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1.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(6): 1633-1644, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646341

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It is not uncommon for police to question alcohol-intoxicated witnesses and suspects; yet, the full extent to which intoxication impacts individuals' suggestibility in the investigative interviewing context remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to measure the effect of alcohol-intoxication on interviewee suggestibility by implementing a standardized suggestibility test with participants whose intoxication-state was the same at both encoding and recall. METHODS: We randomly assigned participants (N = 165) to an intoxicated (mean breath alcohol level [BrAC] at encoding = 0.06%, and BrAC at retrieval = 0.07%), active placebo (participants believed they consumed alcohol but only consumed an insignificant amount to enhance believability), or control (participants knowingly remained sober) group. An experimenter then implemented the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), which produced free recall outcomes (number of correct details and memory confabulations) and suggestibility outcomes (yielding to leading questions and changing answers in response to negative feedback from the experimenter). RESULTS: Intoxicated participants recalled fewer correct details than did placebo and control participants but did not make more confabulation errors. No effects of intoxication on suggestibility measures emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Moderately intoxicated interviewees may not be more suggestible during investigative interviews than sober interviewees. However, before concrete evidence-based policy recommendations are made to law enforcement, further research is needed examining the effects of alcohol on suggestibility in conditions that are more reflective of the legal context.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sugestão , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4853, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978377

RESUMO

In hypnotic responding, expectancies arising from imaginative suggestion drive striking experiential changes (e.g., hallucinations) - which are experienced as involuntary - according to a normally distributed and stable trait ability (hypnotisability). Such experiences can be triggered by implicit suggestion and occur outside the hypnotic context. In large sample studies (of 156, 404 and 353 participants), we report substantial relationships between hypnotisability and experimental measures of experiential change in mirror-sensory synaesthesia and the rubber hand illusion comparable to relationships between hypnotisability and individual hypnosis scale items. The control of phenomenology to meet expectancies arising from perceived task requirements can account for experiential change in psychological experiments.


Assuntos
Mãos , Hipnose/métodos , Ilusões/fisiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Sinestesia/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imaginação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Sugestão , Adulto Jovem
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 1025-1033, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741860

RESUMO

Additional fees for ward pharmacists' services have been valued for hospitals in Japan. However, the calculation period for services provided to inpatients in the psychiatric ward is limited to 8 weeks. This study aimed to reveal the need for the services of pharmacists in the hospital ward for inpatients hospitalized for >8 weeks in the psychiatric ward. Patients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward from September 2016 to February 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The pharmacists suggested prescriptions for inpatients admitted for >8 weeks, similar to those admitted for <9 weeks, and this supported pharmacotherapy without exacerbating patient outcomes. Moreover, significant decreases in benzodiazepine doses were found between the prior and post prescription suggestions of the pharmacist for inpatients >8 weeks of admission. Healthcare expenditures were also reduced. These results suggest that the prescriptions suggested by pharmacists for inpatients admitted for >8 weeks in the psychiatric ward were useful. In conclusion, our findings show that ward pharmacists' services were necessary not only for the inpatients hospitalized for <9 weeks, but also for those hospitalized for >8 weeks.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Prescrições , Sugestão , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Japão , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692764

RESUMO

Interrogative suggestibility, as measured with Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales, consists of an individual's tendency to yield to misleading questions (Yield) and to change answers after negative feedback (Shift). This study aimed to determine whether reinforced self-affirmation (RSA), a technique that aims to boost self-confidence in order to increase the tendency to rely on one's own memory instead of external cues, can reduce interrogative suggestibility. RSA consists of self-affirmation induced by means of writing down one's greatest achievements in life and of manipulated positive feedback. The efficacy of two kinds of positive feedback was explored. Shift was reduced by positive feedback relating both to memory and to the feeling that a person is very independent in their judgements, while only feedback related to memory reduced Yield. The results are discussed in terms of the different mechanisms underlying Yield and Shift. Inducing independence of judgements might not have been effective in the case of Yield because to some extent it taps opinions but not the quality of a cognitive process such as memory. An individual may believe in their own opinions and views but still be unsure about the quality of their own memory.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Julgamento , Memória/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Autoimagem , Sugestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5706, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235881

RESUMO

Body ownership can be experimentally investigated with the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which watching a rubber hand stroked synchronously with one's own hidden hand induces a feeling of ownership over the rubber hand. The aim of this study was to investigate response to the RHI in high (N = 21) and low (N = 19) hypnotizable individuals in normal waking state and in hypnosis. Response to the RHI was measured via a question on the illusory feeling of ownership and with proprioceptive drift. The Highs expressed an overall feeling of more ownership over the rubber hand in both the normal waking state and hypnosis, although both groups gave higher ownership scores after synchronous than after asynchronous stroking and the difference between conditions was similar across groups. Conversely, the proprioceptive drift appeared to be differentially modulated by hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility: it was increased in the Highs and decreased in the Lows after hypnosis induction. These findings hint at an interplay between hypnotic suggestibility and hypnosis in modulating response to the RHI. The selective breakdown of proprioceptive drift among the Lows suggests resistance to recalibrate one's own limb in hypnosis.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Hipnose , Ilusões/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sugestão , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dev Psychol ; 56(4): 853-860, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134299

RESUMO

Kim and Opfer (2017) found that number-line estimates increased approximately logarithmically with number when an upper bound (e.g., 100 or 1000) was explicitly marked (bounded condition) and when no upper bound was marked (unbounded condition). Using procedural suggestions from Cohen and Ray (2020), we examined whether this logarithmicity might come from restrictions on the response space provided. Consistent with our previous findings, logarithmicity was evident whether tasks were bounded or unbounded, with the degree of logarithmicity tied to the numerical value of the estimates rather than the response space per se. We also found a clear log-to-linear shift in numerical estimates. Results from Bayesian modeling supported the idea that unbounded tasks are qualitatively similar to bounded ones, but unbounded ones lead to greater logarithmicity. Our findings support the original findings of Kim and Opfer (2017) and extend their generality to more age groups and more varieties of number-line estimation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Resolução de Problemas , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Sugestão
7.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991601

RESUMO

Color nutrition information (CNI) based on a traffic light system conveys information about food quality with a glance. The color red typically indicates detrimental food characteristics (e.g., very high sugar content) and aims at inhibiting food shopping and consumption. Red may, however, also elicit cross-modal associations with sweet taste, which is a preferable food characteristic. We conducted two experiments. An eye-tracking study investigated whether CNI has an effect on cue reactivity (dwell time, saccadic latency, wanting/liking) for sweet foods. The participants were presented with images depicting sweets (e.g., cake). Each image was preceded by a colored circle that informed about the sugar content of the food (red = high, green = low, gray = unknown). It was tested whether the red circle would help the participants to direct their gaze away from the 'high sugar' item. A second experiment investigated whether colored prime circles (red, green, gray) without nutrition information would influence the assumed sweetness of a food. In Experiment 1, CNI had the opposite of the intended effect. Dwell time and saccadic latency were higher for food items preceded by a red compared to a green circle. This unintended response was positively associated with participants' liking of sweet foods. CNI did not change the wanting/liking of the displayed foods. In Experiment 2, we found no evidence for color priming on the assumed sweetness of food. Our results question whether CNI is helpful to influence initial cue reactivity toward sweet foods.


Assuntos
Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Sugestão , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Recomendações Nutricionais , Movimentos Sacádicos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(3): 231-266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928517

RESUMO

Although hypnotizability exhibits high across-time and across-test consistencies, it is not clear (a) how different preambles to a hypnotic procedure (metasuggestions) influence responsiveness to suggestions and the strength of the association between two hypnotizability scales and (b) how hypnotizability relates to absorption and empathy. In Experiment 1, nonclinical participants (N = 152 women) were administered the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP), and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). In Experiment 2, nonclinical participants (N = 188; 105 women and 83 men) were administered the MODTAS, IRI, and Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A). The induction scores of the HIP (HIP-IND) and the SHSS:C scores showed a significantly stronger correlation when the HIP was introduced to the participants after hypnosis metasuggestion (HIP-H-IND) than after imagination metasuggestion (HIP-I-IND). Metasuggestion was a moderator of the association between HIP-IND and SHSS:C scores. Participants with low and medium, but not with high, hypnotizability levels on the SHSS:C showed significantly higher scores on the HIP-I-IND than on the HIP-H-IND. The strong correlations between the SHSS:C, HIP-H-IND, and HIP eye-roll (HIP-ER) scores indicate that both the HIP-H-IND and HIP-ER are robust measures of hypnotizability. Absorption and empathy were not significantly associated with hypnotizability. Women were more hypnotizable than men, as assessed by the HGSHS:A. The clinical relevance of metasuggestions, intended to increase responsiveness to suggestions, is discussed as a strategy to improve treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Empatia , Hipnose , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria/instrumentação , Adulto , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Sugestão
10.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(3): 425-441, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561745

RESUMO

Many studies have demonstrated retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES), in which taking an initial recall test after witnessing an event increases suggestibility to subsequent misinformation introduced via a narrative. Recently, however, initial testing has been found to have a protective effect against misinformation introduced via cued-recall questions. We examined whether misinformation format (narrative vs. cued-recall questions) yields a similar dissociation in a paradigm that, to date, has consistently yielded a protective effect of testing (PET). After studying photos of household scenes (e.g., kitchen), some participants took an initial recall test. After a 48-hr delay, items not presented in the scenes (e.g., knives/plates) were suggested either via narrative or questions. Regardless of the misinformation format, we found a PET on both initial-test-conditionalised free recall and source-monitoring tests. However, initial testing also yielded memory costs, such that suggested items reported on the initial test were likely to persist on a final recall test. Thus, initial testing can protect against suggestibility, but can also precipitate memory errors when intrusions emerge on an initial test.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Decepção , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Sugestão , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Child Sex Abus ; 29(2): 158-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142291

RESUMO

The present review is intended as an overview of our current understanding of how children's individual characteristics, in terms of demographic, cognitive, and psycho-social variables, may influence their susceptibility to suggestion. The goals are to revisit conceptual models of the mechanisms of suggestibility, to provide an updated practical guide for practitioners, and to make recommendations for future research. Results suggest that children with intellectual impairment and those with nascent language skills may be particularly vulnerable to suggestion. Further, memory for separate events, theory of mind, executive function, temperament, and social competence may not be related to suggestibility, whereas additional work is needed to clarify the potential contributions of knowledge, stress, mental health, parental elaborative style, and adverse experiences/maltreatment to children's suggestibility.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Individualidade , Entrevista Psicológica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sugestão , Criança , Humanos
12.
Psychol Res ; 84(5): 1460-1471, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834966

RESUMO

Hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions are gradually gaining popularity within the consciousness community as established tools for the experimental manipulation of illusions of involuntariness, hallucinations and delusions. However, hypnosis is still far from being a widespread instrument; a crucial hindrance to taking it up is the amount of time needed to invest in identifying people high and low in responsiveness to suggestion. In this study, we introduced an online assessment of hypnotic response and estimated the extent to which the scores and psychometric properties of an online screening differ from an offline one. We propose that the online screening of hypnotic response is viable as it reduces the level of responsiveness only by a slight extent. The application of online screening may prompt researchers to run large-scale studies with more heterogeneous samples, which would help researchers to overcome some of the issues underlying the current replication crisis in psychology.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Sugestão , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 99: 106491, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654987

RESUMO

The diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) remains challenging. In the correct clinical setting with prolonged electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, the specificity of provocative techniques to distinguish induced epileptic event from a nonepileptic event approaches 90%. We report our epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) experience with the use of noninvasive verbal suggestion (VS) during hyperventilation (HV), photic stimulation (PS) as induction technique in making the diagnosis of PNES. In total, 189/423 patients were diagnosed with PNES during the EMU evaluation. Of the 189, 20 had mixed disorder and 169 patients had only PNES, 80 patients (47.3%) had a PNES with induction, and the remaining 89 of 169 patients (52.7%) had a spontaneous PNES episode that did not require induction. Verbal suggestion during HV and PS confirmed the diagnosis of PNES in 47% of the patients who otherwise did not have spontaneous events. Within the group who was diagnosed with PNES following induction, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were stopped in 53% of the patients. We believe that this is a large proportion of patients that would possibly remain undiagnosed if no induction were performed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Sugestão , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 63(12): 1464-1474, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate previous research that examined intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to memory distortions (i.e. suggestibility and false memories). There were two goals for the current study; the first goal was to identify significant trends in past literature that fulfilled previously established selection criteria. The second goal was to establish reliability and effect sizes for suggestibility and false memory for samples with diagnoses of ID or ASD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Articles that were selected for inclusion in the current study were required to have a clinically diagnosed sample, as well as a non-clinical control group. Studies were also required to have a post-hoc power score higher than .30 to prevent the effects of underpowered studies and limit the potential for publication bias. Selected studies were also required to have provided pertinent information required to complete the analyses (e.g. means, standard deviations, p-values, or correlation coefficients). Any study that did not provide the required information was excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Two empirical Bayes omnibus analyses revealed a significant effect for participants diagnosed with ID (z = 6.10, p < .001), which supported the researchers' hypothesis. The results indicated increased susceptibility toward memory suggestibility and false memories when compared with the general population. However, the results of the analyses did not support the researchers' hypothesis regarding participants diagnosed with ASD. The analyses indicated that participants diagnosed with ASD displayed decreased suggestibility and were less likely to develop false memories (z = -2.37, p = 0.018).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Sugestão , Humanos
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(9): 1236-1330, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a scale for testing hypnotic suggestibility for Turkish-speaking adults that may be quick and convenient, and to test its reliability and validity. METHODS: The study was conducted at the hypnotherapy outpatient clinics of Atatürk University Acupuncture and Complementary Medicine Application and Research Centre. Erzurum, Turkey, from June to August 2017, and comprised aged 18-60 years. As the first step in the preparation of the scale, a panel of 15 experts was founded. The draft was pilot-tested. Incomprehensible suggestion templates in the pilot study were abolished, and the templates were reduced to four which were put to test as the Tastan Suggestibility Scale. Stanford Hypnotic Clinic Scale was also used on the same subjects, and the results were analysed using SPSS. . RESULTS: Of the 61 subjects, 38(62.3%) were females and 23(37.7%) were males. The overall mean age was 34.21±9.9 years. Cronbach alpha internal reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated to be 0.53. Correlation between the Tastan Suggestibility Scale and Stanford Hypnotic Clinic Scale total scores was high (p<0.001). Mean duration of the application of the scale was 5.0±1.2 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Tastan Suggestibility Scale was found to be a new, reliable, and rapidly applicable scale.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Sugestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 67(4): 394-407, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526264

RESUMO

The reduced cerebellar gray matter (GM) volume observed in highly hypnotizable individuals (highs) is likely due to the excessive release of endothelial nitric oxide in the brain and could account for their behavioral (postural and visuomotor control) and physiological (paradoxical pain control after cerebellar anodal stimulation) characteristics. Reduced cerebellar GM can induce low inhibition of the cerebral cortex, thus stronger functional equivalence (FE) between imagery and perception and greater proneness to respond to sensorimotor suggestions. In fact, stronger FE suggested in highs by behavioral studies has been confirmed by topological data analysis of EEG signals recorded during sensorimotor and imagery tasks. The authors' hypothesis cannot be applied to obstructive suggestions likely sustained by mechanisms related to socio-cognitive factors, i.e., oxytocin availability.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Sugestão , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Córtex Sensório-Motor/metabolismo
17.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 67(4): 475-511, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526268

RESUMO

The authors summarize research findings, their clinical implications, and directions for future research derived from 40 years of study of hypnosis, hypnotic phenomena, and hypnotic responsiveness at Steven Jay Lynn's Laboratory of Consciousness, Cognition, and Psychopathology and Joseph P. Green's Laboratory of Hypnosis. We discuss (a) the accumulating body of evidence that hypnosis can be used to advantage in psychotherapy; (b) the fact that hypnosis can facilitate a broad array of subjective experiences and suggestions; (c) the failure to find a reliable marker of a trance or radically altered state of consciousness and reservations about conceptualizing hypnosis in such terms; (d) determinants of hypnotic responsiveness, including attitudes and beliefs, personality traits, expectancies, motivation, and rapport; (e) efforts to modify hypnotic suggestibility; and (f) the need to further examine attentional abilities and the role of adopting a readiness response set that the authors argue is key in maximizing hypnotic responsiveness.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Fundações , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sugestão
19.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390349

RESUMO

Short stress management interventions such as relaxation therapy have demonstrated preliminary effectiveness in reducing stress-related problems. A promising tool to strengthen the effectiveness of relaxation-based interventions is the use of verbal suggestions, as previous research provided evidence that verbal suggestions can induce positive outcome expectancies, facilitate adaptive responses to stress and improve health outcomes. The present experimental proof-of-concept study aimed to investigate the effects of a brief relaxation intervention and specifically the role of verbal suggestions on stress-related outcomes assessed by self-report questionnaires and psychophysiological data. 120 participants (mean age = 22.1 years) were randomized to one of four intervention conditions: a brief relaxation intervention plus verbal suggestions condition, a brief relaxation intervention only condition, a verbal suggestions only condition, and a control condition. Afterwards, participants were subjected to a psychosocial stress challenge to assess reactivity to a stressful event. Immediately after both relaxation interventions (with and without verbal suggestions), lower self-reported state anxiety was found compared to the control condition, but no differences were observed in response to the stressor. The verbal suggestions only condition did not impact state anxiety. No significant effects were found for verbal suggestion interventions on cortisol, alpha amylase, heart rate and skin conductance. This is the first study investigating the role of verbal suggestions in the effectiveness of a brief relaxation intervention. Although this experimental proof-of-concept study provides support for the effectiveness of a brief relaxation intervention in lowering state anxiety directly after the intervention, the effects did not impact the response to a subsequent stressor and we did not observe any evidence for the add-on effectiveness of verbal suggestions. The effectiveness of brief relaxation interventions on stress responses should be investigated further in future research by incorporating interventions that are tailored to the specific stress challenge and various types of verbal suggestions.


Assuntos
Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Sugestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220736, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412059

RESUMO

When individuals are undecided between options, they may flip a coin or use other aids that produce random outcomes to support decision-making. Such aids lead to clear suggestions, which, interestingly, individuals do not necessarily follow. Instead when looking at the outcome, individuals sometimes appear to like or dislike the suggestion, and then decide according to this feeling. In this manuscript we argue that such a decision aid can function as a catalyst. As it points to one option over the other, individuals focus on obtaining this option and engage in a more vivid representation of the same. By imagining obtaining the option, feelings related to the option become stronger, which then drive feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the outcome of the decision aid. We provide support for this phenomenon throughout two studies. Study 1 indicates that using a catalyst leads to stronger feelings. Study 2 replicates this finding using a different catalyst, and rules out alternative explanations. Here, participants report that after having used a catalyst, they experienced a stronger feeling of suddenly knowing what they want compared to the control group that did not use a catalyst. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sugestão , Adulto Jovem
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