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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 96-107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474657

RESUMO

LC/Tribrid Orbitrap was developed to determine phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogs as adulterants in dietary supplements. High-resolution MS/MS and MS3 spectra of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs were obtained by LC/Tribrid Orbitrap using both higher-energy collisional dissociation and collision-induced dissociation. We investigated dietary supplements that claim to enhance men's sexual performance, and detected PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs. We also estimated the structures of the PDE-5 inhibitor analogs and the impurities of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs in the dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eRB4898, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508659

RESUMO

Alongside a proper diet, ergogenic aids with potential direct and/or indirect physical performance enhancing effects are sought after for improved adaptation to physical training. Nutritional ergogenics include diet composition changes and/or dietary supplementation. Branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are widely popular among products with ergogenic claims. Their major marketing appeal derives from allegations that branched-chain amino acids intake combined with resistance physical exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Evidence supporting the efficacy of branched-chain amino acids alone for muscle hypertrophy in humans is somewhat equivocal. This brief review describes physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effects of complete protein source and branched-chain amino acid intake on skeletal muscle growth in the postabsorptive and post-exercise state. Evidence in favor of or against potential anabolic effects of isolated branched-chain amino acid intake on muscle protein synthesis in humans is also examined.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(11): 1035-1045, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that maternal supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the incidence of preterm delivery but may also prolong gestation beyond term; however, more data are needed regarding the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial in which women who were pregnant with single or multiple fetuses were assigned to receive either fish-oil capsules that contained 900 mg of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 group) or vegetable-oil capsules that contained trace n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (control group) daily, beginning before 20 weeks of gestation and continuing to 34 weeks of gestation or delivery, whichever occurred first. The primary outcome was early preterm delivery, defined as delivery before 34 completed weeks of gestation. Other pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 5544 pregnancies in 5517 women were randomly assigned at six centers in Australia; 5486 pregnancies were included in the primary analysis. Early preterm delivery occurred in the case of 61 of 2734 pregnancies (2.2%) in the n-3 group and 55 of 2752 pregnancies (2.0%) in the control group; the between-group difference was not significant (adjusted relative risk, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.63; P = 0.50). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of interventions in post-term (>41 weeks of gestation) deliveries, in adverse events, or in other pregnancy or neonatal outcomes, except that a higher percentage of infants born to women in the n-3 group than in the control group were very large for gestational age at birth (adjusted relative risk, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.65). Percentages of serious adverse events did not differ between the groups. Minor gastrointestinal disturbances were more commonly reported in the n-3 group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from early pregnancy (<20 weeks of gestation) until 34 weeks of gestation did not result in a lower incidence of early preterm delivery or a higher incidence of interventions in post-term deliveries than control. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and the Thyne Reid Foundation; ORIP Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12613001142729.).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17095, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in stroke risk has been investigated, however, the available results are inconclusive and conflicting. The purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of folic acid in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: By searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate effect of folic acid supplementation in patients with CVD. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were summarized; hazard ratios (HR), the relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Fixed effects models were used to combine the data. A total of 12 randomized controlled trials, which involved 47,523 participants, met the inclusion criteria in this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis showed that cardiovascular patients who received folic acid therapy had significantly decreased risk of stroke (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94, Pheterogeneity = .347, I = 10.6%) compared with patients who received control treatment. However, no significant difference in all-cause mortality (HR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.86-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .315, I = 15.4%), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.66-1.15, Pheterogeneity = .567, I = 0) and risk of CHD (RR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.99-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .725, I = 0) were found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke in patients with CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4627-4635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519560

RESUMO

In the clinical setting, administration of high daily or bolus doses of vitamin D is often solely based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] testing. This review summarizes the evidence of the effect of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that CVD risk markers, such as lipid parameters, inflammation markers, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness, are largely unaffected by vitamin D supplementation. Similar results have been obtained regarding CVD events and mortality from (meta)-analyses of RCTs, even in subgroups with 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. Likewise, Mendelian randomization studies have indicated that the genetic reduction of the 25(OH)D concentration does not increase CVD risk. Some studies do not exclude the possibility of adverse vitamin D effects, such as elevated plasma calcium concentration and an increased CVD risk at a 25(OH)D concentration >125 nmol/l. Based on a conservative benefit-risk management approach, vitamin D doses beyond the nutritionally recommended amounts of 600 to 800 IE daily currently cannot be advised for the prevention of CVD events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
6.
BMJ ; 366: l5016, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment, vitamin supplementation, and garlic supplementation in the prevention of gastric cancer. DESIGN: Blinded randomized placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Linqu County, Shandong province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 3365 residents of a high risk region for gastric cancer. 2258 participants seropositive for antibodies to H pylori were randomly assigned to H pylori treatment, vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2×2 factorial design, and 1107 H pylori seronegative participants were randomly assigned to vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2 factorial design. INTERVENTIONS: H pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole for two weeks; vitamin (C, E, and selenium) and garlic (extract and oil) supplementation for 7.3 years (1995-2003). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were cumulative incidence of gastric cancer identified through scheduled gastroscopies and active clinical follow-up through 2017, and deaths due to gastric cancer ascertained from death certificates and hospital records. Secondary outcomes were associations with other cause specific deaths, including cancers or cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: 151 incident cases of gastric cancer and 94 deaths from gastric cancer were identified during 1995-2017. A protective effect of H pylori treatment on gastric cancer incidence persisted 22 years post-intervention (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.71). Incidence decreased significantly with vitamin supplementation but not with garlic supplementation (0.64, 0.46 to 0.91 and 0.81, 0.57 to 1.13, respectively). All three interventions showed significant reductions in gastric cancer mortality: fully adjusted hazard ratio for H pylori treatment was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.99), for vitamin supplementation was 0.48 (0.31 to 0.75), and for garlic supplementation was 0.66 (0.43 to 1.00). Effects of H pylori treatment on both gastric cancer incidence and mortality and of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer mortality appeared early, but the effects of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and of garlic supplementation only appeared later. No statistically significant associations were found between interventions and other cancers or cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori treatment for two weeks and vitamin or garlic supplementation for seven years were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of death due to gastric cancer for more than 22 years. H pylori treatment and vitamin supplementation were also associated with a statistically significantly reduced incidence of gastric cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339768.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/terapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alho/química , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastroscopia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/microbiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 33(2): 4-11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476135

RESUMO

Background: Graves' disease is known as a chronic and incurable disease. The typical treatment is symptom-based and consists of medications, radioiodine, or surgery. These last two treatments are routinely offered to the 50% of patients that do not respond to drug therapy. Here we report the case of a patient who was able to normalize her thyroid hormones as well as her autoimmune markers in 6 months with the exclusive implementation of lifestyle interventions. Summary: A 34-year-old Dutch, Caucasian female diagnosed with Graves' disease since 2014 implemented lifestyle modifications, which included dietary change to an ancestral type of diet, oral health interventions, practice of kundalini yoga, avoidance of environmental toxicants (by only eating organic food, drinking filtered water, and using natural products to clean her house or for her personal hygiene) and supportive supplements when necessary. The patient did not take any antithyroid drugs or beta-blockers during this period nor any other type of medication that could have had immunosuppressant effects. After 6 months of engaging in these lifestyle interventions, her thyroid analysis normalized and no anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies were negative. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that Graves' disease can effectively be put into lasting remission without conventional medical interventions. It also emphasizes the importance of a healthy lifestyle as a first line intervention for all patients but especially in the particular case of patients suffering from Graves' disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Graves , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Antitireóideos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Doença de Graves/terapia , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Ioga
9.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(4): e2238, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the peel of Camu-Camu, a fruit plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon basin, with those of sleeve gastrectomy, on the weight and glycemia of Wistar rats. METHODS: twenty-four Wistar rats underwent obesity induction through a hyperlipid diet for eight weeks (fat period), and were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Camu-Camu Group (CCG) and Bariatric Surgery Group (BSG). After this period, all animals returned to a normal diet and the intervention period began: CG did not undergo any intervention beyond diet change; CCG animals underwent gavage procedure for administration of Camu-Camu hydroalcoholic extract, 1g/kg/day, for four weeks; and the BSG was submitted to the surgical procedure of sleeve gastrectomy. We followed all animals for four weeks. RESULTS: there was only one loss in BSG due to a gastric fistula. We observed significant variations in the animals' mean weight: the CG evolved with weight gain even after the withdraw of the hypercaloric diet, while the other two groups presented weight reduction. BSG presented a significant reduction of weight and BMI (p<0.05); CCG achieved a significant reduction only of the BMI (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in the glycemic levels. CONCLUSION: in spite of reducing weight, the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the Camu-Camu peel was not able to be as efficient as sleeve gastrectomy in the control of body weight in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Masculino , Terapia Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46710

RESUMO

Medida reforça alimentação nos primeiros anos de vida com adição direta de vitaminas e minerais em pó aos alimentos.


Assuntos
Nutrição do Lactente , Sistema Único de Saúde , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Infantis
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46711

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de prevenir anemia e controlar carências nutricionais na infância, o Ministério da Saúde realizou nesta segunda-feira (2) o lançamento nacional do NutriSUS, estratégia que beneficiará mais de 330 mil crianças de 1.717 municípios brasileiros. Para a ação, que estará presente em 6.864 creches, o Ministério da Saúde investiu R$ 7,5 milhões para a aquisição de sachês de vitaminas e minerais que irão fortificar a alimentação ofertada nas creches participantes do Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE). Para 2015 está previsto um investimento de R$ 12,5 milhões para a compra de 40 milhões de sachês. Os sachês multivitamínicos da ação, feita em parceria com o Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social (MDS) e Ministério da Educação, começarão a ser utilizados na suplementação das crianças já no primeiro semestre do ano letivo.


Assuntos
Nutrição do Lactente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Único de Saúde
12.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46712

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de potencializar o pleno desenvolvimento infantil, a prevenção e o controle das deficiências de vitaminas e minerais na infância, o Ministério da Saúde lança o programa NutriSUS - Estratégia de fortificação da alimentação infantil com micronutrientes (vitaminas e minerais) em pó. A coordenadora geral de Alimentação e Nutrição (CGAN) do Ministério da Saúde, Patrícia Jaime, explica que serão distribuídos, a partir de agosto, sachês com 15 micronutrientes na alimentação de crianças de seis meses a 3 anos e 11 meses matriculadas em creches participantes do Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE).


Assuntos
Nutrição do Lactente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Infantis , Sistema Único de Saúde
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10285-10295, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443611

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) is capable of promoting abnormal proliferation and differentiation in primary cultured mouse osteoblasts (OB cells), although the underlying mechanism responsible remains rare. This study aimed to explore the roles of wingless and INT-1 (Wnt) signaling pathways and screen appropriate doses of calcium (Ca2+) to alleviate the sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced OB cell toxicity. For this, we evaluated the effect of dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) and Ca2+ on mRNA levels of wingless/integrated 3a (Wnt3a), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), dishevelled 1 (Dv1), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß), ß-catenin, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (cMYC), as well as Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1) in OB cells challenged with 10-6 mol/L NaF for 24 h. The demonstrated data showed that F significantly increased the OB cell proliferation rate. Ectogenic 0.5 mg/L DKK1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of OB cells induced by F. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a, LRP5, Dv1, LEF1, ß-catenin, cMYC, and Ccnd1 were significantly increased in the F group, while significantly decreased in the 10-6 mol/L NaF + 0.5 mg/L DKK1 (FY) group. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a, LRP5, ß-catenin, and cMYC were significantly decreased in the 10-6 mol/L NaF + 2 mmol/L CaCl2 (F+CaII) group. The protein expression levels of Wnt3a, Cyclin D1, cMYC, and ß-catenin were significantly increased in the F group, whereas they were decreased in the F+CaII group. However, the mRNA and protein expression levels of GSK3ß were significantly decreased in the F group while significantly increased in the F+CaII group. In summary, F activated the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and changed the related gene expression and ß-catenin protein location in OB cells, promoting cell proliferation. Ca2+ supplementation (2 mmol/L) reversed the expression levels of genes and proteins related to the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/classificação , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/genética
14.
BMJ ; 366: l4673, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower mortality in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register from their inception to 26 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin D supplementation with a placebo or no treatment for mortality were included. Independent data extraction was conducted and study quality assessed. A meta-analysis was carried out by using fixed effects and random effects models to calculate risk ratio of death in the group receiving vitamin D supplementation and the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 52 trials with a total of 75 454 participants were identified. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all cause mortality (risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.02, I2=0%), cardiovascular mortality (0.98, 0.88 to 1.08, 0%), or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality (1.05, 0.93 to 1.18, 0%). Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death (0.84, 0.74 to 0.95, 0%). In subgroup analyses, all cause mortality was significantly lower in trials with vitamin D3 supplementation than in trials with vitamin D2 supplementation (P for interaction=0.04); neither vitamin D3 nor vitamin D2 was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation alone was not associated with all cause mortality in adults compared with placebo or no treatment. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%. Additional large clinical studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is associated with lower all cause mortality. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018117823.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Mortalidade , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1474-1475, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438188

RESUMO

Dietary supplements (DSs) have gained increased popularity for weight loss due to its availability without prescription, relatively low price, and ease of use. Consumers with limited health literacy may not adequately know the benefits and risks associated with DSs. In this project, we found a knowledge gap between reported benefits of major DSs by adults with obesity in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2014 and those reported in existing DS knowledge databases.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Perda de Peso
16.
Kardiologiia ; 59(7S): 4-14, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441736

RESUMO

The role of nutrition in the development and progression of atherosclerosis is well known. The correction of diet in patients with dyslipidemia is important as an independent intervention (in the group of patients with low and, partially, moderate cardiovascular risk), and as an addition to drug therapy in patients with at higher risk of cardiovascular events. The current review describes the effect of modern methods of diet therapy, as well as the use of a number of nutraceutical agents in terms of evidence-based medicine.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Dislipidemias , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 323-327, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437938

RESUMO

Despite the high consumption of dietary supplements (DS), few reliable, relevant, and comprehensive online resources could satisfy information seekers. This research study aims to understand consumer information needs on DS using topic modeling, and to evaluate accuracy in correctly identifying topics from social media. We retrieved 16,095 unique questions posted on Yahoo! Answers relating to 438 unique DS ingredients mentioned in sub-section, "Alternative medicine" under the section, "Health" . We implemented an unsupervised topic modeling method, Correlation Explanation (CorEx) to unveil the various topics in which consumers are most interested. We manually reviewed the keywords of all the 200 topics generated by CorEx and assigned them to 38 health-related categories, corresponding to 12 higher-level groups. We found high accuracy (90-100%) in identifying questions that correctly align with the selected topics. The results could guide us to generate a more comprehensive and structured DS resource based on consumers' information needs.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Suplementos Nutricionais
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 408-412, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437955

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements (DSs) is increasing in the U.S. As such, it is crucial for consumers, clinicians, and researchers to be able to find information about DS products. However, labeling regulations allow great variability in DS product names, which makes searching for this information difficult. Following the RxNorm drug name normalization model, we developed a rule-based natural language processing system to normalize DS product names using pattern templates. We evaluated the system on product names extracted from the Dietary Supplement Label Database. Our system generated 136 unique templates and obtained a coverage of 72%, a 32% increase over the existing RxNorm model. Manual review showed that our system achieved a normalization accuracy of 0.86. We found that the normalization of DS product names is feasible, but more work is required to improve the generalizability of the system.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , RxNorm , Bases de Dados Factuais , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415396

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with cytotoxicity and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high-proportion medium chain triglyceride (MCT) on body fat distribution and levels of leptin and adiponectin during chemotherapy of children with ALL.New-onset ALL children treated at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between March 2016 and March 2017 were enrolled. Children were divided into the MCT and control groups. For the MCT group, high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation was added to the diet, while no MCT was added for the control group. The MCT group was further divided into subgroups A and B based on the amount of supplement. Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, bone marrow concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio were measured before and on days 19 and 46 of chemotherapy. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured on admission and discharge.Waist circumference in the control group increased by day 46 (P = .047), but did not change in the MCT group. The BMI of the children in the control group was higher than those in the MCT group on admission (P = .003), but not different at discharge. No significant differences in hip circumference, leptin levels, adiponectin levels, and body weight were observed between the 2 groups.This preliminary study suggests that short-term supplementation of high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation may help reduce the centripetal distribution of adipose induced by the application of glucocorticoids in children with ALL. This will have to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 270, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common canine disease frequently treated with nutritional supplements that often lack independent verification of ingredients, active ingredient concentration, efficacy, or safety. Human supplements containing Boswellia serrata extracts (BSE) with high concentrations of active constituents 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (AKBA) and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (KBA) are bioavailable, safe, and efficacious in the alleviation of symptoms of naturally occurring osteoarthritis in people. Thus, oral AKBA and/or KBA supplementation could be a promising novel therapy for dogs with osteoarthritis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of AKBA and KBA within six human and seven canine market formulations containing BSE administered to dogs, using a derivation of the previously validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The secondary objective was to compare measured concentrations to label claims. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of AKBA and KBA within the formulations tested were 42.3 mg/g AF (0.1-155.7 mg/g AF) and 5.2 mg/g AF (0-24.8 mg/g AF), respectively, with four of the formulations containing an undetectable amount of KBA. None of the market formulations had a label claim for KBA. For the five tested formulations with a label claim for AKBA, the mean percentage of detected AKBA was 173% of the concentration listed on the label (range: 114-224%). Formulations claiming to contain AKBA had a mean AKBA concentration of 98.2 mg/g AF, significantly higher than formulations claiming only to contain BSE (7.4 mg/g AF; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a large variation of boswellic acid concentrations in market formulations claiming to contain BSE, with products claiming to contain AKBA containing higher concentrations of AKBA than other products. There was also a large variation in, and overall high, percent difference between label claims and measured concentrations of AKBA. All products met or exceeded label claims. However, differences between label amounts and detected concentrations confirm the need for independent laboratories to quantify concentrations of active ingredients in supplements containing BSE. This would be necessary prior to the use of these formulations in the research or clinical setting.


Assuntos
Boswellia/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cães
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