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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 383, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195883

RESUMO

Buffaloes contribute about 49% of total milk production and are considered as major milk-producing animals in India. During the early stage of lactation, mostly high producing animals suffer from negative energy balance (NEB) due to imbalance between the needs and availability of energy, and this NEB has a negative impact on production and health of buffaloes. Taking this into consideration, a study was conducted at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal on 20 freshly calved healthy Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Buffaloes were grouped depending on their previous milk yield, body weight, and parity as T0 (control), T1 (fatty acids), T2 (Tinospora), and T3 (mix) groups having five animals each. Supplementation of 150 g of bypass fatty acids in T1 group, 150 g of Tinospora powder in T2 group, and combination of 150 of bypass fatty acid and 150 g of Tinospora powder in T3 group over and above the standard feeding schedule was done for a duration of 90 days whereas standard feeding schedule was followed in T0 group. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in average daily milk yield was observed in T1 (10.06 ± 0.56 kg/d/h), T2 (10.30 ± 0.53 kg/d/h), and T3 (10.11 ± 0.48 kg/d/h) in comparison to control group (8.05 ± 0.38 kg/d/h). Significantly (P < 0.05) higher milk fat percent and total solids were also recorded in treatment groups over the control group. Other milk constituents (SNF, protein, lactose, ash) and milk properties (pH, conductivity, freezing point, density) remained unaffected by the supplementations. The somatic cell count values were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in T2 and T3 with the advancement in the lactation in comparison to T0 and T1. Supplementation also leads to significantly (P < 0.05) higher MUFA and PUFA contents in milk of treatment group buffaloes in comparison to control group. The study outcomes state that combination of bypass fatty acids and Tinospora cordifolia supplementation improves milk production and its composition in lactating Murrah buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Tinospora , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Índia , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202203

RESUMO

Lycopene is a well-known compound found commonly in tomatoes which brings wide range of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. From an anti-cancer perspective, lycopene is often associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer and people often look for it as a dietary supplement which may help to prevent cancer. Previous scientific evidence exhibited that the anti-cancer activity of lycopene relies on its ability to suppress oncogene expressions and induce proapoptotic pathways. To further explore the real potential of lycopene in cancer prevention, this review discusses the new insights and perspectives on the anti-cancer activities of lycopene which could help to drive new direction for research. The relationship between inflammation and cancer is being highlighted, whereby lycopene suppresses cancer via resolution of inflammation are also discussed herein. The immune system was found to be a part of the anti-cancer system of lycopene as it modulates immune cells to suppress tumor growth and progression. Lycopene, which is under the family of carotenoids, was found to play special role in suppressing lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Humanos , Licopeno/química , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209371

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum species (Syn. Fagara species) of the Rutaceae family are widely used in many countries as food and in trado-medicinal practice due to their wide geographical distribution and medicinal properties. Peer reviewed journal articles and ethnobotanical records that reported the traditional knowledge, phytoconstituents, biological activities and toxicological profiles of Z. species with a focus on metabolic and neuronal health were reviewed. It was observed that many of the plant species are used as food ingredients and in treating inflammation, pain, hypertension and brain diseases. Over 500 compounds have been isolated from Z. species, and the biological activities of both the plant extracts and their phytoconstituents, including their mechanisms of action, are discussed. The phytochemicals responsible for the biological activities of some of the species are yet to be identified. Similarly, biological activities of some isolated compounds remain unknown. Taken together, the Z. species extracts and compounds possess promising biological activities and should be further explored as potential sources of new nutraceuticals and drugs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Zanthoxylum/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zanthoxylum/classificação
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210093

RESUMO

The development of plant-based functional food ingredients has become a major focus of the modern food industry as a response to changes in consumer attitudes. In particular, many consumers are switching to a plant-based diet because of their concerns about animal-derived foods on the environment, human health, and animal welfare. There has therefore been great interest in identifying, isolating, and characterizing functional ingredients from botanical sources, especially waste streams from food and agricultural production. However, many of these functional ingredients cannot simply be incorporated into foods because of their poor solubility, stability, or activity characteristics. In this article, we begin by reviewing conventional and emerging methods of extracting plant-based bioactive agents from natural resources including ultrasound-, microwave-, pulsed electric field- and supercritical fluid-based methods. We then provide a brief overview of different methods to characterize these plant-derived ingredients, including conventional, chromatographic, spectroscopic, and mass spectrometry methods. Finally, we discuss the design of plant-based delivery systems to encapsulate, protect, and deliver these functional ingredients, including micelles, liposomes, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, and microgels. The potential benefits of these plant-based delivery systems are highlighted by discussing their use for incorporating functional ingredients into traditional meat products. However, the same technologies could also be employed to introduce functional ingredients into plant-based meat analogs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional , Produtos da Carne , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Humanos , Lipossomos
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220861

RESUMO

The world is currently experiencing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its global spread has resulted in millions of confirmed infections and deaths. While the global pandemic continues to grow, the availability of drugs to treat COVID-19 infections remains limited to supportive treatments. Moreover, the current speed of vaccination campaigns in many countries has been slow. Natural substrates with biological immunomodulatory activity, such as glucans, may represent an adjuvant therapeutic agent to treat SARS-CoV-2. AM3, a natural glycophosphopeptical, has previously been shown to effectively slow, with no side effects, the progression of infectious respiratory diseases by regulating effects on innate and adaptive immunity in experimental models. No clinical studies, however, exist on the use of AM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. This review aims to summarize the beneficial effects of AM3 on respiratory diseases, the inflammatory response, modulation of immune response, and attenuation of muscle. It will also discuss its potential effects as an immune system adjuvant for the treatment of COVID-19 infections and adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , COVID-19/dietoterapia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicopeptídeos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205534

RESUMO

Until recently, glia were considered to be a structural support for neurons, however further investigations showed that glial cells are equally as important as neurons. Among many different types of glia, enteric glial cells (EGCs) found in the gastrointestinal tract, have been significantly underestimated, but proved to play an essential role in neuroprotection, immune system modulation and many other functions. They are also said to be remarkably altered in different physiopathological conditions. A nutraceutical is defined as any food substance or part of a food that provides medical or health benefits, including prevention and treatment of the disease. Following the description of these interesting peripheral glial cells and highlighting their role in physiological and pathological changes, this article reviews all the studies on the effects of nutraceuticals as modulators of their functions. Currently there are only a few studies available concerning the effects of nutraceuticals on EGCs. Most of them evaluated molecules with antioxidant properties in systemic conditions, whereas only a few studies have been performed using models of gastrointestinal disorders. Despite the scarcity of studies on the topic, all agree that nutraceuticals have the potential to be an interesting alternative in the prevention and/or treatment of enteric gliopathies (of systemic or local etiology) and their associated gastrointestinal conditions.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205731

RESUMO

In recent years, interest has surged among researchers to determine compounds from bee products such as honey, royal jelly, propolis and bee pollen, which are beneficial to human health. Mass spectrometry techniques have shown that bee products contain a number of proven health-promoting compounds but also revealed rather high diversity in the chemical composition of bee products depending on several factors, such as for example botanical sources and geographical origin. In the present paper, we present recent scientific advances in the field of major bioactive compounds from bee products and corresponding regenerative properties. We also discuss extracellular vesicles from bee products as a potential novel bioactive nutraceutical component. Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived membranous structures that show promising potential in various therapeutic areas. It has been extensively reported that the use of vesicles, which are naturally formed in plant and animal cells, as delivery agents have many advantages. Whether the use of extracellular vesicles from bee products represents a new solution for wound healing remains still to be elucidated. However, promising results in specific applications of the bee products in wound healing and tissue regenerative properties of extracellular vesicles provide a good rationale to further explore this idea.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Mel , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pólen/química , Própole/farmacologia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7603-7618, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223764

RESUMO

Several publications report that octacosanol (OCT) has different biological functions. This study was designed to evaluate the antifatigue effect and molecular mechanism of octacosanol (200 mg/(kg day)) in forced exercise-induced fatigue models of trained male C57BL/6 mice. Results showed that octacosanol ameliorated the mice's autonomic activities, forelimb grip strength, and swimming endurance, and the levels of liver glycogen (LG), muscle glycogen (MG), blood lactic acid (BLA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also regulated. Gene analysis results showed that treatment with OCT upregulated 29 genes, while 38 genes were downregulated in gastrocnemius tissue. Gene ontology (GO) analyses indicated that these genes enriched functions in relation to myofibril, contractile fiber, and calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity. Octacosanol supplementation significantly adjusted the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels related to fatigue performance. Octacosanol has an observably mitigating effect in exercise-induced fatigue models, and its molecular mechanism may be related to the regulation of tripartite motif-containing 63 (Trim63), periaxin (Prx), calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α1 H (Cacna1h), and myosin-binding protein C (Mybpc3) expression.


Assuntos
Fadiga , Resistência Física , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/genética , Álcoois Graxos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético , Natação
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19, the public actively sought non-pharmacological and self-management approaches to prevent infection. Little is known on the use of traditional, complementary and integrative medicine (TCIM) by the public as preventive measures. This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of TCIM use during the pandemic, and identified factors associated with its use among the general population in Hong Kong. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from November to December 2020. The survey solicited information on the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, risk perception of the pandemic, and use of TCIM before and during the pandemic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of TCIM use. RESULTS: In total, 632 responses (completion rate = 88.1%) were analyzed. TCIM was used by 44.0% of respondents during the pandemic. The most popular forms of TCIM were vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 160, 25.3%) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 122, 19.3%) during the pandemic. The most frequently reported indication was strengthening the immune system, especially for vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 142/160, 88.8%). Respondents who reported using TCIM were more likely to be female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.59), had higher education attainment (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.39-3.59), and older-aged (age >55 years: aOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.04-3.02). Respondents who resided in districts with moderate to high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (aOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.07-2.42) and had a higher level of risk perception (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) were also more likely to use TCIM. CONCLUSION: TCIM was used commonly in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. While vaccination and social distancing remain the mainstay of controlling the pandemic, professional bodies should proactively consider public preferences and provide information regarding the effectiveness and safety of TCIM for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Terapias Complementares , Medicina Integrativa , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201167

RESUMO

Food detection technologies play a vital role in ensuring food safety in the supply chains. Conventional food detection methods for biological, chemical, and physical contaminants are labor-intensive, expensive, time-consuming, and often alter the food samples. These limitations drive the need of the food industry for developing more practical food detection tools that can detect contaminants of all three classes. Raman spectroscopy can offer widespread food safety assessment in a non-destructive, ease-to-operate, sensitive, and rapid manner. Recent advances of Raman spectroscopic methods further improve the detection capabilities of food contaminants, which largely boosts its applications in food safety. In this review, we introduce the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy and imaging; summarize the recent progress to detect biological, chemical, and physical hazards in foods; and discuss the limitations and future perspectives of Raman spectroscopic methods for food safety surveillance. This review is aimed to emphasize potential opportunities for applying Raman spectroscopic methods as a promising technique for food safety detection.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205642

RESUMO

Anthocyanins, water-soluble flavonoids that produce red-to-blue pigment in plants, have antioxidant properties and have been developed as a functional food to fight obesity. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a systematic review with meta-analysis (SR-MA) was used to investigate these anti-obesity effects. Using search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane-library, and CINAHL) and keywords (anthocyanins, BMI, WC, WHR, and inflammatory biomarkers), 11 out of 642 RCTs (28.3-500 mg/day of anthocyanins for 4 to 24 weeks) were included. The results showed a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (MD = -0.36, 95% CI = -0.58 to -0.13), but body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) did not change. Anthocyanins decreased BMI in the non-obese (non-OB) group in five RCTs (BMI ≤ 25; MD = -0.40 kg/m2; 95% CI = -0.64 to -0.16;) but did not affect BMI in the obese (OB) group. A subgroup analysis of six RCTs showed that fewer than 300 mg/day reduced BMI (MD = -0.37; 95% CI = -0.06 to -0.14), but ≥300 mg/day did not. A treatment duration of four weeks for four RCTs was sufficient to decrease the BMI (MD = -0.41; 95% CI = -0.66 to -0.16) as opposed to a longer treatment (6-8 or ≥12 weeks). An analysis of the effect of anthocyanins on the BMI showed a significant fall among those from the Middle East compared to those from Asia, Europe, South America, or Oceania. In conclusion, the anthocyanin supplementation of 300 mg/day or less for four weeks was sufficient to reduce the BMI and BW compared to the higher-dose and longer-treatment RCTs. However, further studies might be conducted regarding the dose- or period-dependent responses on various obese biomarkers.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ásia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , América do Sul , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198578

RESUMO

Healthy diet and supplement use may prove as sustainable strategies to lower COVID-19 infection. Our study investigated the dietary changes before and during lockdown and observed dietary supplements (DS) use among residents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study collected data via an online electronic survey questionnaire among males (N = 921) and females (N = 1044) residing in Saudi Arabia, 15 years of age and above. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of males (before vs. during lockdown) having improved changes in dietary habit (68.6% vs. 65.8%; p = 0.004), which was similar in female participants (69 vs. 73.4% vs. 69%; p < 0.001). The frequency of multivitamin users among COVID-19 participants was significantly lower than non-users (44.4 vs. 55.6; p < 0.003). Male respondents within 26-35 years of age were more likely to use multivitamin supplements than females (30.1 vs. 22.6%; p < 0.05) of same age group. Predictors for DS use were increased age group, income, education level and COVID-19 status. In conclusion, an increase in unhealthy diet behavior was observed among Saudi males and females during the pandemic lockdown and the predictors of DS use included increased age, income, education level and COVID-19 status.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208129

RESUMO

Nutrition is important during pregnancy for offspring health. Gestational vitamin D intake may prevent several adverse outcomes and might have an influence on offspring telomere length (TL). In this study, we want to assess the association between maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy and newborn TL, as reflected by cord blood TL. We studied mother-child pairs enrolled in the Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) cohort, Leuven, Belgium. To calculate the dietary vitamin D intake, 108 women were asked to keep track of their diet using the seven-day estimated diet record (EDR) method. TL was assessed in 108 cord blood using a quantitative real-time PCR method. In each trimester of pregnancy, maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration was measured. We observed a positive association (ß = 0.009, p-value = 0.036) between newborn average relative TL and maternal vitamin D intake (diet + supplement) during the first trimester. In contrast, we found no association between average relative TL of the newborn and mean maternal serum 25-OHD concentrations during pregnancy. To conclude, vitamin D intake (diet + supplements), specifically during the first trimester of pregnancy, is an important factor associated with TL at birth.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Telômero , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208211

RESUMO

The present review aims to gather scientific evidence regarding the beneficial effects of microalgae and macroalgae extracts on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The described data show that both microalgae and macroalgae improved this alteration. The majority of the reported studies analysed the preventive effects because algae were administered to animals concurrent with the diet that induced NAFLD. The positive effects were demonstrated using a wide range of doses, from 7.5 to 300 mg/kg body weight/day or from 1 to 10% in the diet, and experimental periods ranged from 3 to 16 weeks. Two important limitations on the scientific knowledge available to date are that very few studies have researched the mechanisms of action underlying the preventive effects of microalgae on NAFLD and that, for the majority of the algae studied, a single paper has been reported. For these reasons, it is not possible to establish the best conditions in order to know the beneficial effects that these algae could bring. In this scenario, further studies are needed. Moreover, the beneficial effects of algae observed in rodent need to be confirmed in humans before we can start considering these products as new tools in the fight against fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microalgas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Alga Marinha , Animais , Clorófitas , Humanos , Camundongos , Feófitas , Ratos , Rodófitas
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208239

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements is high among athletes and non-athletes alike, as well as able-bodied individuals and those with impairments. However, evidence is lacking in the use of dietary supplements for sport performance in a para-athlete population (e.g., those training for the Paralympics or similar competition). Our objective was to examine the literature regarding evidence for various sport supplements in a para-athlete population. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MedLine, and Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source. Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in our review. Seven varieties of supplements were investigated in the studies reviewed, including caffeine, creatine, buffering agents, fish oil, leucine, and vitamin D. The evidence for each of these supplements remains inconclusive, with varying results between studies. Limitations of research in this area include the heterogeneity of the subjects within the population regarding functionality and impairment. Very few studies included individuals with impairments other than spinal cord injury. Overall, more research is needed to strengthen the evidence for or against supplement use in para-athletes. Future research is also recommended on performance in para-athlete populations with classifiable impairments other than spinal cord injuries.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Paratletas , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6425-6437, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a close relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and omega-3 fatty acids may have a key role in improving cardiovascular risk factors. We conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with PCOS. METHODS: We searched 4 databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to February 2021. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the effects of omega-3 fatty acid treatment for PCOS. According to the Cochrane system evaluation guide manual, 2 researchers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We pooled results using either a fixed effect model or random effect model. RESULTS: We identified 314 articles, of which 10 met the criteria for inclusion, involving 778 participants. The pooled results suggested an association between the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and a reduction in serum insulin [-2.58 pmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.34 to -1.82 pmol/L, P<0.00001, I2=0], homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.75 to -0.40 L, P<0.00001, I2=2%), serum total cholesterol (TC) (-6.87 mg/dL, 95% CI: -10.28 to -3.47 mg/dL, P<0.0001, I2=95%), serum triglyceride (-4.03 mg/dL, 95% CI: -5.53 to -2.52 mg/dL, P<0.00001, I2=97%), serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-6.64 mg/dL, 95% CI: -11.58 to -1.70 mg/dL, P=0.008, I2=99%), serum very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) (-3.29 mg/L, 95% CI: -6.54 to -0.05 mg/L, P=0.05, I2=72%), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-8.97mg/dL, 95% CI: -17.66 to -0.28 mg/dL, P=0.04, I2=99%), an improvement in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (2.94 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.63 to 5.26 mg/dL, P=0.01, I2=87%), but no effect on serum glucose (-0.76 mg/dL, 95% CI: -1.71 to 0.19 mg/dL, P=0.12, I2=73%) was found. DISCUSSION: The current meta-analysis demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for women with PCOS resulted in a statistical improvement in insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C, but did not affect serum glucose. The limitation of this paper is due to the lack of included research literature.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203015

RESUMO

The interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress is a vicious circle, potentially resulting in organ damage. Essential micronutrients such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) support anti-oxidative defense systems and are commonly depleted in severe disease. This single-center retrospective study investigated micronutrient levels under Se and Zn supplementation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and explored potential relationships with immunological and clinical parameters. According to intensive care unit (ICU) standard operating procedures, patients received 1.0 mg of intravenous Se daily on top of artificial nutrition, which contained various amounts of Se and Zn. Micronutrients, inflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte subsets and clinical data were extracted from the patient data management system on admission and after 10 to 14 days of treatment. Forty-six patients were screened for eligibility and 22 patients were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (95%) suffered from severe ARDS and 14 patients (64%) survived to ICU discharge. On admission, the majority of patients had low Se status biomarkers and Zn levels, along with elevated inflammatory parameters. Se supplementation significantly elevated Se (p = 0.027) and selenoprotein P levels (SELENOP; p = 0.016) to normal range. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) activity increased over time (p = 0.021). Se biomarkers, most notably SELENOP, were inversely correlated with CRP (rs = -0.495), PCT (rs = -0.413), IL-6 (rs = -0.429), IL-1ß (rs = -0.440) and IL-10 (rs = -0.461). Positive associations were found for CD8+ T cells (rs = 0.636), NK cells (rs = 0.772), total IgG (rs = 0.493) and PaO2/FiO2 ratios (rs = 0.504). In addition, survivors tended to have higher Se levels after 10 to 14 days compared to non-survivors (p = 0.075). Sufficient Se and Zn levels may potentially be of clinical significance for an adequate immune response in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Deficiências Nutricionais/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/complicações , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/deficiência , Selenoproteína P/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência
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