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2.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(11): 1-10, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054915

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents suicide death rates among persons aged 10-24 for the United States and by state for 2000 through 2018 and percent change between 3-year periods of 2007-2009 and 2016-2018. Suicide rates are compared among states for 2016-2018. Methods-Data are from death certificates from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Suicide rates among persons aged 10-24 per 100,000 population are computed for each year from 2000 through 2018 for the states and years where sufficient cases existed to produce reliable rates. Percent change between 3-year averages of suicide rates for 2007-2009 and 2016-2018 are computed for each area except the District of Columbia. Suicide rates for 2016-2018 are compared among states. Results-Nationally, the suicide rate among persons aged 10-24 was statistically stable from 2000 to 2007 and then increased 57.4%, from 6.8 per 100,000 in 2007 to 10.7 in 2018. Between 2007-2009 and 2016-2018, suicide rates increased significantly in 42 states, increased nonsignificantly in 8 states, and were not possible to assess in the District of Columbia due to small numbers. Significant increases ranged from 21.7% in Maryland to a more than doubling of the rate in New Hampshire. In 2016-2018, suicide rates for persons aged 10-24 were highest in Alaska, while some of the lowest rates in the country were among states in the Northeast.


Assuntos
Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 339, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024072

RESUMO

There were several studies about the psychiatric and mental health issues related to the severe adult respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, however, the association between SARS and the overall risk of psychiatric disorders and suicides has, as yet, to be studied in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to examine as to whether SARS is associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide. A total of 285 patients with SARS and 2850 controls without SARS (1:10) matched for sex, age, insurance premium, comorbidities, residential regions, level of medical care, and index date were selected between February 25 and June 15, 2003 from the Inpatient Database Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 12-year follow-up, in which 79 in the SARS cohort and 340 in the control group developed psychiatric disorders or suicide (4047.41 vs. 1535.32 per 100,000 person-years). Fine and Gray's survival analysis revealed that the SARS cohort was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide, and the adjusted subdistribution HR (sHR) was 2.805 (95% CI: 2.182-3.605, p < 0.001) for psychiatric disorders and suicide. The SARS cohort was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder/acute stress disorder (PTSD/ASD), and suicide. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the SARS group was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, PTSD/ASD, and suicide after the individuals with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and suicide were excluded within the first year, and with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders, while those in the first five years were excluded. In conclusion, SARS was associated with the increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/psicologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22905, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126345

RESUMO

Coupled with the lowest level of social connectedness, South Korea has the highest suicide rate among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. A possible link between community and suicide is social capital imprinted in social connectedness. This study explores whether social capital is protective against suicide ideation in relation to the poverty level of communities, and whether the associations are specific to certain elements of social capital.A total of 908 participants were included to assess cross-sectional association of social capital at individual level with suicide ideation by comparing between poor (government-leased apartments) and non-poor communities (nongovernment-leased apartments). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine various social capital dimensions in relation to suicide ideation.Suicide ideation was far higher among those living in the poor communities (poor communities 12%; non poor communities 6.3%) and the level of social capital was lower in the poor communities. Nevertheless, the protective effect of social capital, in particular, the cognitive dimension against suicide ideation was demonstrated only in the poor communities (eg, odds ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.58 for trust in the poor communities). Low income was significantly associated with suicide ideation only in the poor communities, but depression and resilience were associated with suicide ideation both in the poor and non-poor communities.To increase the reliability of the results, established measures based on relevant literature were utilized, but measures on bridging social capital and social network might have relatively low reliability.As to protection against suicide ideation, the extent of reliance on social capital was higher in poor communities than in non-poor communities, in particular, the cognitive dimension was likely to activate in this regard.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Pobreza/psicologia , Capital Social , Condições Sociais , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Resiliência Psicológica , Condições Sociais/economia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/economia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885911
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113272, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886958

RESUMO

Nurses are acknowledged for their care and expertise on the front line of pandemics over the last century. The recent global impact of COVID-19 has been unprecedented and a parallel battle has also been fought by increasing numbers of nurses for their workplace mental health. Factors associated with nurses mental stress and consequence of suicide were identified from a retrospective analysis of six non-representative media case-reports in high and low resource countries. The need for a structured model of nursing workforce mental health preparation, monitoring, support and health care is essential to inform advocacy and timely intervention in pandemic response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22181, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time global mental health surveillance is urgently needed for tracking the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use Google Trends data to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global mental health by analyzing three keywords indicative of mental distress: "insomnia," "depression," and "suicide." METHODS: We examined increases in search queries for 19 countries. Significant increases were defined as the actual daily search value (from March 20 to April 19, 2020) being higher than the 95% CIs of the forecast from the 3-month baseline via ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling. We examined the correlation between increases in COVID-19-related deaths and the number of days with significant increases in search volumes for insomnia, depression, and suicide across multiple nations. RESULTS: The countries with the greatest increases in searches for insomnia were Iran, Spain, the United States, and Italy; these countries exhibited a significant increase in insomnia searches on more than 10 of the 31 days observed. The number of COVID-19-related deaths was positively correlated to the number of days with an increase in searches for insomnia in the 19 countries (ρ=0.64, P=.003). By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the number of deaths and increases in searches for depression (ρ=-0.12, P=.63) or suicide (ρ=-0.07, P=.79). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that insomnia could be a part of routine mental health screening during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e173, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988427

RESUMO

AIMS: The United Nations warned of COVID-19-related mental health crisis; however, it is unknown whether there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders as existing studies lack a reliable baseline analysis or they did not use a diagnostic measure. We aimed to analyse trends in the prevalence of mental disorders prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys on a representative sample of non-institutionalised Czech adults (18+ years) from both November 2017 (n = 3306; 54% females) and May 2020 (n = 3021; 52% females). We used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the main screening instrument. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders, suicide risk and alcohol-related disorders at baseline and right after the first peak of COVID-19 when related lockdown was still in place in CZ. In addition, using logistic regression, we assessed the association between COVID-19-related worries and the presence of mental disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of those experiencing symptoms of at least one current mental disorder rose from a baseline of 20.02 (95% CI = 18.64; 21.39) in 2017 to 29.63 (95% CI = 27.9; 31.37) in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of both major depressive disorder (3.96, 95% CI = 3.28; 4.62 v. 11.77, 95% CI = 10.56; 12.99); and suicide risk (3.88, 95% CI = 3.21; 4.52 v. 11.88, 95% CI = 10.64; 13.07) tripled and current anxiety disorders almost doubled (7.79, 95% CI = 6.87; 8.7 v. 12.84, 95% CI = 11.6; 14.05). The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in 2020 was approximately the same as in 2017 (10.84, 95% CI = 9.78; 11.89 v. 9.88, 95% CI = 8.74; 10.98); however, there was a significant increase in weekly binge drinking behaviours (4.07% v. 6.39%). Strong worries about both, health or economic consequences of COVID-19, were associated with an increased odds of having a mental disorder (1.63, 95% CI = 1.4; 1.89 and 1.42, 95% CI = 1.23; 1.63 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence matching concerns that COVID-19-related mental health problems pose a major threat to populations, particularly considering the barriers in service provision posed during lockdown. This finding emphasises an urgent need to scale up mental health promotion and prevention globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919339

RESUMO

A study was undertaken of all drowning deaths that occurred over a 30-year period from 1988 to 2017 in the urban section of the River Torrens, Adelaide, South Australia, an augmented waterway that runs through the central business district. Autopsy records from Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA) were reviewed. There were 34 drownings (0-5 cases/yr) with 28 males and 6 females (M;F = 4.6:1), with an age range for males of 18-76yrs (mean 42.0; SD 18.0) and for females of 20-84yrs (mean 69.3; SD 24.5). There were 15 (44%) accidents, 11 (32%) suicides, 1 (3%) homicide and 7 (21%) undetermined. Of the 22 cases during or after 1994 with complete toxicology reports, 10 (45%) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of greater than 0.05% (g/100 mL) with an illicit substance detected in 4 (18%) cases: (MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), methylamphetamine and THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) acid). The presence of various therapeutic drugs was also detected in 10 cases (45%) including temazepam, fluoxetine, diazepam, olanzapine, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, codeine, citalopram and valproate. Although the numbers of cases were not high, the urban portion of the River Torrens had a much higher number of drowning events per kilometre compared to other inland waterways in South Australia such as the Murray River. This is most likely due to the vulnerability that exists for intoxicated individuals in the city from falls into the water and to the availability of the river as a means of suicide to members of the adjacent urban population.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Ciências Forenses , Rios , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Afogamento/etiologia , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 06 19.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749822

RESUMO

Suicide rates appear to be influenced by the economy. In the Netherlands, fluctuation in these rates in the last 10 years was mainly seen in men. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a negative impact on this fluctuation. There are no reliable predictors of suicidality yet, but there are developments that could lead to better predictions. Examples include 'big data' and 'machine learning' in combination with a network approach in which psychopathology is seen as a complex dynamic system. Better differentiation of suicidality can help clinical practice to offer tailored treatment and prevention. Suicidality is a multifactorial and complex phenomenon that goes beyond mental healthcare. In recent years, various prevention strategies and lines of research have been launched that focus on this complexity, making suicidality easier to treat and understand. The 113 foundation for suicide prevention has an important coordinating and facilitating role in this.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e151, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758330

RESUMO

AIMS: There is currently no gold-standard definition or method for identifying suicide clusters, resulting in considerable heterogeneity in the types of suicide clusters that are detected. This study sought to identify the characteristics, mechanisms and parameters of suicide clusters using three cluster detection methods. Specifically, the study aimed to: (1) determine the overlap in suicide clusters among each method, (2) compare the spatial and temporal parameters associated with different suicide clusters and (3) identify the demographic characteristics and rates of exposure to suicide among cluster and non-cluster members. METHODS: Suicide data were obtained from the National Coronial Information System. N = 3027 Australians, aged 10-24 who died by suicide in 2006-2015 were included. Suicide clusters were determined using: (1) poisson scan statistics, (2) a systematic search of coronial inquests and (3) descriptive network analysis. These methods were chosen to operationalise three different definitions of suicide clusters, namely clusters that are: (1) statistically significant, (2) perceived to be significant and (3) characterised by social links among three or more suicide descendants. For each method, the demographic characteristics and rates of exposure to suicide were identified, in addition to the maximum duration of suicide clusters, the geospatial overlap between suicide clusters, and the overlap of individual cluster members. RESULTS: Eight suicide clusters (69 suicides) were identified from the scan statistic, seven (40 suicides) from coronial inquests; and 11 (37 suicides) from the descriptive network analysis. Of the eight clusters detected using the scan statistic, two overlapped with clusters detected using the descriptive network analysis and one with clusters identified from coronial inquests. Of the seven clusters from coronial inquests, four overlapped with clusters from the descriptive network analysis and one with clusters from the scan statistic. Overall, 9.2% (12 suicides) of individuals were identified by more than one method. Prior exposure to suicide was 10.1% (N = 7) in clusters from the scan statistic, 32.5% (N = 13) in clusters from coronial inquest and 56.8% (N = 21) in clusters from the descriptive network analysis. CONCLUSION: Each method identified markedly different suicide clusters. Evidence of social links between cluster members typically involved clusters detected using the descriptive network analysis. However, these data were limited to the availability information collected as part of the police and coroner investigation. Communities tasked with detecting and responding to suicide clusters may benefit from using the spatial and temporal parameters revealed in descriptive studies to inform analyses of suicide clusters using inferential methods.


Assuntos
Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/tendências , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e163, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829741

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations. METHODS: Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986-2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression. RESULTS: We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the suicide rate in China has decreased over the past 20 years, there have been reports that the younger age group has been experiencing an increased incidence of completed suicide. Given that undergraduate groups are at higher risks of suicidality, it is important to monitor and screen for risk factors for suicidal ideation and behaviors to ensure their well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and protective factors contributing to suicidality among undergraduate college students in seven provinces in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 13,387 college students from seven universities in Ningxia, Shandong, Shanghai, Jilin, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Higher scores in the psychological strain, depression, anxiety, stress, and psychache (psychological risk factors for suicidality) and lower scores in self-esteem and purpose in life (psychological protective factors against suicidality) were associated with increased suicidality among undergraduate students in China. Demographic factors which were associated with higher risks of suicidality were female gender, younger age, bad academic results, were an only child, non-participation in school associations, and had an urban household registration. Perceived good health was protective against suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the common risk and protective factors for suicidality among Chinese undergraduate students is useful in developing interventions targeted at this population and to guide public health policies on suicide in China.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(9): 1743-1747, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) is one of the first gateways when suicide attempt patients seek health care services. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hypothesis that people who received emergency psychiatric services in previous suicide attempts will have a lower mortality rate in current ED visits owing to subsequent suicide attempts. METHOD: This retrospective study included patients who visited six EDs, and participated in the injury surveillance and in-depth suicide surveillance for 10 years, from January 2008 to December 2017. The study subjects were adult patients 18 years or older who visited EDs due to suicide attempts. The main explanatory variable is whether psychiatric treatment was provided in previous suicide attempts. The main outcome variable was suicide related mortality. RESULTS: The study included 2144 suicide attempt patients with a previous history of suicide attempts. Among these, 1335 patients (62.2%) had received psychiatric treatment in previous suicide attempts. Mortality was significantly different between the psychiatric consultation group (n = 33, 2.5%) and non-consultation group (n = 47, 5.8%) (P < 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, previous psychiatric consultation showed a significant association with low mortality (adjusted OR 0.41; 95% CI [0.23-0.72]) and selecting non-fatal suicide methods (adjusted OR 0.47; 95% CI [0.36-0.61]). CONCLUSION: Patients who received psychiatric consultation in previous suicide attempts had a lower suicide-related mortality in current ED visits as compared to patients who did not, and this may have been related to choosing non-fatal suicide methods.


Assuntos
Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745104

RESUMO

The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1546-1552, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816544

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate and compare the effects of state background check policies on firearm-related mortality in 4 US states.Methods. Annual data from 1985 to 2017 were used to examine Maryland and Pennsylvania, which implemented point-of-sale comprehensive background check (CBC) laws for handgun purchasers; Connecticut, which adopted a handgun purchaser licensing law; and Missouri, which repealed a similar law. Using synthetic control methods, we estimated the effects of these laws on homicide and suicide rates stratified by firearm involvement.Results. There was no consistent relationship between CBC laws and mortality rates. There were estimated decreases in firearm homicide (27.8%) and firearm suicide (23.2%-40.5%) rates associated with Connecticut's law. There were estimated increases in firearm homicide (47.3%), nonfirearm homicide (18.1%), and firearm suicide (23.5%) rates associated with Missouri's repeal.Conclusions. Purchaser licensing laws coupled with CBC requirements were consistently associated with lower firearm homicide and suicide rates, but CBC laws alone were not.Public Health Implications. Our results contribute to a body of research showing that CBC laws are not associated with reductions in firearm-related deaths unless they are coupled with handgun purchaser licensing laws.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos
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