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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4865-4876, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypoxia promotes tumor proliferation and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Since the tumor microenvironment is generally characterized by hypoxia, its understanding is important for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that hypoxia promotes the mitochondrial function, mobility, and proliferation of CRC by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the effects of PGC-1α under hypoxia, we investigated the mitochondrial function, cell motility, and sphere formation as well as proliferation and apoptosis of CRC. RESULTS: Under hypoxia, we confirmed the increased expression of PGC-1α and reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Also, up-regulation of PGC-1α enhanced the motility, sphere formation, and proliferation of CRC. Under the presence of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), up-regulation of PGC-1α under hypoxia promoted resistance of CRC against 5FU-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Targeting PGC-1α could to be a powerful strategy for CRC therapy.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Apoptose , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. METHODS: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. RESULTS: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. CONCLUSION: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pyracantha/química , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180395, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432900

RESUMO

The aquatic environment presents daily and/or seasonal variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. Piava faces different DO levels in the water due to its distributional characteristics. The goal of this study was to describe the effects of low DO levels on plasma ion, biochemical and oxidative variables in piava juveniles. Fish were exposed to different DO levels, including 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg L-1 of DO for 96 h, after which blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, gill and muscle) were collected. The decrease in DO levels decreased plasma Na+, Cl-, K+ and NH3 levels as well as protein and glycogen levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney as well as glucose and ammonia levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; and increased lactate levels in the kidney and muscle. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, catalase and non-protein thiol levels decreased in the tissues of piavas exposed to low DO levels. It is concluded that piava can apparently cope with hypoxic conditions; however, low DO levels are a stressor, and the tolerance of piava to hypoxia involves iono-regulatory, metabolic and oxidative adjustments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Caraciformes/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 118-126, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400773

RESUMO

In the plant-insect arms race, plants synthesize toxic compounds to defend against herbivorous insects, whereas insects employ cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) to detoxify these phytotoxins. As ubiquitous environmental contaminants, heavy metals can be easily absorbed by plants and further accumulated in herbivorous insects through the food chains, resulting in tangible consequences for plant-insect interactions. However, whether heavy metals can influence P450 activities and thereby cause further effects on larval tolerance to phytotoxins remains unknown. In this study, we shown that prior exposure to copper (Cu) enhanced larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in Spodoptera litura, a major polyphagous pest of agriculture. P450 activities were induced in larvae exposed to Cu or xanthotoxin, and a midgut specific expressed P450 gene, CYP6B50 was cross-induced after exposure to these two toxic xenobiotics. Knocking down CYP6B50 by RNA interference (RNAi) rendered the larvae more sensitive to xanthotoxin. As defense against oxidative stress following metal exposure has been demonstrated to affect insecticide resistance, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed. Cu exposure caused the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in larval midgut. In addition, two antioxidant response elements (AREs) were identified from the CYP6B50 promoter, indicating that Cu-induced CYP6B50 expression may be related to the ROS burst. Application of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively suppressed CYP6B50 expression, inhibited P450 activities and impaired larval tolerance to xanthotoxin that had been induced by Cu. These results indicate that the increase in CYP6B50 expression regulated by Cu-induced H2O2 generation contributed to the enhancement of larval tolerance to xanthotoxin in S. litura. Ingestion of heavy metals from their host plants can inadvertently boost the counter-defense system of herbivorous insects to protect themselves against plant defensive toxins.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metoxaleno/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/genética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378349

RESUMO

Triflumizole is one of imidazole fungicides that works by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, and is widely used for the control of powdery mildew and scabs on various fruits and crops. Triflumizole residue has been frequently detected in soil and aquatic ecosystems. While many studies have focused on its toxic effect on terrestrial and aquatic animals, little attention has been paid to aquatic algae, the primary producers of aquatic environments. Therefore, we evaluated the acute (96 h) toxicity effects of triflumizole on the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris, by examining growth, cell morphology, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress. The results showed that the 96 h median inhibition concentration (96 h-EC50) was 0.82 mg/L (95% confidential interval 0.70-0.98 mg/L).The growth of algal cells was conspicuously inhibited by triflumizole exposure, and the cell surfaces appeared to be shrunkThe chlorophyll content (including Chl-a, Chl-b and T-Chl) dramatically decreased at triflumizole concentrations of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/L. In addition, the transcript abundance of photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbC and rbcL) showed obvious decreases in above treatments after 96 h of exposure to triflumizole. Moreover, the algal growth inhibition was accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content, as well as increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicating oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Our findings reveal that triflumizole has potential toxicity to the primary producers (freshwater algae) in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108777, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376360

RESUMO

Nicorandil ameliorated doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity; this study aimed to show and explain the mechanism of this protection. A precise method was elucidated to study the effect of nicorandil on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats depending on the critical inflammation pathway TLR4/MAPK P38/NFκ-B. Adult male rats were subdivided into four groups. The 1st group was normal control, the 2nd group received nicorandil (3 mg/kg; p.o., for 4 weeks), the 3rd group received doxorubicin (2.6 mg/kg, i.p., twice per week for 4 weeks), and the fourth group was combination of doxorubicin and nicorandil for 4 weeks. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests through measuring Kidney function biomarkers such as [serum levels of urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein] besides renal kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and cystatin C], oxidative stress parameters such as [renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), SOD, catalase and nrf-2], mediators of inflammation such as [Toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4), Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), p38 MAPK, Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 ß), and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] and markers of apoptosis [BAX and Bcl-2 in renal tissue]. Finally, our data were supported by histopathology examination. Nicorandil pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in nephrotoxicity biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory mediators and prevented apoptosis through decreasing BAX and increasing Bcl-2 in renal tissues. Nicorandil prevented all the histological alterations caused by doxorubicin. Nicorandil is a promising antidote against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity by neutralizing all toxicity mechanisms caused by doxorubicin through normalizing inflammatory cascade of TLR4/MAPK P38/NFκ-B.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicorandil/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 234: 116780, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430453

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma and obesity are common health problems. Obesity is already responsible for 300,000 deaths per year. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess whether apocynin, alpha lipoic acid and probiotic administration in combination with low-fat diet supplementation influences the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. MAIN METHODS: The study was performed on male C57/BL6 mice divided into 10 groups: (I) control; (II) asthma; (III) obesity; (IV) asthma + obesity; (V) asthma + obesity + apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (VI) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks; (VII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day; (VIII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet with probiotics for 12 weeks; (IX) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with lipoic acid p.o. 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (X) asthma + obesity + standard diet with probiotics for 12 weeks. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were examined. The administration of apocynin alone and apocynin in combination with a low-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in SOD values (respectively p < 0.001; p = 0.010). Application of probiotics resulted in a decrease in CAT activity (p = 0.037) and an increase in GPx activity (p < 0.001) compared to obese asthmatic mice. The administration of lipoic acid resulted in an increase in GR activity (p = 0.024 vs. control). KEY FINDINGS: Supplementation containing apocynin, lipoic acid and probiotics has a positive influence on the antioxidant capacity of the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(8): 569-575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379179

RESUMO

AIM: Oxidative and nitrosative stress triggers an extensive damage to the tissues. Many herbal and chemical medicines have claimed to possess antioxidant properties. Arbutin exists in some plants such as Pyrus Biossierana Bushe. In this study, an inhibitory effect of arbutin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity was studied using SYTOX TM Green assay for cell viability. The antioxidant effects of arbutin on the generation of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, activity of oxidative enzyme (Superoxide dismutase and catalyze) and the amount of total thiol in Hep-G2 cells exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide were evaluated. METHODS: Hep-G2 cells were cultured in 24-well plates. After 24 hours, the cells were pretreated with the arbutin at different concentrations (0, 100 and 150 µM). 24 hours later, tert-butyl hydroperoxide at different concentrations (0, 150, 200 and 250 µM) was added into the culture media. RESULTS: Arbutin was able to decrease malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations in arbutin treated group in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001). The catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in these cells were significantly decreased in a dose depend manner in the presence of arbutin in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001). In addition, arbutin was capable of increasing the tert-butyl hydroperoxide mediated reduction in the total thiol amount in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001.) CONCLUSION: Our investigation demonstrated that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evoked a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overproduction in Hep-G2 cells. The cells treated with arbutin showed a dose-dependent reduction of tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation (Fig. 6, Ref. 34).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arbutina/farmacologia , Estresse Nitrosativo , Estresse Oxidativo , Catalase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107747, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442454

RESUMO

Development of new chemotherapeutic agents is an essential issue in the treatment and control of a disease. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial activity of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic class III drug, against Leishmania major, the most prevalent etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the old world. The proliferation of promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in the absence or presence of amiodarone was estimated, in an in vitro study. For in vivo study, five weeks after infection of BALB/c mice with L. major, when the lesions appeared at the injection site, the mice were divided into four groups (n = 6 each); treatment was conducted for 28 consecutive days with vehicle, amiodarone at 40 mg/kg orally and glucantime at 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Therapy with amiodarone reduced the size of lesions compared to the untreated group after 12 days. Amiodarone decreased the parasite load and inflammatory responses, particularly the macrophages containing amastigotes, and enhanced granulation tissue formation in the dermis and subcutaneous area. The Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 levels were significantly lower in the cell culture supernatants of the inguinal lymph node in the amiodarone treated group compared to the vehicle and untreated groups. Amiodarone significantly increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in comparison to the vehicle and untreated groups but did not affect the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, adiponectin, and ferric reducing ability of plasma. Therefore, the anti- L. major activity and immunomodulatory effects of amiodarone reduced the parasitic load and enhanced wound healing in cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Amiodarone reduced the lesion surface area, but it did not cure it completely.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Adiponectina/sangue , Amiodarona/farmacologia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interleucina-6/análise , Leishmania major/ultraestrutura , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Linfonodos/química , Linfonodos/imunologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Malondialdeído/sangue , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
11.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers. METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pironas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofórmio/química , Flores/química , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Pironas/farmacologia , Solventes , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 305-316, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310064

RESUMO

Ambient temperature is an important factor influencing many physiological processes, including antioxidant defense and immunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant defense and immunity are suppressed by high and low temperature treatment in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Thirty male voles were randomly assigned into different temperature groups (4, 23, and 32 °C, n=10 for each group), with the treatment course lasting for 27 d. Results showed that low temperature increased gross energy intake (GEI) and liver, heart, and kidney mass, but decreased body fat mass and dry carcass mass. With the decline in temperature, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, which is indicative of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increased in the liver, decreased in the heart, and was unchanged in the kidney, testis, and small intestine. Lipid peroxidation indicated by malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the liver, heart, kidney, testis, and small intestine did not differ among groups, implying that high and low temperature did not cause oxidative damage. Similarly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the five tissues did not respond to low or high temperature, except for elevation of CAT activity in the testis upon cold exposure. Bacteria killing capacity, which is indicative of innate immunity, was nearly suppressed in the 4 °C group in contrast to the 23 °C group, whereas spleen mass and white blood cells were unaffected by temperature treatment. The levels of testosterone, but not corticosterone, were influenced by temperature treatment, though neither were correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, or SOD, CAT, and T-AOC activity in any detected tissues. Overall, these results showed that temperature had different influences on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and immunity, which depended on the tissues and parameters tested. Up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defense might be an important mechanism for voles to survive highly variable environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 466-473, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331442

RESUMO

Removal of bio-accumulated pesticides in edible fish is a global problem. In this study, we tested protective capability of a phytochemical pelargonidin-loaded non-toxic, biodegradable poly-lactide-co-glycolide nano-particles (NPG) against toxicity induced by a pesticide cypermethrin (CM) in a fish model (Oreochromis mossambica) in vivo and also in L6 muscle cell line, in vitro. First we assessed potential sustainable release of nanoparticles following oral administration of NPG to fish, their ability to cross sub-cellular membranes in several tissues and efficacy to cross blood-brain-barrier. Next, protective ability of NPG, if any, against CM in fish was evaluated deploying parameters like % cell viability, DNA damage in muscle cells and modulation of anti-oxidative-enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidase. Modulation of reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear condensation and alteration in stress related protein signalling cascade were assessed in L6 cells. Results revealed that NPG had nano-size range (~10-12 nm) and negative zeta potential (-17 mV). Bioavailability and distribution of NPG could be followed by spectrophotometric absorbance of pelargonidin at 293 nm from 6 h onward till 24 h in all important tissues including the brain. Thus, 0.5 mg/g b.w. NPG could demonstrate protective ability in CM-intoxicated fish muscle cells in respect of % cell viability, DNA damage and stress related enzymes. Similar alterations could also be found in signalling protein cascade in L6 cells in response to treatment of 5 µg/ml NPG against CM-induced toxicity and depletion of overall ROS generation and nuclear condensation. Therefore, NPG could be used as a potential drug in management of pesticide toxicity in cultured edible fish.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Life Sci ; 232: 116677, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340166

RESUMO

AIMS: Senescence is a state ensuing aging to eliminate age-associated damage with an irreversible cell-cycle arrest mechanism, which is historically believed to be one of the tumor responses to therapy. Doxorubicin as an anti-cancer drug has been used in cancer treatment for a long time. Liposomal doxorubicin (Ldox) is a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin, which increases the doxorubicin permanency. The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity of these two formulations by comparing them in terms of their ability to induce cellular senescence. MAIN METHODS: The study groups included a control group, three DOX (0.75, 0.5, 0.1 mg/kg/BW) and three Ldox groups (0.1, 0.05, 0.025 mg/kg/BW). Heart tissues were studied regarding oxidative stress assessment, mitochondrial function, inflammatory markers and biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Real-Time PCR was used for P53 and SA ß-gal expression. KEY FINDINGS: Based on the results, the highest doses of Dox and Ldox (0.75 and 0.1 mg/kg/BW respectively) significantly increased the level of inflammatory markers and according to other factors especially p53 and SA ß-gal expression, both were able to induce senescence but the changes in Ldox were less tangible than the Dox.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Chemosphere ; 233: 920-935, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340420

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the impacts of different concentrations of GO/PANI nanocomposites (25, 50 and 100 mg L-1), in comparison with GO and PANI, on seed germination behaviors, morpho-physiological and biochemical traits in intact (mucilaginous) and demucilaged seeds, and young seedlings of the medicinal plant Salvia mirzayanii. Upon exposure to GO, seed germination was delayed and reduced, and growth attributes (root and shoot length, shoot fresh weight, and total chlorophyll content) declined, all of which could be attributed to the reductions in water uptake and oxidative stress particularly in demucilaged seeds. A hormetic dose-dependent response was observed for the growth traits in both intact and demucilaged seedlings upon exposure to GO/PANI concentrations, i.e. low-concentration stimulation and high-concentration repression. Elevated levels of H2O2 in shoot tissue of the seedlings exposed to GO and high concentration of GO/PANI, in comparison with those exposed to low levels of GO/PANI and control, were linked with the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, POD, and total phenolics. Overall, the results showed high toxicity of GO on germination and early growth of S. mirzayani that was more evident in demucilaged seedlings, whereas GO/PANI stimulated germination, and the effects on seedling growth were stimulatory or inhibitory depending on the application dose and presence of mucilage. Furthermore, the capacity of GO/PANI nanocomposites to improve germination and cause a regular porosity pattern in roots accompanied by improved water uptake and early establishment of S. mirzayanii propose potential implications of GO/PANI nanocomposites for seeds/plants in drought-prone ecosystems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/toxicidade , Salvia/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Nanocompostos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucilagem Vegetal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Água
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125093, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260960

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ozonation process on the level of oxidative stress markers in raspberries stored at room temperature. Raspberry fruit was ozonated with an ozone concentration of 8-10 ppm for 30 min, every 12 h, for 72 h of storage at room temperature. Research showed that ozonated raspberries were characterized by higher activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. In turn, the ability to generate superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide by ozone-treated fruit was significantly lower than in the control sample due to higher activities of ROS detoxification systems.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 812-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201723

RESUMO

Sanghuangporus sanghuang is a well-known pharmacodynamic and economically important edible fungus associated with mulberry (Morus spp.). A distinctly new exopolysaccharide (EPS), designated SHP-2 was obtained from S. sanghuang P0988 broth, and its structure and anti-aging prosperity were characterized. SHP-2 was found to be composed of a back-bone of →4)-ß-Manp-(1→4)-α-Araf-(1→3,4)-α-Glcp(1→3,4)-α-Glcp-(1→3,4)-α-Glcp-(1→3,4)-α-Glcp-(1→3,4)-α-Glcp-(1→6)-α-Galp-(1→4)-ß-Manp-(1→ and five branches, including four α-D-Glcp-(1→ and one α-D-Manp-(1→SHP-2 was shown to increase antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, as well as trolox equivalent antioxidant (TEAC) capacity in serum of mice pre-treated with D-Gal, while reducing lipofuscin levels. SHP-2 exerted a favorable influence on immune organ coefficients and ameliorated the histopathological hepatic lesions and apoptosis in hepatocytes of D-galactose-aged mice almost in a dose-dependent manner. Using the same analytical methods, on comparison with previously studied EPS compounds (i.e. SHP-1), SHP-2 was found to have more complex structure, larger molecule weight, and different anti-aging properties. The results presented here suggest that not only does EPS bioactivity vary with respect to molecular structures and molecule weight, but that multiple structures with different activity can be expressed by a single fungal strain. These results may help understanding the anti-aging prosperity of these polysaccharides for use in health foods or dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 984-989, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234266

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widely used plasticizer, is reported to have widespread environmental and global health hazards. Trace amounts of phthalates in the environment are sufficient to disrupt ecological balance and affect human health. However, DEHP-induced splenic toxicity remains in an unknown state. Therefore, to explore the mechanism of DEHP-induced splenic toxicity, male quail were employed with 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight DEHP by daily gastric perfusion for 45 days. Notably, splenic corpuscular border and cell gap enlargement were observed in the spleen tissue of DEHP-exposed quail under the histopathological analysis. Furthermore, DEHP induced dysregulation of oxidative stress markers by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities. Low concentration of DEHP (≤250 mg/kg) exposure suppressed nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, while high concentration of DEHP (≥500 mg/kg) exposure activated Nrf2-mediated defense response. DEHP induced splenic oxidative stress via interfering Nrf2 signal pathway and altering the transcription of its downstream genes. In conclusion, this study suggested that DEHP induced splenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Baço/patologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 144, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera, also known as horseradish tree or drumstick tree, has strong antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of Moringa oleifera stem extract (MOSE) on cataract formation induced by oxidative stress in cultured mouse lenses. METHODS: Mouse lenses cultured in vitro were pretreated with MOSE (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h. Then, 1 mM hydrogen peroxide was added, and mouse lenses were cultured for a further 24 h. The medium was then changed to normal culture medium. After 48 h, lens opacification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in lens tissues. In addition, the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor with potential benefits to improve vision-threatening eye diseases, was assayed. RESULTS: MOSE (1 mg/mL) alleviated lens opacification, reduced ROS generation, increased GSH content, and elevated SOD and CAT activities in cultured lenses. Moreover, MOSE upregulated the expressions of SOD, CAT, and PPARα. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MOSE alleviates oxidative stress-induced cataract formation, and the mechanism of the effect is mainly related to its improvement of the endogenous antioxidant system in the lens.


Assuntos
Catarata/tratamento farmacológico , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Catarata/induzido quimicamente , Glutationa/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124903, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253345

RESUMO

Although refrigeration is commonly used in the storage of 'Nanguo' pears (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.), long-term refrigeration can result in browning of the pericarp. In this study, we aimed to determine how γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) affects the mitochondrial oxidation defense system in 'Nanguo' pears and how it might be used to prevent post-refrigeration peel browning. We found that fruit treated with GABA browned slower, and had lower browning indices and reactive oxygen and malondialdehyde content; increased peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, alternating oxidase, and catalase enzyme activities; and heightened enzyme-related gene expression. The mitochondria of GABA-treated fruit also showed less damage following cold storage, and there were decreases in mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore concentrations. Furthermore, we detected an increase in the endogenous GABA content of fruits following GABA treatment. These observations indicate that, by regulating the mitochondrial oxidative defense system and maintaining mitochondrial structure, GABA is effective in terms of reducing peel browning.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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