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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803482

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. In particular, neuroinflammation, mediated by microglia cells but also through CD8+ T-cells, actively contributes to disease pathology. Leukotrienes are involved in neuroinflammation and in the pathological hallmarks of AD. In consequence, leukotriene signaling-more specifically, the leukotriene receptors-has been recognized as a potential drug target to ameliorate AD pathology. Here, we analyzed the effects of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast (MTK) on hippocampal gene expression in 5xFAD mice, a commonly used transgenic AD mouse model. We identified glial activation and neuroinflammation as the main pathways modulated by MTK. The treatment increased the number of Tmem119+ microglia and downregulated genes related to AD-associated microglia and to lipid droplet-accumulating microglia, suggesting that the MTK treatment targets and modulates microglia phenotypes in the disease model compared to the vehicle. MTK treatment further reduced infiltration of CD8+T-cells into the brain parenchyma. Finally, MTK treatment resulted in improved cognitive functions. In summary, we provide a proof of concept for MTK to be a potential drug candidate for AD and provide novel modes of action via modulation of microglia and CD8+ T-cells. Of note, 5xFAD females showed a more severe pathology, and in consequence, MTK treatment had a more pronounced effect in the females compared to the males. The effects on neuroinflammation, i.e., microglia and CD8+ T-cells, as well as the effects on cognitive outcome, were dose-dependent, therefore arguing for the use of higher doses of MTK in AD clinical trials compared to the approved asthma dose.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672789

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer remains intractable owing to the lack of effective therapy for unresectable cases. Activating mutations of K-ras are frequently found in pancreatic cancers, but these have not yet been targeted by cancer therapies. The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a crucial role in mediating the oxidative stress response, which also contributes to cancer progression. Nrf2 activation reprograms the metabolic profile to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. A recent report suggested that K-ras- and Nrf2-active lung cancer cells are sensitive to glutamine depletion. This finding led to the recognition of glutaminase inhibitors as novel anticancer agents. In the current study, we used murine pancreatic cancer tissues driven by mutant K-ras and p53 to establish cell lines expressing constitutively activated Nrf2. Genetic or pharmacological Nrf2 activation in cells via Keap1 deletion or Nrf2 activation sensitized cells to glutaminase inhibition. This phenomenon was confirmed to be dependent on K-ras activation in human pancreatic cancer cell lines harboring mutant K-ras, i.e., Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 in response to DEM pretreatment. This phenomenon was not observed in BxPC3 cells harboring wildtype K-ras. These results indicate the possibility of employing Nrf2 activation and glutaminase inhibition as novel therapeutic interventions for K-ras mutant pancreatic cancers.


Assuntos
Glutaminase/genética , Mutação , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Animais , Benzenoacetamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Malatos/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 7865-7878, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586966

RESUMO

Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulated copper sulfide nanocrystals (CuS NCs) were prepared by heating an alkaline solution containing copper ions and BSA without an additional sulfur source. At a high BSA concentration (0.8 mM), nanoassembly of the as-formed CuS NCs occurs to form BSA-CuS NCs as a result of the formation of BSA gel-like structures. In addition to their intrinsic photothermal properties, the BSA-CuS NCs possess rich surface vacancies and thus exhibit enzyme-like and photodynamic activities. Spontaneous generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) led to the in situ formation of copper peroxide (CPO) nanodots on the BSA-CuS NCs to catalyze singlet oxygen radical generation. The antimicrobial response was enhanced by >60-fold upon NIR laser irradiation, which was ascribed to the combined effect of the photodynamic and photothermal inactivation of bacteria. Furthermore, BSA-CuS NCs were transdermally administered onto a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected wound and eradicated >99% of bacteria in just 1 min under NIR illumination due to the additional peroxidase-like activity of BSA-CuS NCs, transforming H2O2 at the infection site into hydroxyl radicals and thus increasing the synergistic effect from photodynamic and photothermal treatment. The BSA-CuS NCs exhibited insignificant in vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis and thus can serve as highly biocompatible bactericides in preclinical applications to effectively eradicate bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/química , Catálise , Cobre/química , Lasers , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotoquimioterapia , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Sulfetos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e015920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605386

RESUMO

The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in rats. Worms were isolated from a marine fish and examined and identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: control (I), garlic oil (GO) inoculated (II), fresh L3 inoculated (III), thermally treated L3 inoculated (IV), fresh L3 + GO inoculated (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated (VI) groups. Rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 showed abnormal liver and kidney functions associated with the destruction of normal architecture. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO via the amelioration of liver and kidney functions, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure on histology. Cooking of L3-infected fish induced severe alterations compared to uncooked fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Sulfetos , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anisaquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Anisaquíase/prevenção & controle , Anisakis/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Culinária , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Larva , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico
5.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215220

RESUMO

In recent years hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has demonstrated vasculoprotective effects against cell death, which suggests its promising therapeutic potential for numerous types of disease. Additionally, a protective effect of exogenous H2S in HG­induced injuries in HUVECs was demonstrated, suggesting a potential protective effect for diabetic vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism accounting for the cytoprotective role of exogenous H2S against high glucose [HG (40 mM glucose)]­induced injury and inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to HG for 24 h to establish an in vitro model of HG­induced cytotoxicity. The cells were pretreated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, or inhibitors of necroptosis and p38 MAPK prior to the exposure to HG. Cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), IL­1ß, IL­6, IL­8, TNF­α, phosphorylated­(p)38 and receptor­interacting protein 3 (RIP3) expression levels were detected using the indicated methods, including Cell Counting Kit 8, fluorescence detection, western blotting, immunofluorescence assay and ELISAs. The results demonstrated that necroptosis and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway mediated HG­induced injury and inflammation. Notably, NaHS was discovered to significantly ameliorate p38 MAPK/necroptosis­mediated injury and inflammation in response to HG, as evidenced by an increase in cell viability, a decrease in ROS generation and loss of MMP, as well as the reduction in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, the upregulated expression of RIP3 induced by HG was repressed by treatment with SB203580, while the HG­induced upregulation of p­p38 expression levels were significantly downregulated following the treatment of Nec­1 and RIP3­siRNA. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that NaHS may protect HUVECs against HG­induced injury and inflammation by inhibiting necroptosis via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which may represent a promising drug for the therapy of diabetic vascular complications.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Glucose/toxicidade , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
6.
Antiviral Res ; 185: 104996, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309540

RESUMO

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since its emergence in 2012, nosocomial amplifications have led to its high epidemic potential and mortality rate of 34.5%. To date, there is an unmet need for vaccines and specific therapeutics for this disease. Available treatments are either supportive medications in use for other diseases or those lacking specificity requiring higher doses. The viral infection mode is initiated by the attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the human Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP4). Our attempts to screen antivirals against MERS led us to identify montelukast sodium hydrate (MSH), an FDA-approved anti-asthma drug, as an agent attenuating MERS-CoV infection. We showed that MSH directly binds to MERS-CoV-Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) and inhibits its molecular interaction with DPP4 in a dose-dependent manner. Our cell-based inhibition assays using MERS pseudovirions demonstrated that viral infection was significantly inhibited by MSH and was further validated using infectious MERS-CoV culture. Thus, we propose MSH as a potential candidate for therapeutic developments against MERS-CoV infections.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/farmacologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064729

RESUMO

We previously reported that maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure resulted in impairment of central chemoreception and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in offspring parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), the kernel for mammalian central chemoreception. We also found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could attenuate maternal CS exposure-induced impairment of central chemoreception in the rat offspring in vivo. Mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel has been reported to play a significant role in mitochondrial functions and protect against apoptosis in neurons. Thus, we hypothesize here that mitoKATP channel plays a role in the protective effects of H2S on neonatal central chemoreception in maternal CS-exposed rats. Our findings revealed that pretreatment with NaHS (donor of H2S, 22.4mM) reversed the central chemosensitivity decreased by maternal CS exposure, and also inhibited cell apoptosis in offspring pFRG, however, 5-HD (blocker of mitoKATP channels, 19mM) attenuated the protective effects of NaHS. In addition, NaHS declined pro-apoptotic proteins related to mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in CS rat offspring pFRG, such as Bax, Cytochrome C, caspase9 and caspase3. NaHS or 5-HD alone had no significant effect on above indexes. These results suggest that mitoKATP channels play an important role in the protective effect of H2S against impairment of central chemoreception via anti-apoptosis in pFRG of rat offspring exposed to maternal CS.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Quimiorreceptoras/patologia , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Feminino , Bulbo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo/patologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Mecânica Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Sulfetos/farmacologia
8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 235-239, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981278

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of exogenous NaHS on myelin basic protein (MBP) and learning and memory of hippocampal neurons in mice with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and its therapeutic significance.Methods: Twelve male normal mice were randomly selected as normal control group (NC Group), and 48 SCA3 mice were randomly selected as SCA3 model group (M Group), low dose group (NL Group, 10 µmol/kg), medium dose group (NM Group, 50µmol/kg) and high dose group (NH Group, 100 µmol/kg), 12 rats in each group. The drug treated groups were injected with NaHS intraperitoneally once a day for 4 weeks. The changes of learning and memory ability of SCA3 mice before and after the intervention of different doses of NaHS were determined by Morris water maze, the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hippocampus was measured by spectrophotometry, the expression of MBP was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the morphological changes of neuron myelin sheath were observed by electron microscope. Results: Compared with the control group, the learning and memory ability of SCA3 mice was decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the content of H2S in hippocampus was decreased (P<0.05). After different doses of exogenous NaHS treatment, the learning and memory ability was improved in different degrees (P<0.05), and the contents of H2S and MBP in hippocampus of SCA3 mice were also improved in different degrees (P<0.05). Conclusion: Exogenous NaHS may increase the contents of H2S and MBP in the hippocampus of SCA3 mice, which may have a protective effect on the neurons, and then improve the learning and memory ability of SCA3 mice, and provide a new idea for the treatment of SCA3.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Aprendizagem , Memória , Ataxias Espinocerebelares , Sulfetos , Animais , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína Básica da Mielina , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico
9.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(5): 605-618, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We have shown previously that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) ameliorates mitochondrial fission and oxidative stress in a hyperglycemia-induced endothelial apoptosis and diabetic mouse model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DATS mitigates Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switching and vascular remodeling, and if so, to determine the underlying molecular events. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a vascular remodeling model by continuous 2-week Ang II infusion using a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with DATS or vehicle. Physiological parameters, vascular morphology, and molecular markers were assessed. For in vitro studies, VSMCs were pretreated with or without DATS for 1 h, then were stimulated with Ang II, and mitochondrial morphology and phenotypic switching of VSMCs were also measured. RESULTS: In primary mouse VSMCs, we found that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission regulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation, which eventually promoted Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and phenotypic switching. Moreover, Ang II was found to up-regulate the Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), which regulated mitochondrial fission and VSMC phenotypic switching by phosphorylating Drp1. However, the biological effect of Ang II was abrogated by DATS. Consistent with the effects in VSMCs, we found that DATS markedly alleviated mitochondrial fission, VSMC differentiation, and vessel wall thickening in an animal model of Ang II-induced vascular remodeling, which was regulated by the ROCK1/Drp1 signal. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that DATS mitigated Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by suppressing Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in an ROCK1-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiopatologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206628, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589229

RESUMO

Importance: The associations of lifestyle factors with gastric cancer (GC) are still underexplored in populations in China. Long-term nutritional supplementation may prevent GC in high-risk populations, but the possible effect modification by lifestyle factors remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate how lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol intake, and diet, may change the risk of GC incidence and mortality and whether the effects of vitamin and garlic supplementation on GC are associated with major lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of the Shandong Intervention Trial, a masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that aimed to assess the effect of vitamin and garlic supplementations and Helicobacter pylori treatment on GC in a factorial design with 22.3 years of follow-up. The study took place in Linqu County, Shandong province, China, a high-risk area for GC. Data were collected from Jully 1995 to December 2017. Overall, 3365 participants aged 35 to 64 years identified in 13 randomly selected villages who agreed to undergo gastroscopy were invited to participate in the trial and were included in the analysis. Data analysis was conducted from March to May 2019. Interventions: Participants received vitamin and garlic supplementation for 7.3 years, H pylori treatment for 2 weeks (among participants with H pylori ), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were GC incidence and GC mortality (1995-2017). We also examined the progression of gastric lesions (1995-2003) as a secondary outcome. Results: Of the 3365 participants (mean [SD] age, 47.1 [9.2] years; 1639 [48.7%] women), 1677 (49.8%) were randomized to receive active vitamin supplementation, with 1688 (50.2%) receiving placebo, and 1678 (49.9%) receiving active garlic supplementation, with 1687 (50.1%) receiving placebo. Overall, 151 GC cases (4.5%) and 94 GC deaths (2.8%) were identified. Smoking was associated with increased risk of GC incidence (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.003-2.93) and mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-3.98). Smoking was not associated with changes to the effects of vitamin or garlic supplementation. The protective effect on GC mortality associated with garlic supplementation was observed only among those not drinking alcohol (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.75; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54; P for interaction = .03), and significant interactions were only seen among participants with H pylori (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.78; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.52-1.60; P for interaction = .04). No significant interactions between vitamin supplementation and lifestyle factors were found. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, smoking was associated with an increased risk of GC incidence and mortality. Not drinking alcohol was associated with a stronger beneficial effect of garlic supplementation on GC prevention. Our findings provide new insights into lifestyle intervention for GC prevention, suggesting that mass GC prevention strategies may need to be tailored to specific population subgroups to maximize the potential beneficial effect. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00339768.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Adulto , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gastroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia
11.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(5): 472-483, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390525

RESUMO

AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against ischemic and inflammatory injury following myocardial ischemia via induction of microRNA (miR)-21. We sought to determine whether H2S attenuates ischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and interrogate the role of cofilin-2, a target of miR-21, in this protective process. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male mice underwent myocardial infarction (MI) by coronary artery ligation after baseline echocardiography. Following MI, mice were treated with Na2S (100 µg/kg/day; intraperitoneal [IP]) or saline up to 28 days. End-diastolic pressure, measured by Millar catheter, was significantly increased (P < .05 vs sham) at 3 days post-MI in the saline group, which was attenuated with Na2S. Left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening decreased significantly at 28 days post-MI in the saline group but was preserved with Na2S and LV infarct scar size was smaller in Na2S group as compared to control. Apoptotic signaling, measured by Bcl-2/Bax ratio, was significantly increased in the saline group but was mitigated with Na2S. Survival rate was 2-fold higher in Na2S group compared to saline control (P < .05). Proteomic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (TOF)/TOF tandem mass spectrometry identified significant changes in proapoptotic cofilin-2 expression, a specific target of miR-21, between saline- and sodium sulfide -treated mice at 28 days post-MI. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in cofilin-2 after MI, which was suppressed with Na2S treatment. Chronic Na2S treatment also attenuated inflammasome formation and activation leading to reduction of maladaptive signaling. CONCLUSION: Na2S treatment after MI preserves LV function and improves survival through attenuation of inflammasome-mediated adverse remodeling. We propose H2S donors as promising therapeutic tools for ischemic HFrEF.


Assuntos
Cofilina 2/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3217-3233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440120

RESUMO

Introduction: Since CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are still widely considered as advanced fluorescent probes because of their far superior optical performance and fluorescence efficiency over non-cadmium QDs, it is important to find ways to control their toxicity. Methods: In this study, the adverse effects of two cadmium-containing QDs, ie, CdTe QDs and CdTe@ZnS QDs, on the nervous system of nematode C. elegans, the hippocampus of mice, and cultured microglia were measured in order to evaluate the neuroinflammation caused by cadmium-containing QDs and the potential mechanisms. Results: Firstly, we observed that cadmium-containing QD exposure-induced immune responses and neurobehavioral deficit in nematode C. elegans. In the mice treated with QDs, neuroinflammatory responses to QDs in the hippocampus, including microglial activation and IL-1ß release, occurred as well. When investigating the mechanisms of cadmium-containing QDs causing IL-1ß-mediated inflammation, the findings suggested that cadmium-containing QDs activated the NLRP3 inflammasome by causing excessive ROS generation, and resulted in IL-1ß release. Discussion: Even though the milder immune responses and neurotoxicity of CdTe@ZnS QDs compared with CdTe QDs indicated the protective role of ZnS coating, the inhibitions of NLRP3 expression and ROS production completely reduced the IL-1ß-mediated inflammation. This provided valuable information that inhibiting target molecules is an effective and efficient way to alleviate  the toxicity of cadmium-containing QDs, so it is important to evaluate QDs through a mechanism-based risk assessment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Compostos de Cádmio/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/química , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Telúrio/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 255: 117834, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454158

RESUMO

AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is shown in ocular tissues and suggested to involve in the regulation of retinal circulation. However, the mechanism of H2S-induced relaxation on retinal artery is not clarified yet. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of several calcium (Ca2+) signaling and Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms in the relaxing effect of H2S donor, NaHS, on retinal arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relaxing effects of NaHS (10-5-3 × 10-3M) were determined on precontracted retinal arteries in Ca2+ free medium as well as in the presence of the inhibitors of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms. Additively, Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus were evaluated by CaCl2-induced contractions in the presence of NaHS (3 × 10-3M). Functional experiments were furtherly assessed by protein and/or mRNA expressions, as appropriate. KEY FINDINGS: The relaxations to NaHS were preserved in Ca2+ free medium while NaHS pretreatment decreased the responsiveness to CaCl2. The inhibitors of plasmalemmal Ca2+-ATPase, sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, Na+-Ca2+ ion-exchanger and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) unchanged the relaxations to NaHS. Likewise, Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms including, rho kinase, protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase were unlikely to mediate the relaxation to NaHS in retinal artery. Whereas, a marked reduction was determined in NaHS-induced relaxations in the presence of MLCP inhibitor, calyculin A. Supportively, NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced phosphorylation of MYPT1-subunit of MLCP. SIGNIFICANCE: The relaxing effect of NaHS in retinal artery is likely to be related to the activation of MLCP and partly, to decrement in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile apparatus.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Artéria Retiniana/metabolismo , Animais , Cloreto de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem , Sulfetos/farmacologia
14.
Life Sci ; 256: 117855, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have lower circulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels following myocardial ischemia and a higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-dependent favorable effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats with T2D. METHODS: T2D was induced using a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose of streptozotocin. Rats were divided into control, T2D, and T2D + NaSH groups. NaSH (0.28, 0.56, 1.6, 2.8, and 5.6 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 9 weeks. At the end of the study, heart from all rats were isolated and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the peak rates of positive and negative changes in LV pressure (±dp/dt) were recorded during baseline and following myocardial IR injury. In addition, infarct size as well as mRNA expression of H2S- and nitric oxide (NO)-producing enzymes were measured. RESULTS: In diabetic rats, NaSH only at doses of 0.56 and 1.6 mg/kg increased recovery of LVDP (16% and 42%), +dp/dt (25% and 35%) and -dp/dt (23% and 32%) as well as decreased infarct size (44% and 35%). At these doses, NaSH increased expressions of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) (440% and 271%) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (232% and 148%) but it decreased the expressions of inducible NOS (iNOS) (55% and 71%). NaSH at 0.28, 2.8 and 5.6 mg/kg had no significant effects on these parameters. CONCLUSION: NaSH had a bell-shaped cardioprotective effect against myocardial IR injury in rats with T2D. Higher tolerance to IR injury in heart isolated from type 2 diabetic rats treated with intermediate doses of NaSH is associated with higher CSE-derived H2S and eNOS-derived NO as well as lower iNOS-derived NO.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298317

RESUMO

There is an increasing interest from the aquafeed industry in functional feeds containing selected additives that improve fish growth performance and health status. Functional feed additives include probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and phytogenics (substances derived from plants and their extracts). This study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of a mucilage extract rich in galactomannan oligosaccharides (GMOS), a mixture of garlic and labiatae-plants oils (PHYTO), and a combination of them (GMOSPHYTO), on gut microbiota composition of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed with a low fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) diet. Three experimental diets and a control diet (plant-based formulation with 10% FM and 6% FO) were tested in a 63-days feeding trial. To analyze the microbiota associated to feeds and the intestinal autochthonous (mucosa-adhered) and allochthonous (transient) microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME2 pipeline were used. Metabarcoding analysis of feed-associated bacteria showed that the microbial communities of control (CTRL) feed deeply differed from those of experimental diets. The number of reads was significantly lower in CTRL feed than in other feeds. The OTU (operational taxonomic unit) number was instead similar between the feeds, ranging from 42 to 50 OTUs. The variation of resident gut microbiota induced by diet was lower than the variation of transient intestinal microbiota, because feedstuffs are a major source of allochthonous bacteria, which can temporarily integrate into the gut transient microbiome. However, the composition of transient bacterial communities was not simply a mirror of feed-borne bacteria. Indeed, the microbial profile of feeds was different from both faecal and mucosa profiles. Our findings suggest that the dietary inclusion of GMOS (0.5%) and PHYTO (0.02%) in a low FM and FO diet induces changes in gut microbiota composition of European sea bass. However, if on allochthonous microbiota the combined inclusion of GMOS and PHYTO showed an antagonistic effect on bactericidal activity against Vibrionales, at mucosa level, only GMOSPHYTO diet increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidales, Lactobacillales, and Clostridiales resident bacterial orders. The main beneficial effects of GMOS and PHYTO on gut microbiota are the reduction of coliforms and Vibrionales bacteria, which include several potentially pathogenic species for fish, and the enrichment of gut microbiota composition with butyrate producer taxa. Therefore, these functional ingredients have a great potential to be used as health-promoting agents in the farming of European sea bass and other marine fish.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sulfetos/farmacologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6508, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300246

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of different cell types, but little is known about its role in sperm cells. Because of its reducing properties, we hypothesise that H2S protects spermatozoa against the deleterious effects of oxidative stress, a condition that is common to several male fertility disorders. This study aimed i) to determine the total antioxidant capacities of Na2S and GYY4137, which are fast- and slow-releasing H2S donors, respectively, and ii) to test whether H2S donors are able to protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress. We found that Na2S and GYY4137 show different antioxidant properties, with the total antioxidant capacity of Na2S being mostly unstable and even undetectable at 150 µM. Moreover, both H2S donors preserve sperm motility and reduce acrosome loss, although the effects were both dose and donor dependent. Within the range of concentrations tested (3-300 µM), GYY4137 showed positive effects on sperm motility, whereas Na2S was beneficial at the lowest concentration but detrimental at the highest. Our findings show that Na2S and GYY4137 have different antioxidant properties and suggest that both H2S donors might be used as in vitro therapeutic agents against oxidative stress in sperm cells, although the optimal therapeutic range differs between the compounds.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Suínos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110563, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278824

RESUMO

Sodium sulfide (Na2S) is usually used as an amendment in industrial sewage treatment. To evaluate the effects of Na2S on the growth of Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), heavy metal immobilization, and soil microbial activity, the R. pseudoacacia biomass and nutrient content and the soil heavy metal bioavailability, enzyme activity, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community were measured by a single-factor pot experiment. The Pb-Zn-contaminated soil was collected from a Pb-Zn mine that had been remediated by R. pseudoacacia for five years. Three pollution levels (unpolluted, mildly polluted, and severely polluted) were evaluated by the pollution load index. Na2S application increased the shoot biomass under severe and mild contamination. In soil, Na2S application decreased the bioavailable Pb and Zn contents under severe and mild contamination, which resulted in a decrease in the Pb and Zn content in R. pseudoacacia. However, Na2S application did not affect the total Pb content per plant and enhanced the total Zn content per plant because of the higher biomass of the plants under Na2S application. Increased phosphatase activity and increased available phosphorous content may promote the uptake of phosphorus in R. pseudoacacia. Moreover, Na2S application is beneficial to the diversity of AM fungi under mild and severe pollution. Overall, Na2S application has great potential for enhancing soil heavy metal immobilization, enhancing soil microbial activity, and improving the growth of R. pseudoacacia in polluted soils. Therefore, Na2S is suitable for use in Pb-Zn remediation to ameliorate environmental heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Robinia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Micorrizas/classificação , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Robinia/efeitos dos fármacos , Robinia/metabolismo , Robinia/microbiologia , Zinco/farmacocinética
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237423

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the effect of Realgar and arsenic trioxide on gut microbiota. The mice were divided into low-dose Realgar group(RL), medium-dose Realgar group(RM), high-dose Realgar group(RH), and arsenic trioxide group(ATO), in which ATO and RL groups had the same trivalent arsenic content. Realgar and arsenic trioxide toxicity models were established after intragastric administration for 1 week, and mice feces were collected 1 h after intragastric administration on day 8. The effects of Realgar on gut microbiota of mice were observed through bacterial 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that Lactobacillus was decreased in all groups, while Ruminococcus and Adlercreutzia were increased. The RL group and ATO group were consistent in the genera of Prevotella, Ruminococcus, and Adlercreutzia but different in the genera of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides. Therefore, the effects of Realgar and arsenic trioxide with the same amount of trivalent arsenic on gut microbiota were similar, but differences were still present. Protective bacteria such as Lactobacillus were reduced after Realgar administration, causing inflammation. At low doses, the number of anti-inflammatory bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, Adlercreutzia and Parabacteroides increased, which can offset the slight inflammation caused by the imbalance of bacterial flora. At high doses, the flora was disturbed and the number of Proteobacteria was increased, with aggravated intestinal inflammation, causing edema and other inflammatory reactions. Based on this, authors believe that the gastrointestinal reactions after clinical use of Realgar may be related to flora disorder. Realgar should be used at a small dose in combination with other drugs to reduce intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Arsenicais/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
19.
Inflamm Res ; 69(5): 481-495, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide donors reduce inflammatory signaling in vitro and in vivo. The biological effect mediated by H2S donors depends on the kinetics of the gas release from the donor molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms of H2S-induced immunomodulation were poorly addressed. Here, we studied the effect of two different hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing agents on the generation of the LPS-induced inflammatory mediators. Importantly, we investigated the transcriptomic changes that take place in human cells after the LPS challenge, combined with the pretreatment with a slow-releasing H2S donor-GYY4137. METHODS: We investigated the effects of GYY4137 and sodium hydrosulfide on the release of proinflammatory molecules such as ROS, NO and TNF-α from LPS-treated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and the THP-1 promonocytic cell lines. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR studies using THP-1 cells were performed to monitor the effects of the GYY4137 on multiple signaling pathways, including various immune-related and proinflammatory genes after combined action of LPS and GYY4137. RESULTS: The GYY4137 and sodium hydrosulfide differed in the ability to reduce the production of the LPS-evoked proinflammatory mediators. The pre-treatment with GYY4137 resulted in a drastic down-regulation of many TNF-α effectors that are induced by LPS treatment in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, GYY4137 pretreatment of LPS-exposed cells ameliorates the LPS-mediated induction of multiple pro-inflammatory genes and decreases expression of immunoproteasome genes. Besides, in these experiments we detected the up-regulation of several important pathways that are inhibited by LPS. CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results we believe that our transcriptomic analysis significantly contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activity of hydrogen sulfide donors, and highlights their potential against LPS challenges and other forms of inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110464, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171946

RESUMO

Nickel compounds are known to be common environmental and occupational carcinogens which also promote the migration of lung cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism yet remains to be clarified. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in cancer biological processes. However, the exact effect and functionality of H2S on nickel, towards the promotion of the migration ability of lung cancer cells, remains to be unknown. In this study, we have found that the nickel chloride (NiCl2) treatment significantly downregulates the protein levels of endogenous H2S enzyme cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). A correlation between NiCl2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the migration ability of lung cancer A549 cells has been observed. Exogenous H2S donor, sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (100 µmol/L), can reverse NiCl2-induced EMT as well as the migration ability of A549 cells. NiCl2 treatment is able to upregulate the protein level of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), p-Smad2, p-Smad3, p-JNK, p-ERK and p-P38 in a time-dependent fashion, indicating that both TGF-ß1/Smad2/Smad3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades (a non-Smad pathway) may play essential roles in NiCl2-dependent EMT as well as cell migration of human lung cancer cells. Furthermore, exogenous NaHS alleviates the NiCl2-induced EMT and the migration ability of A549 cells only by regulating TGF-ß1/Smad2/Smad3, rather than the MAPK, signaling pathway. These results indicate that the exogenous administration of NaHS might be a potential therapeutic strategy against nickel-induced lung cancer progression.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Níquel/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
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