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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147259

RESUMO

New Zealand's early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social contact, limited recreation opportunities, and resulted in job losses and financial insecurity. We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders in April 2020. The survey contained three standardised measures-the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the GAD-7, and the Well-Being Index (WHO-5)-as well as questions designed specifically to measure family violence, suicidal ideation, and alcohol consumption. It also included items assessing positive aspects of the lockdown. Thirty percent of respondents reported moderate to severe psychological distress (K10), 16% moderate to high levels of anxiety, and 39% low wellbeing; well above baseline measures. Poorer outcomes were seen among young people and those who had lost jobs or had less work, those with poor health status, and who had past diagnoses of mental illness. Suicidal ideation was reported by 6%, with 2% reporting making plans for suicide and 2% reporting suicide attempts. Suicidality was highest in those aged 18-34. Just under 10% of participants had directly experienced some form of family harm over the lockdown period. However, not all consequences of the lockdown were negative, with 62% reporting 'silver linings', which included enjoying working from home, spending more time with family, and a quieter, less polluted environment. New Zealand's lockdown successfully eliminated COVID-19 from the community, but our results show this achievement brought a significant psychological toll. Although much of the debate about lockdown measures has focused on their economic effects, our findings emphasise the need to pay equal attention to their effects on psychological wellbeing.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/virologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 1075-1080, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219761

RESUMO

Accuracy of statistical registration of mortality in Russia, especially in times of crisis, is a pressing and relevant issue; this problem was challenging Moscow in the 2000s: until recently, the capital was a complete outsider in terms of accuracy of statistical registration of mortality. The purpose of the study was to identify peculiar features of evolution and the structure of mortality from an event of undetermined intent among Moscow working-age population in the 2000s against the background of the processes taking place in Russia. The article analyzes mortality from an event of undetermined intent among Moscow population of young and old working age in the 2000s, as well as its nosological aspects in 2011-2018, when certain events of undetermined intent were separated as individual nosological units. A sharp decline in indicators in 1999-2000 and their growth in 2015-2017 have been identified. It is shown that these shifts were due to all leading events of undetermined intent (falls/jumps from a high place, hanging/strangulation/suffocation, medicament, alcohol and drug poisoning as well as specified and unspecified events). As a result, the structure of mortality after 2015 has significantly changed due to a sharp increase in the significance of alcohol, medicament and especially drug poisoning. It should be emphasized that in the 2010s the significance of latent suicide in all age and gender groups of Moscow working-age population is significantly higher than in Russia.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Coleta de Dados , Moscou/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
7.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e180, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183394

RESUMO

AIMS: Suicide emerges as a threat to national health of USA with Whites being at extra risk. More information is needed regarding the increased suicide among Whites to improve national suicide prevention strategies. This study aims to characterise the age pattern of suicide among Whites by suicide methods adjusting for time period and birth cohort. METHODS: Suicide mortality data by age of 15-84 years during 1999-2017 were derived from the Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research, prepared by US Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality data for three common suicide methods, firearms, suffocation and poisoning were analysed using the age-period-cohort (APC) model. Period-cohort adjusted mortality rates by age were estimated based on results from APC modelling. RESULTS: Period-cohort adjusted rates indicated that the overall age pattern for males contained five phases, including three increasing phases (ages 15-20, 30-50 and 65+), connected by two declining phases (ages 20-30 and 50-65); and the age pattern for females was a parabolic with an increasing phase from 15 years of age up to 50, followed by a declining phase after age 50. Furthermore, the age pattern for different suicide methods differed substantially for males, but did not for females. Among males, suicide by firearms contained two rapid increasing phases, one during adolescence and another in older ages; suicide by suffocation showed a high plateau across an age span from 20 to 55 years; and suicide by poisoning followed a parabolic, increasing by age up to 45 before it declined. Age patterns revealed by the unadjusted crude rates were biased because of significant linear period effect and W-shaped cohort effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to quantify the age patterns of suicide by different methods for US Whites using period-cohort adjusted rates. Study findings provide valid evidence supporting precision interventions to reduce the extra suicide mortality among Whites by targeting specific age ranges with different suicide methods.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 835-842, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095204

RESUMO

Preclinical studies and clinical data from case series and placebo-controlled trials suggest that chromium might have antidepressant effects. We conducted an observational study in order to assess the association between concentrations of chromium in drinking water and mortality due to suicide in Alabama. Publicly available databases were used to determine both county-level concentrations of chromium in drinking water and county-level rates of mortality due to suicide in the years 2005-2015. Data analyses comparing county-level concentrations of total chromium in drinking water with mortality rate due to suicide were conducted using a two-tailed nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation, with statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.01 and 99% confidence interval. Sub-analyses were conducted examining males, females, whites, and blacks/other minorities. There were no statistically significant findings concerning concentrations of chromium and suicide rate in the general population (p = 0.35, r = -0.12); however, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the concentration of chromium and suicide deaths in whites (p = 0.009, r = -0.32). There were no statistically significant findings in the remaining demographic subgroups. Chromium in drinking water might have a protective effect against mortality due to suicide, at least in the Caucasian population.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Alabama , Cromo/análise , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095519

RESUMO

Objective: To expand knowledge during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with regard to suicide prevention among the elderly population by providing recommendations for interview strategies using 3 suicide theories. Methods: Two hypothetical geriatric suicide cases (1 low lethality and 1 high lethality) are presented and categorized according to 3 suicide theories: interpersonal theory of suicide, three-step theory of suicide, and hopelessness theory of depression. Results: In crisis intervention, the clinician's interview must match the intrinsic belief of the suicide attempter to enable engagement and rapport. Use of different aspects of the 3 suicide theories can be useful but are dependent on the emergent nature of the attempt. Conclusion: The need for identification and treatment of those with mental health issues, especially among the elderly population, and collaborative multidiscipline management teams is increasing during the current global pandemic. Specific interview strategies are needed when engaging with elderly suicidal patients. Suicide prevention in elderly patients is worthy of strong public attention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psiquiatria/métodos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 881-883, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998552
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e175, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070799

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies regarding associations between depressive symptoms and suicidality (suicidal ideation, plans and attempts) have usually employed a variable-centred approach, without considering the individual variance in time-varying changes of depressive symptoms. Through 10-year follow-up of a large cohort of Chinese adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, this study examined whether individual variance in depressive symptoms during the early phases post-earthquake could generate different suicidality outcomes in young adulthood. METHODS: A total of 1357 Chinese adolescents exposed to the Wenchuan earthquake were surveyed on depressive symptoms and other variables at 6, 18 and 30 months post-earthquake. In total, 799 participants responded to the 10-year follow-up and completed an online survey covering suicidality and other variables. The analytic sample was 744 participants who had valid data on depressive symptoms and suicidality. Data were analysed using logistic regressions. RESULTS: Prevalence estimates of past-year suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts measured at 10 years post-earthquake were found to be 10.8%, 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Five trajectories of depressive symptoms were classified: resistance (54.4%), chronicity (13.3%), recovery (10.4%), delayed dysfunction (12.0%) and relapsing/remitting (10.0%). After controlling for covariates, whole-sample regressions revealed only the relapsing/remitting depressive trajectory remained significantly predictive of suicidality. Moreover, males not females in the chronic group were more likely to have suicide plans. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of detecting disaster survivors with different trajectories of mental status and providing with them individualised and effective mental health services, to decrease their risk of suicidality in the future.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Terremotos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 339, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024072

RESUMO

There were several studies about the psychiatric and mental health issues related to the severe adult respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, however, the association between SARS and the overall risk of psychiatric disorders and suicides has, as yet, to be studied in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to examine as to whether SARS is associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide. A total of 285 patients with SARS and 2850 controls without SARS (1:10) matched for sex, age, insurance premium, comorbidities, residential regions, level of medical care, and index date were selected between February 25 and June 15, 2003 from the Inpatient Database Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 12-year follow-up, in which 79 in the SARS cohort and 340 in the control group developed psychiatric disorders or suicide (4047.41 vs. 1535.32 per 100,000 person-years). Fine and Gray's survival analysis revealed that the SARS cohort was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide, and the adjusted subdistribution HR (sHR) was 2.805 (95% CI: 2.182-3.605, p < 0.001) for psychiatric disorders and suicide. The SARS cohort was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder/acute stress disorder (PTSD/ASD), and suicide. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the SARS group was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, PTSD/ASD, and suicide after the individuals with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and suicide were excluded within the first year, and with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders, while those in the first five years were excluded. In conclusion, SARS was associated with the increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/psicologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(11): 1-10, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054915

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents suicide death rates among persons aged 10-24 for the United States and by state for 2000 through 2018 and percent change between 3-year periods of 2007-2009 and 2016-2018. Suicide rates are compared among states for 2016-2018. Methods-Data are from death certificates from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Suicide rates among persons aged 10-24 per 100,000 population are computed for each year from 2000 through 2018 for the states and years where sufficient cases existed to produce reliable rates. Percent change between 3-year averages of suicide rates for 2007-2009 and 2016-2018 are computed for each area except the District of Columbia. Suicide rates for 2016-2018 are compared among states. Results-Nationally, the suicide rate among persons aged 10-24 was statistically stable from 2000 to 2007 and then increased 57.4%, from 6.8 per 100,000 in 2007 to 10.7 in 2018. Between 2007-2009 and 2016-2018, suicide rates increased significantly in 42 states, increased nonsignificantly in 8 states, and were not possible to assess in the District of Columbia due to small numbers. Significant increases ranged from 21.7% in Maryland to a more than doubling of the rate in New Hampshire. In 2016-2018, suicide rates for persons aged 10-24 were highest in Alaska, while some of the lowest rates in the country were among states in the Northeast.


Assuntos
Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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