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1.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 38(2): 195-200, 2022 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220709

RESUMO

The damage of sweat glands in patients with extensive deep burns results in the loss of thermoregulation, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. At present, there are many researches on the repair of sweat gland function, but the mechanism of human sweat gland development has not been fully clarified. More and more studies have shown that the cascaded pathways of Wnt/ß-catenin, ecto- dysplasin A/ectodysplasin A receptor/nuclear factor-κB, sonic hedgehog, and forkhead box transcription factor jointly affect the development of sweat glands, and it has been reported that the cascaded signaling pathways can be used to achieve the reconstruction of sweat adenoid cells in vitro. This article reviews the signaling pathways that affect the development of sweat glands and their involvement in the reconstruction of sweat adenoid cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Suor , Tonsila Faríngea/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transdução de Sinais , Suor/metabolismo , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiologia
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(2): e2103331, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747140

RESUMO

Nutrients play critical roles in maintaining core physiological functions and in preventing diseases. Technologies for delivering these nutrients and for monitoring their concentrations can help to ensure proper nutritional balance. Eccrine sweat is a potentially attractive class of biofluid for monitoring purposes due to the ability to capture sweat easily and noninvasively from nearly any region of the body using skin-integrated microfluidic technologies. Here, a miniaturized system of this type is presented that allows simple, rapid colorimetric assessments of the concentrations of multiple essential nutrients in sweat, simultaneously and without any supporting electronics - vitamin C, calcium, zinc, and iron. A transdermal patch integrated directly with the microfluidics supports passive, sustained delivery of these species to the body throughout a period of wear. Comparisons of measurement results to those from traditional lab analysis methods demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this platform. On-body tests with human subjects reveal correlations between the time dynamics of concentrations of these nutrients in sweat and those of the corresponding concentrations in blood. Studies conducted before and after consuming certain foods and beverages highlight practical capabilities in monitoring nutritional balance, with strong potential to serve as a basis for guiding personalized dietary choices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/química , Suor/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Transdérmico , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 62(4): 525-530, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between concentrations of amino acid (AA) and related metabolites in plasma and sweat obtained before and after exercise performed at different intensities and therefore different rates of sweat loss. METHODS: Ten subjects completed a maximally ramped exercise test and three 30-min submaximal (45/60/75% VO2max) exercise bouts. Blood samples were collected before/after the exercise bouts and sweat was collected from the forearm throughout. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of AA and related molecules. RESULTS: Sweat AA excretion rate was higher during the 60% bout compared to the 45% bout but was similar in comparison to the 75% indicating a plateau in rates of sweat AA losses as sweat rate increased. Plasma concentrations of AAs, urea, ammonia, and other non-proteinogenic AAs were not significantly different between exercise bouts performed at 45% and 60%. Exercise at 75% tended to reduce concentrations of sweat amino acids with significantly depressed concentrations of glycine, lysine, serine, threonine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartate and ornithine. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this research suggests that increasing exercise intensity increases AA metabolism as demonstrated by reduced plasma AA concentrations and increased excretion through sweat glands, which is mediated by a mechanism yet to be identified.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Suor , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Suor/metabolismo , Sudorese
4.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(2): 361-368, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324162

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(25-(OH)2D3) level and sweat function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1021 patients with T2DM who underwent 25-(OH)2D3 level detections and sweat function tests was carried out. These individuals were divided into deficient groups (n = 154 cases), insufficient groups (n = 593 cases) and sufficient groups (n = 274 cases). Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were implemented to determine the association of 25-(OH)2D3 level and sweat function. RESULTS: The total presence of sweating dysfunction was 38.59%. Patients with a lower level of serum 25-(OH)2D3 had more severe sweat secretion impairment (P < 0.05). As the decrease of serum 25-(OH)2D3 level, the presence of sweating dysfunction increased (P < 0.05). 25-(OH)2D3 level was positively correlated with sweat function parameters, age and duration of T2DM were negatively correlated with sweat function parameter (P < 0.05). Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis explored a significant association between serum 25-(OH)2D3 level with sweat function (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum 25-(OH)2D3 level was positively correlated with sweat function in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Suor/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Glândulas Sudoríparas/metabolismo , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiopatologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Vitamina D/sangue
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24160, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921159

RESUMO

Inconsistent results were found throughout the literature regarding factors affecting hair cortisol levels. Hair cortisol level in humans was not studied for its associations to scalp hair sweating or hair wash frequency in a patient-based way. Factors affecting hair cortisol levels must be precisely known in order to interpret the results correctly. The aims of the study are to assess if BMI, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), hair wash frequency, and sweating with scalp hair affect hair cortisol levels. It will assess which of these factors are more significant predictors of hair cortisol levels. In a study on healthy adults, information about history, socio-demographics, PSS, hair wash frequency, hair treatment, and scalp hair sweating were collected, and hair samples were taken and analyzed for their hair cortisol level. Associations of hair cortisol levels with each of the variables were investigated and significant predictors of hair cortisol levels among the variables were found. Mean hair cortisol level in the study participants was 16.84 pg/mg hair. Hair cortisol has a significant positive association with weight, BMI, PSS, and scalp hair sweating, p < 0.05. Scalp hair sweating significantly predicts hair cortisol levels by 12.3%, while other variables did not significantly predict hair cortisol levels, p < 0.05. Scalp hair sweating significantly predicts hair cortisol levels. Age, hair wash frequency, hair treatment, and stressful events have no associations with hair cortisol levels. Although BMI and PSS are associated with hair cortisol levels, they do not significantly predict it. Obesity is significantly associated with profuse sweating, thus the increase in hair cortisol levels in obese individuals could partly be the result of a higher incidence of sweating in these individuals. Thus, scalp hair sweating should be taken into consideration during the study and interpretation of hair cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Couro Cabeludo/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sudorese
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639210

RESUMO

The potential of eccrine sweat as a bio-fluid of interest for diagnosis and personalized therapy has not yet been fully evaluated, due to the lack of in-depth sweat characterization studies. Thanks to recent developments in omics, together with the availability of accredited sweat collection methods, the analysis of human sweat may now be envisioned as a standardized, non-invasive test for individualized monitoring and personalized medicine. Here, we characterized individual sweat samples, collected from 28 healthy adult volunteers under the most standardized sampling methodology, by applying optimized shotgun proteomics. The thorough characterization of the sweat proteome allowed the identification of 983 unique proteins from which 344 were identified across all samples. Annotation-wise, the study of the sweat proteome unveiled the over-representation of newly addressed actin dynamics, oxidative stress and proteasome-related functions, in addition to well-described proteolysis and anti-microbial immunity. The sweat proteome composition correlated with the inter-individual variability of sweat secretion parameters. In addition, both gender-exclusive proteins and gender-specific protein abundances were highlighted, despite the high similarity between human female and male sweat proteomes. In conclusion, standardized sample collection coupled with optimized shotgun proteomics significantly improved the depth of sweat proteome coverage, far beyond previous similar studies. The identified proteins were involved in many diverse biological processes and molecular functions, indicating the potential of this bio-fluid as a valuable biological matrix for further studies. Addressing sweat variability, our results prove the proteomic profiling of sweat to be a promising bio-fluid analysis for individualized, non-invasive monitoring and personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Glândulas Écrinas/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Suor/química , Suor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6122, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675199

RESUMO

Perspiration evaporation plays an indispensable role in human body heat dissipation. However, conventional textiles tend to focus on sweat removal and pay little attention to the basic thermoregulation function of sweat, showing limited evaporation ability and cooling efficiency in moderate/profuse perspiration scenarios. Here, we propose an integrated cooling (i-Cool) textile with unique functional structure design for personal perspiration management. By integrating heat conductive pathways and water transport channels decently, i-Cool exhibits enhanced evaporation ability and high sweat evaporative cooling efficiency, not merely liquid sweat wicking function. In the steady-state evaporation test, compared to cotton, up to over 100% reduction in water mass gain ratio, and 3 times higher skin power density increment for every unit of sweat evaporation are demonstrated. Besides, i-Cool shows about 3 °C cooling effect with greatly reduced sweat consumption than cotton in the artificial sweating skin test. The practical application feasibility of i-Cool design principles is well validated based on commercial fabrics. Owing to its exceptional personal perspiration management performance, we expect the i-Cool concept can provide promising design guidelines for next-generation perspiration management textiles.


Assuntos
Suor/química , Sudorese , Têxteis/análise , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura Cutânea , Suor/metabolismo
8.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102740, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396596

RESUMO

A sweat sensor is expected to be the most appropriate wearable device for noninvasive healthcare monitoring. However, the practical use of sweat sensors is impeded by irregular and low sweat secretion rates. Here, a sweat-collecting patch that can collect sweat efficiently for fast and continuous healthcare monitoring is demonstrated. The patch uses cactus-spine-inspired wedge-shaped wettability-patterned channels on a hierarchical microstructured/nanostructured surface. The channel shape, in combination with the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic surface materials, induces a unidirectional Laplace pressure that transports the sweat to the sensing area spontaneously even when the patch is aligned vertically. The patch demonstrates superior sweat-collecting efficiency and reduces the time required to fill the sensing area by transporting sweat almost without leaving it inside the channel. Therefore, a sensor based on the patch responds quickly to biochemicals in sweat, and the patch enables the continuous monitoring of changes in sweat biochemicals according to their changes in the wearer's blood.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Suor/química , Biomimética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Humanos , Microfluídica , Nanopartículas/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Pele/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Suor/metabolismo , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Molhabilidade
9.
J Proteomics ; 246: 104310, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198014

RESUMO

Metabolome and proteome profiling of biofluids, e.g., urine, plasma, has generated vast and ever-increasing amounts of knowledge over the last few decades. Paradoxically, omics analyses of sweat, one of the most readily available human biofluids, have lagged behind. This review capitalizes on the current knowledge and state of the art analytical advances of sweat metabolomics and proteomics. Moreover, current applications of sweat omics such as the discovery of disease biomarkers and monitoring athletic performance are also presented in this review. Another area of emerging knowledge that has been highlighted herein lies in the role of skin host-microbiome interactions in shaping the sweat metabolite-protein profiles. Discussion of future research directions describes the need to have a better grasp of sweat chemicals and to better understand how they function as aided by advances in omics tools. Overall, the role of sweat as an information-rich biofluid that could complement the exploration of the skin metabolome/proteome is emphasized.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Proteoma , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Suor/metabolismo
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107812, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behcet's disease (BD) is an autoimmune disorder with the serious possibility of blindness, calling for further research on its pathogenesis. Our aim was to study the metabolite composition of sweat in BD and to identify possible biomarkers. METHODS: Metabolomics analysis was performed on sweat samples from 20 BD patients and 18 normal controls by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A significantly different metabolic profile of sweat was observed when BD patients were compared with healthy controls. The result of the orthogonal partial least squared-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that these two comparison groups could be separated with a relatively satisfactory fitting degree (R2Y = 0.995 and Q2 = 0.817 in positive ion mode; R2Y = 0.991 and Q2 = 0.721 in negative ion mode). Based on OPLS-DA, a panel of metabolites was selected as candidate biomarkers, including l-citrulline, l-pyroglutamic acid, urocanic acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, cholesterol 3-sulfate, and pentadecanoic acid. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the metabolite profile of sweat in BD. Our results demonstrated a significantly different metabolite composition of sweat in BD compared to that of healthy controls.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Metaboloma/imunologia , Suor/metabolismo , Síndrome de Behçet/imunologia , Síndrome de Behçet/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Suor/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071719

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common monogenic autosomal recessive disease, associated with pathogenic variants in the CFTR gene. The splicing variant c.3140-16T>A (3272-16T>A) has been described previously and, according to the Russian CF Patients Registry, occurs with a frequency of 0.34%. The phenotypic features of CF patients with the c.3140-16T>A variant were compared with those of patients with the genotype F508del/F508del. Patients with the allele c.3140-16T>A had higher average age and age at diagnosis, and the allele was present in a greater proportion of adults. Patients carrying the c.3140-16T>A allele were characterised by better physical development indicators, both in adults and in children, had preserved pancreatic function, as well as the absence of a number of complications, and required pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy less often than patients with the F508del/F508del genotype. Sweat test values also were lower in patients with the c.3140-16T>A genotype. According to the results of clinical and laboratory studies, the phenotype of patients with the genetic variant c.3140-16T>A can be considered "mild". Functional CFTR protein activity in the presence of c.3140-16T>A was evaluated using intestinal current measurements (ICM) and the forskolin-induced swelling assay on organoids obtained from patients' rectal biopsies. c.3140-16T>A had high residual CFTR channel activity and was amenable to effective pharmacological correction with thea VX-770 potentiator. To evaluate the effect of the variant on CFTR pre-mRNA splicing we performed a minigene assay, as well as RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from the nasal epithelium and rectal biopsy of patients. We showed that the c.3140-16T>A variant creates a novel acceptor AG dinucleotide within CFTR intron 19, resulting in a 14-nucleotide extension of exon 20. This frameshift produces a premature termination codon and triggers mRNA degradation by the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) mechanism. Moreover, we observed that the c.3140-16T>A allele could produce a residual amount of normally spliced transcript, thus explaining the patient's mild phenotype.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Organoides/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo
13.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 124: 104965, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038774

RESUMO

In an experimental setting a laboratory analysis of substances migrating from UV prints under mechanical stress into sweat and saliva simulant was performed. The influence of paper type and curing degree on UV prints was investigated. Five substances were identified at concentrations above the limit of detection in the simulants PPG-3 glyceryl triacrylate, ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 2/4-isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), and 2,4-diethylthioxanthone (DETX). Migration of the acrylates and photoinitiators into saliva and sweat simulants were increased when the UV inks were printed on uncoated paper in comparison to coated paper. With an exposure scenario considering a person to leaf through 80 pages of UV-printed paper per day while touching each page with a licked fingertip, Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCR) for oral exposure well below 1 were obtained for all five substances indicating no risk for the general population. The three acrylates are classified for skin sensitisation. The migrated amounts per skin surface area of these three were compared with the EC3 value for a hypothetical substance that could be categorised as strong sensitiser (EC3 = 0.1%). The results show that the risk of skin sensitisation even under worst case conditions can be considered as negligible.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/toxicidade , Tinta , Impressão/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Acrilatos/farmacocinética , Acrilatos/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Impressão/instrumentação , Saliva/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo
14.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20496, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934316

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by a bi-allelic mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. When the diagnosis cannot be confirmed by a positive sweat test or/and the identification of two CF-causing variants, international guidelines recommend the use of CFTR functional assays. These tests assess whether CFTR activity is normal or diminished/absent through measurement of CFTR-mediated chloride secretion/absorption. CFTR functional assays are not only useful for diagnostic purposes but can also serve as a surrogate outcome for clinical trials of CFTR modulators, which are emerging therapeutic agents designed to correct the malfunctioning protein. In the near future they could also be used as precision-medicine techniques, to help guidance and optimisation of treatment. Until now, sweat testing has been the only CFTR functional assay available in Switzerland. Since 2020, the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) at Lausanne and the Lucerne Children’s Hospital perform nasal potential difference measurement. Moreover, The Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) established a reliable procedure to generate adult intestinal organoids, i.e., stem cell-derived in-vitro grown mini tissues, extracted from rectal biopsies, which can be used to assess CFTR function in vitro. This narrative review describes the most popular CFTR functional assays, as well as their indications, limitations and availability in Switzerland.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Suor/química , Suor/metabolismo , Suíça
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(1): 163-194, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842859

RESUMO

The recent advent of biodegradable materials has offered huge opportunity to transform healthcare technologies by enabling sensors that degrade naturally after use. The implantable electronic systems made from such materials eliminate the need for extraction or reoperation, minimize chronic inflammatory responses, and hence offer attractive propositions for future biomedical technology. The eco-friendly sensor systems developed from degradable materials could also help mitigate some of the major environmental issues by reducing the volume of electronic or medical waste produced and, in turn, the carbon footprint. With this background, herein we present a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional biodegradable materials that have been used for various biodegradable or bioresorbable electronic devices. The discussion focuses on the dissolution rates and degradation mechanisms of materials such as natural and synthetic polymers, organic or inorganic semiconductors, and hydrolyzable metals. The recent trend and examples of biodegradable or bioresorbable materials-based sensors for body monitoring, diagnostic, and medical therapeutic applications are also presented. Lastly, key technological challenges are discussed for clinical application of biodegradable sensors, particularly for implantable devices with wireless data and power transfer. Promising perspectives for the advancement of future generation of biodegradable sensor systems are also presented.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Biopolímeros/química , Biopolímeros/metabolismo , Temperatura Corporal , Testes Respiratórios , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Pressão , Semicondutores , Suor/química , Suor/metabolismo
16.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(5): 824-827, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814321

RESUMO

Optical measurement of CFTR-dependent sweat secretion stimulated by a beta-adrenergic cocktail (C-phase) vs. CFTR-independent sweat secretion induced by methacholine (M-phase) can discriminate cystic fibrosis (CF) patientts from controls and healthy carriers by the ratio of sweat rate in the C-phase vs. the M-phase (C/M ratio). However, image analysis is experimentally demanding and time-consuming. Here, sweat droplet number (SDN) in the C-phase, corresponding to the number of sweat-secreting glands, was a statistically significant predictor for detecting the effects of CFTR-targeted therapy. We show that in 44 non-CF subjects and 110 CF patients, SDN in the C-phase provides a linear readout of CFTR function that is more sensitive than that using the C/M ratio. In CF patients, increased SDN in the C-phase during treatment with (LUMA/IVA) was associated with a trend toward improved lung function (FEV1). Our method is suitable for multicenter monitoring of the effects of CFTR modulators.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/fisiologia , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Glândulas Sudoríparas/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Óptica e Fotônica , Suor/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Sudoríparas/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Anat ; 239(2): 529-535, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686663

RESUMO

Alternative roles for sweat production beyond thermoregulation, considered less frequently, include chemical signaling. We identified the presence of a well-established rodent urinary pheromone, major urinary protein (MUP) in sweat ductules of the footpad dermal skin of mice. A hindpaw sweat proteomic analysis in hindpaw sweat samples collected in rats and generated by unmyelinated axon activation, identified seven lipocalin family members including MUP and 19 additional unique proteins. Behavioural responses to sniffing male mouse foot protein lysates suggested avoidance in a subset of male mice, but were not definitive. Rodent hindpaw sweat glands secrete a repertoire of proteins that include MUPs known to have roles in olfactory communication.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Proteínas/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Animais , Membro Posterior , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4929, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654133

RESUMO

The lactate threshold (LT1), which is defined as the first rise in lactate concentration during incremental exercise, has not been non-invasively and conveniently determined in a clinical setting. We aimed to visualize changes in lactate concentration in sweat during exercise using our wearable lactate sensor and investigate the relationship between the lactate threshold (LT1) and ventilatory threshold (VT1). Twenty-three healthy subjects and 42 patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were enrolled. During exercise, the dynamic changes in lactate values in sweat were visualized in real-time with a sharp continuous increase up to volitional exhaustion and a gradual decrease during the recovery period. The LT1 in sweat was well correlated with the LT1 in blood and the VT1 (r = 0.92 and 0.71, respectively). In addition, the Bland-Altman plot described no bias between the mean values (mean differences: - 4.5 and 2.5 W, respectively). Continuous monitoring of lactate concentrations during exercise can provide additional information for detecting the VT1.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1823, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758197

RESUMO

The body naturally and continuously secretes sweat for thermoregulation during sedentary and routine activities at rates that can reflect underlying health conditions, including nerve damage, autonomic and metabolic disorders, and chronic stress. However, low secretion rates and evaporation pose challenges for collecting resting thermoregulatory sweat for non-invasive analysis of body physiology. Here we present wearable patches for continuous sweat monitoring at rest, using microfluidics to combat evaporation and enable selective monitoring of secretion rate. We integrate hydrophilic fillers for rapid sweat uptake into the sensing channel, reducing required sweat accumulation time towards real-time measurement. Along with sweat rate sensors, we integrate electrochemical sensors for pH, Cl-, and levodopa monitoring. We demonstrate patch functionality for dynamic sweat analysis related to routine activities, stress events, hypoglycemia-induced sweating, and Parkinson's disease. By enabling sweat analysis compatible with sedentary, routine, and daily activities, these patches enable continuous, autonomous monitoring of body physiology at rest.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Levodopa/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Descanso/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Suor/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
20.
Exp Physiol ; 106(4): 972-982, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550621

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What are the mechanisms by which equine sweat glands transport sodium, potassium and water into sweat? What is the main finding and its importance? The flux of sodium into sweat does not have an active transport component, the flux of potassium into sweat is partially dependent on an active transport mechanism, and there is no evidence for paracellular transport. ABSTRACT: In two series of experiments, this study used radioactive sodium (Na+ ) and potassium (K+ ) to trace the net flux, and calculate the unidirectional fluxes, of these ions from extracellular fluid into sweat of horses during exercise and recovery. The effect of an oral electrolyte supplement (PNW) on the sweating responses and ion fluxes was also examined. Compared to 8 litres of water (controls), provision of 8 litres of PNW resulted in significantly increased sweating duration (P < 0.001). Two hours before exercise, 99 Tc-labelled diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) was administered i.v. to determine if there was paracellular flux of this molecule in sweat glands during the period of sweating. One hour before beginning moderate-intensity exercise, horses were nasogastrically administered either 24 Na (1-3 litres) or 42 K (8 litres) with water (control) or an electrolyte supplement. Both radiotracers appeared in sweat within 10 min of exercise onset, and the sweat specific activity of both ions increased during exercise (P < 0.001), approaching plasma specific activities. There was no appearance of 99 Tc-DTPA in sweat. The activities of 24 Na and 42 K, together with the concentrations Na+ , K+ and Cl- , argued against significant paracellular flux of these ions into the lumen of sweat glands. The flux analysis for 24 Na indicated a small intracellular pool within sweat gland cells, and no evidence for an active transport component. The flux analysis for 42 K indicated a relatively large intracellular equilibration pool within sweat gland cells, with evidence for an active transport component. The results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of sweat gland epithelial cell ion transport mechanisms at both the basal and the apical membranes. It appears likely that the majority of ions appearing in sweat pass through sweat gland epithelial cells by transcellular mechanisms that include ion transporting pathways as well as apical vesicular exocytosis.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal , Suor , Animais , Cloretos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Suor/metabolismo , Sudorese , Água
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