/h, p = 0,02). En la temperatura timpànica d'un sol moviment, a la sessió en què es programà la hidratació (p = 0,06 vs. p < 0,01) hi hagué interacció entre el tractament i el temps (p = 0,01). Després de l'entrenament, l'altura del salt fou major que a l'inici (p < 0,01) i també més alt que la del grup ad libitum (p = 0,04). En el cas dels xuts, hi hagué una diferència significativa en la relació temporal del tractament (p = 0,01), cosa que indica que la hidratació fou efectiva per reduir el nombre d'errors. Aquestes dades indiquen que una deshidratació moderada podria afectar la força muscular de la cama i reduir la precisió motora durant un llançament simulat de penal en el futbol


Assuntos
Humanos , Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Futebol/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(3): 685-695, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Changes in mean skin temperature (Tsk) have been shown to modify the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption. This study aims to extend this knowledge by investigating if modifications could also be caused by local Tsk. METHODS: The influence of local Tsk on the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates was investigated in ten healthy volunteers (three female and seven male; 20.8 ± 1.2 years, 60.4 ± 7.7 kg, 169.4 ± 10.4 cm) during passive heating (water-perfused suit and lower leg water immersion). In two separate trials, in a randomized order, one forearm was always manipulated to 33 °C (Neutral), whilst the other was manipulated to either 30 °C (Cool) or 36 °C (Warm) using water-perfused patches. Oesophageal temperature (Tes), forearm Tsk, sweat rate (SR), galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and salivary aldosterone concentrations were measured. The sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates were identified using the ∆SR threshold for an increasing ∆GSC. RESULTS: Thermal [Tes and body temperature (Tb)] and non-thermal responses (aldosterone) were similar across all conditions (p > 0.05). A temperature-dependent response for the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates was evident between 30 °C (0.18 ± 0.10 mg/cm2/min) and 36 °C (0.28 ± 0.14 mg/cm2/min, d = 0.88, p < 0.05), but not for 33 °C (0.22 ± 0.12 mg/cm2/min), d = 0.44 and d = 0.36, p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that small variations in local Tsk may not affect the sweat gland maximum ion reabsorption rates but when the local Tsk increases by > 6 °C, ion reabsorption rates also increase.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Íons/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiologia , Calefação , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/inervação , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(3): 669-680, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710603

RESUMO

Hyperhidrosis (HH) is a chronic disorder of excess sweat production that may have a significant adverse effect on quality of life. A variety of treatment modalities currently exist to manage HH. Initial treatment includes lifestyle and behavioral recommendations. Antiperspirants are regarded as the first-line therapy for primary focal HH and can provide significant benefit. Iontophoresis is the primary remedy for palmar and plantar HH. Botulinum toxin injections are administered at the dermal-subcutaneous junction and serve as a safe and effective treatment option for focal HH. Oral systemic agents are reserved for treatment-resistant cases or for generalized HH. Energy-delivering devices such as lasers, ultrasound technology, microwave thermolysis, and fractional microneedle radiofrequency may also be utilized to reduce focal sweating. Surgery may be considered when more conservative treatments have failed. Local surgical techniques, particularly for axillary HH, include excision, curettage, liposuction, or a combination of these techniques. Sympathectomy is the treatment of last resort when conservative treatments are unsuccessful or intolerable, and after accepting secondary compensatory HH as a potential complication. A review of treatment modalities for HH and a sequenced approach are presented.


Assuntos
Hiperidrose/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Glândulas Sudoríparas/cirurgia , Administração Cutânea , Antiperspirantes/uso terapêutico , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Curetagem , Humanos , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Hiperidrose/psicologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Iontoforese , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/efeitos da radiação , Sudorese/fisiologia , Sudorese/efeitos da radiação , Simpatectomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia por Ultrassom
20.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(3): 657-666, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710604

RESUMO

Hyperhidrosis (HH) is a dermatologic disorder defined by sweat production exceeding thermoregulatory needs. Clinically, HH is diagnosed when excess sweating creates significant emotional, physical, or social discomfort, causing a negative impact on the patient's quality of life. Existing data imply that this condition may affect at least 4.8% of the US population. The etiology of HH may stem from a complex autonomic nervous system dysfunction, resulting in neurogenic overactivity of otherwise normal eccrine sweat glands. Alternatively, HH may be a result of aberrant central control of emotions. This condition is categorized as primary or secondary HH. Approximately 93% of patients with HH have primary HH, of whom >90% have a typical focal and bilateral distribution affecting the axillae, palms, soles, and craniofacial areas. Secondary HH presents in a more generalized and asymmetric distribution and is generated by various underlying diseases or medications. Secondary causes of HH need to be excluded before diagnosing primary HH.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Hiperidrose/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Hiperidrose/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
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