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3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22905, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126345

RESUMO

Coupled with the lowest level of social connectedness, South Korea has the highest suicide rate among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. A possible link between community and suicide is social capital imprinted in social connectedness. This study explores whether social capital is protective against suicide ideation in relation to the poverty level of communities, and whether the associations are specific to certain elements of social capital.A total of 908 participants were included to assess cross-sectional association of social capital at individual level with suicide ideation by comparing between poor (government-leased apartments) and non-poor communities (nongovernment-leased apartments). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine various social capital dimensions in relation to suicide ideation.Suicide ideation was far higher among those living in the poor communities (poor communities 12%; non poor communities 6.3%) and the level of social capital was lower in the poor communities. Nevertheless, the protective effect of social capital, in particular, the cognitive dimension against suicide ideation was demonstrated only in the poor communities (eg, odds ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.58 for trust in the poor communities). Low income was significantly associated with suicide ideation only in the poor communities, but depression and resilience were associated with suicide ideation both in the poor and non-poor communities.To increase the reliability of the results, established measures based on relevant literature were utilized, but measures on bridging social capital and social network might have relatively low reliability.As to protection against suicide ideation, the extent of reliance on social capital was higher in poor communities than in non-poor communities, in particular, the cognitive dimension was likely to activate in this regard.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Pobreza/psicologia , Capital Social , Condições Sociais , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Resiliência Psicológica , Condições Sociais/economia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/economia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095519

RESUMO

Objective: To expand knowledge during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with regard to suicide prevention among the elderly population by providing recommendations for interview strategies using 3 suicide theories. Methods: Two hypothetical geriatric suicide cases (1 low lethality and 1 high lethality) are presented and categorized according to 3 suicide theories: interpersonal theory of suicide, three-step theory of suicide, and hopelessness theory of depression. Results: In crisis intervention, the clinician's interview must match the intrinsic belief of the suicide attempter to enable engagement and rapport. Use of different aspects of the 3 suicide theories can be useful but are dependent on the emergent nature of the attempt. Conclusion: The need for identification and treatment of those with mental health issues, especially among the elderly population, and collaborative multidiscipline management teams is increasing during the current global pandemic. Specific interview strategies are needed when engaging with elderly suicidal patients. Suicide prevention in elderly patients is worthy of strong public attention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psiquiatria/métodos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
6.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885911
7.
Nursing ; 50(10): 48-53, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956203

RESUMO

A dramatic shift in adolescent risks and behaviors in recent years threatens adolescents' mental well-being more than ever. This article explores vulnerable adolescent populations, describes the importance of nurses in all categories of assessment for adolescent mental health, and identifies assessment strategies and immediate interventions for successful outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(9): 424-429, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a leading cause of adolescent death, and emergency department (ED) visits are recognized as an opportunity to identify at-risk youth. For patients screening positive for mental health concerns, we implemented a quality improvement initiative to enhance documentation of results and interventions in the ED, increase communication between the ED and primary care providers (PCPs), and increase PCP follow-up. METHODS: Interventions included education, feedback, and an alert in our electronic health record. Completion of a Behavioral Health Screen (BHS-ED) initiates an alert that reminds ED providers how to document and communicate results and needed follow-up to the PCP. We reviewed a random monthly sample of ED charts for adolescents 14 to 19 years old presenting with nonpsychiatric complaints who screened positive for severe depression or suicidality. Outcome measures included documentation of BHS-ED results in the ED note, communication of positive results to the PCP, PCP follow-up of results, and ED return visits. RESULTS: Documentation of BHS-ED results increased from 73% at baseline to 88% of patients after the intervention. For patients discharged from the ED with nonpsychiatric chief complaints, communication to PCPs increased from 1% at baseline to 40% during the final 3 months of the study. When PCP communication occurred, 67% of in-network PCPs followed up with patients versus 5% when no communication took place from the ED. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted intervention including education and an electronic health record alert improved ED documentation, communication, and PCP follow-up of issues identified during ED-based mental health screens.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Saúde Mental , Sumários de Alta do Paciente Hospitalar , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Documentação , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Programas de Rastreamento , Melhoria de Qualidade , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e399-e400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901781

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic affected the psychological health of nurses. Numerous nurses have been facing mental complications associated with quarantine such as psychological distress and fear. The gravity of COVID-19 pandemic is triggering further mental health challenges among nurses. The continuous stress nurses are facing, could trigger post-traumatic stress symptoms, poor service delivery, suicide ideation and suicide. Assessing and preserving the mental health of nurses and the health care workers in general is necessary for optimal disease control. Psychiatric interventions are needed to attend to the psychological need of nurses treating COVID-19 patients. Such interventions imply using E-learning and video platforms to educate nurses on communication skills, case handling skills and problem-solving tactics to deal with the possible psychological problems that might arise from treating COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/tendências , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Profissional
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013738, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic suicides are common. However, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between motor vehicle crash fatalities and actual suicides, no official figures exist for this method of suicide. Restricting access to means is an important universal or population-based approach to suicide prevention with clear evidence of its effectiveness. However, the evidence with respect to means restriction for the prevention of suicide on roads is not well established. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of restrictions on the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to restrict the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database from the date of database inception to March 2020. We conducted searches of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. We applied no date, language, or publication status restrictions to these searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, controlled intervention studies without randomisation, before-after studies, or studies using interrupted time series designs, which evaluated interventions to restrict the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications against the inclusion criteria. Two review authors planned to independently extract data and assess risk of bias of included studies. However, we identified no studies eligible for inclusion. MAIN RESULTS: We identified no studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review highlights the paucity of research around road traffic suicides and the need for future robust studies that aim to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent suicide on roads. Suicide ascertainment is a key issue; therefore, clear objective criteria are necessary in order to scale up and study this method more accurately. In the absence of any substantial evidence, we advocate for more awareness on road traffic suicides and its inclusion in future government suicide prevention policies. Further research exploring effective measures, particularly those that do not require driver compliance, are also needed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8185-8186, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected on December 31, 2019 in China. Unfortunately, a 34-year-old Italian nurse has committed suicide after testing positive for coronavirus. It was the second case of suicide by a nurse in an Italian hospital and occurred only a few days after the first suicide. These consecutive suicides have aroused concern, and it is necessary to investigate the psychological issues of the medical staff in Italy regarding the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Suicídio/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Itália , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pandemias , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, there was a sharp increase in the number of suicides among 10- to 19-year-olds in 2017. A multi-method psychological autopsy study (PA) was conducted to assess feasibility, identify related factors, and study the interplay of these factors to inform suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: Coroners identified youth suicides in 2017 in their records and then general practitioners (GPs) contacted the parents of these youths. Over a period of 7 months, 66 qualitative interviews were held with the parents, peers, and teachers, providing information on precipitating factors and five topics involving 35 cases (17 boys and 18 girls, mean age 17 years). Furthermore, 43 parents and care professionals filled in questionnaires to examine risk and care-related factors. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. RESULTS: Although registration problems faced by coroners and resistance to contacting bereaved families by GPs hampered the recruitment, most parents highly appreciated being interviewed. Several adverse childhood experiences played a role at an individual level, such as (cyber) bullying, parental divorce, sexual abuse, as well as complex mental disorders, and previous suicide attempts. Two specific patterns stood out: (1) girls characterized by insecurity and a perfectionist attitude, who developed psychopathology and dropped out of school, and (2) boys with a developmental disorder, such as autism, who were transferred to special needs education and therefore felt rejected. In addition, adolescents with complex problems had difficulty finding appropriate formal care. Regarding potential new trends, contagion effects of social media use in a clinical setting and internet use for searching lethal methods were found. CONCLUSION: This first national PA study showed that, as expected, a variety of mostly complex clusters of problems played a role in youth suicides. An infrastructure is needed to continuously monitor, evaluate, and support families after each youth suicide and thereby improve prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Países Baixos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824149

RESUMO

Suicide is a leading cause of death that defies prediction and challenges prevention efforts worldwide. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have emerged as a means of investigating large datasets to enhance risk detection. A systematic review of ML investigations evaluating suicidal behaviors was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web-of-Science, and EMBASE, employing search strings and MeSH terms relevant to suicide and AI. Databases were supplemented by hand-search techniques and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria: (1) journal article, available in English, (2) original investigation, (3) employment of AI/ML, (4) evaluation of a suicide risk outcome. N = 594 records were identified based on abstract search, and 25 hand-searched reports. N = 461 reports remained after duplicates were removed, n = 316 were excluded after abstract screening. Of n = 149 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, n = 87 were included for quantitative synthesis, grouped according to suicide behavior outcome. Reports varied widely in methodology and outcomes. Results suggest high levels of risk classification accuracy (>90%) and Area Under the Curve (AUC) in the prediction of suicidal behaviors. We report key findings and central limitations in the use of AI/ML frameworks to guide additional research, which hold the potential to impact suicide on broad scale.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Suicídio , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the suicide rate in China has decreased over the past 20 years, there have been reports that the younger age group has been experiencing an increased incidence of completed suicide. Given that undergraduate groups are at higher risks of suicidality, it is important to monitor and screen for risk factors for suicidal ideation and behaviors to ensure their well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and protective factors contributing to suicidality among undergraduate college students in seven provinces in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 13,387 college students from seven universities in Ningxia, Shandong, Shanghai, Jilin, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Higher scores in the psychological strain, depression, anxiety, stress, and psychache (psychological risk factors for suicidality) and lower scores in self-esteem and purpose in life (psychological protective factors against suicidality) were associated with increased suicidality among undergraduate students in China. Demographic factors which were associated with higher risks of suicidality were female gender, younger age, bad academic results, were an only child, non-participation in school associations, and had an urban household registration. Perceived good health was protective against suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the common risk and protective factors for suicidality among Chinese undergraduate students is useful in developing interventions targeted at this population and to guide public health policies on suicide in China.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a disastrous act which has a significant effect on the global burden of disease, contributing yearly to 1.4% of the total burden with the foremost role played by a people aged between 15 and 35 years. Medical students are one of the high-risk groups for suicide. This increased risk may begin during medical school and leads to premature death. But, there is a paucity of epidemiologically reliable data on the issue. Therefore, the current study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideations and attempt among undergraduate medical students of Haramaya University. METHOD: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 13 to June 12, 2019 at College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University. Stratified sampling technique was used and a total of 757 participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Suicidal ideation and attempt were assessed by using suicidal module of world mental health survey initiative version of the World Health Organization, composite international diagnostic interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science Version 20. Descriptive results were presented by tables and graphs. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and the strength of association was presented by an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULT: The study showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt were 23.7% (95%CI, 20.5-26.8) and 3.9% (95%CI, 2.6-5.5), respectively. Cumulative grade point average (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.49), current alcohol use (AOR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.45-3.55), depression (AOR = 3.58, 95%CI: 2.23-5.76), anxiety (AOR = 3, 95%CI: 1.88-4.77), and poor social support (AOR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.41-4.68) were the factors statistically associated with the suicidal ideation. Depression (AOR = 5.4, 95%CI: 1.45-20.14) and anxiety (AOR = 3.19, 95%CI: 1.01-10.18) were associated with the suicidal attempts. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the high prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt as compared to the prevalence of suicidal behavior among other university students who were studying in other fields. Cumulative Grade Point Average, current alcohol use, depression, anxiety and poor social support were the factors statistically associated with the suicidal ideation. Depression and anxiety were the ones associated with the suicidal attempt. Early screening, detection and management of suicidal behavior and associated mental health problems were recommended for undergraduate medical students.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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