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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358951

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was developed to model performance depression in heat stress (HS), to analyze the influence of HS type (cyclic or constant), and to assess the correlation between dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and HS in broilers. Two databases (Dat) with performance and temperature were constructed (initial phase - up to 21 d of age - 14 articles, 7,667 animals, average replicate number treatment-ARN/T, 5 and growing phase - over 21 d of age - 74 articles and 25,145 broilers, ARN/T, 7). The criteria for article selection were (1) experiments using at least 2 temperatures (thermoneutral and high temperature); (2) results of ADFI and ADG; (3) feed and water ad libitum during the experiment. Each treatment was classified as cyclic or constant HS and the HS group response was calculated relative to the thermoneutral group. Performance was evaluated as raw data or as relativized information (indicated as "HS effect or ≠"), expressed as a percentage of the difference between results. The models to predict "HS effect" showed that for the initial phase, only ADG was influenced by HS, while for the grower phase, prediction equations were created for ADFI and ADG. Considering the simplest models, there was a reduction of 1.4% in ADFI and 2.1% in ADG for each unit (°C) above the upper critical temperature for broilers older than 21 d. Feed conversion (FC) was not affected by HS in any of the studied phases. Constant HS proved to be more negative than cyclic HS to broiler performance after 21 d of age. The relation between DEB and performance of broilers under HS was analyzed considering broilers over 21 d of age, and very weak correlations were observed. It was concluded that HS affects broilers over 21 d more, although FC is not affected. ADFI is the most important variable affected by HS and the relation between the DEB of the diet and HS is very weak. The empirical models generated in this study accurately predicted ADG and ADFI of broilers exposed to HS and can be used to minimize those effects on poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358954

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of glycerol monolaurate (GML) supplementation on egg production, biochemical indices, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders at the late stage of production. Total of 180 healthy Qingyuan Partridge broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) corn-soybean meal based diet, and 2) basal diet supplemented with 300 mg glycerol monolaurate/kg. Each treatment group had 6 replicates with 15 birds within each replicate. The experiment started at wk 33 and lasted for 8 weeks. Feed conversion rate, egg weight, egg shape index, shell breaking strength, and shell thickness were not different between control and treatment groups. Supplementation of GML significantly decreased the egg breaking rate. All blood chemical indices and antioxidant parameters were not affected by GML except total antioxidant capacity which increased significantly with GML supplementation. Alpha diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, Ace, goods_coverage, and PD_whole tree) were not different between the 2 groups. Composition of cecal microbiota was not affected by GML supplementation except Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria at phylum level. Overall, supplementation of glycerol monolaurate at 300 mg/kg level improved eggshell quality but its effect on cecal microbiota composition was limited on broiler breeders at the late stage of production.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lauratos , Monoglicerídeos , Óvulo
3.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 827-839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382149

RESUMO

Probiotics effectively prevent and improve metabolic diseases such as diabetes by regulating the intestinal microenvironment and gut microbiota. However, the effects of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus are not clear. Here, we showed that probiotic supplements significantly improved fasting blood glucose in a gestational diabetes mellitus rat model. To further understand the mechanisms of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus, the gut microbiota were analyzed via 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that compared with the normal pregnant group, the gestational diabetes mellitus rats had decreased diversity of gut microbiota. Moreover, probiotic supplementation restored the diversity of the gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus rats, and the gut microbiota structure tended to be similar to that of normal pregnant rats. In particular, compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats, the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was higher after probiotic supplementation. Furthermore, activating carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport pathways may be involved in the potential mechanisms by which probiotic supplements alleviate gestational diabetes mellitus. Overall, our results suggested that probiotic supplementation might be a novel approach to restore the gut microbiota of gestational diabetes mellitus rats and provided an experimental evidence for the use of probiotic supplements to treat gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445600

RESUMO

The present study describes the electrochemical properties of three screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), the first electrode being carbon-based (C), the second graphene-based (GPH), and the third based on GPH modified with gold nanoparticles (GNP). These electrodes were used for the study of the electrochemical behavior of chlorogenic acid in different aqueous solutions, at pH = 7. In chlorogenic acid solution, a redox process was noticed in the case of all three electrodes; GPH and GNP significantly improved the sensor response regarding sensitivity and reversibility, a fact demonstrated by characterizing the sensor by cyclic voltammetry in potassium ferrocyanide, which corresponds to the exchange of two electrons and two protons. Moreover, the calibration curves for each sensor were developed, subsequently calculating the detection limits (LOD) and the quantification limits (LOQ). Low LOD and LOQ were obtained, the best-of the order of 10-7 M (LOD = 0.62 × 10-7 M; LOQ = 1.97 × 10-7 M)-being obtained in the case of GPH-GNP-SPE, which demonstrates that the method may be applied for determining chlorogenic acid in real samples. Thus, the sensors were successfully used for the quantitative determination of chlorogenic acid in three nutraceutical products. The validation of the results was done using the FTIR method. The results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were in accordance with those obtained by the spectrometric method, without significant differences from a statistical point of view.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443604

RESUMO

The global market of food supplements is growing rapidly with a large turnover. Fish oil supplements represent a significant part of this turnover as they are believed to have important health benefits. Conversely, there are few papers in the literature about the quality control of fish oil capsules. As prior studies illustrate, a perfect agreement with the label is rarely found, and in some isolated cases, large amounts of soybean oil are also detected, indicating a true adulteration rather than a non-compliance with the label. None of the available studies refer to the Italian market, which ranks first in Europe in the consumption of food supplements. In this present communication, a quality control of fish-oil-based supplements from the Italian market was carried out for the first time. With minor deviations, all results showed substantial agreement with the label. However, the most important conclusion from this research is that compliance with the label is not enough to judge a product of good quality. The analysis of the overall fatty acid composition showed that some supplements have a high level of saturated fatty acids, and therefore they did not undergo a proper purification process. This may represent a safety issue since the purification process also allows the removal of toxic contaminants.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Óleos de Peixe/economia , Itália , Controle de Qualidade
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370023

RESUMO

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) has multiple pharmacological and biological activities, including the use as a food additive and medicine. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary RE supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaning piglets. A total of 192 crossbred weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] (initial body weight = 6.65 ± 0.33 kg, weaned days = 23 ± 1 d) were group housed (six pigs per pen; n = 8 pens/treatment). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control diet or the basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg RE. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to fed for 21 d. The growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and intestinal morphology and antioxidant status were evaluated. The components of the microbial microflora were also determined in the cecal samples. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with RE increased the final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (linear, P = 0.038, 0.016, and 0.009, respectively), and decreased the diarrhea ratio in piglets (linear, P < 0.05). The digestibility of crude protein (linear, P = 0.034) and gross energy (linear, P = 0.046) increased with treatment with RE. Piglets fed RE showed longer villus height (linear, P = 0.037 and 0.028, respectively) and villus height/crypt depth (linear, P = 0.004 and 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively) in the jejunum and ileum, in addition to a lesser crypt depth in the jejunum (linear, P = 0.019) and ileum (quadratic, P = 0.042). The addition of RE increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (linear, P = 0.035 and 0.008, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activity (linear, P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (linear, P = 0.041 and 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.005, respectively) in the serum and liver. Dietary RE supplementation, compared with the control, increased the number of Bifidobacterium (linear, P = 0.034) and Bacteroidetes (linear, P = 0.029), while decreased Escherichia coli (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.014) in the cecal contents. Thus, dietary RE supplementation can improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and the microbiota in weaned piglets, and 200 mg/kg may be considered the optimum dosage.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rosmarinus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais , Suínos , Desmame
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361758

RESUMO

Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) is a biennal forage legume originated from the Mediterranean basin and used for animal feeding due to its high forage quality and palatability. Several species of Hedysarum have been considered for their nutritional, pharmaceutical, and biological properties, and different applications have been reported, both for human consumption and animal nutrition. Although a systematic investigation of the chemical constituents of Hedysarum spp. has been performed in order to provide chemotaxonomic evidences for the genus and to support the pharmacological application of several species within the genus, few data are available on the chemical constituents of H. coronarium, and only the content of condensed tannins and flavonoids in leaves has been previously reported. In the present paper, results from a detailed chemical analysis of the extracts from the leaves and flowers of H. coronarium grown wild in southern Italy are presented. Identification of the main specialized metabolites within the chemical classes of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and saponins, is described, including considerations on their content in the two plant organs. Information acquired from this study expands the knowledge on H. coronarium as a source of valuable phytochemicals for different applications in human and animal health and nutrition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Saponinas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Humanos , Itália , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proantocianidinas/classificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/classificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/metabolismo
8.
Animal ; 15(9): 100333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371471

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of polyphenol intake such as improved nitrogen retention make them interesting feed supplements for ruminants. In contrast, dietary polyphenols may have adverse effects on the bioavailability of nutrients and palatability of the feed which might impair growth performance. The beneficial and adverse effects might differ between different ruminant species as well as between direct intake and intake of polyphenol metabolites via suckling when supplemented to lactating dams. This study investigated the effects of maternal and direct polyphenol supplementation via grape seed extract in sheep and goats on growth, slaughter performance, meat quality and fatty acid profile. The diet of lactating East Friesian Dairy sheep (n = 11) and Saanen goats (n = 9) and of their lambs (n = 16) and kids (n = 13), respectively, was supplemented either with grape seed extract (dams: 7.4% and offspring: 5.6%, P) or without (C). This resulted in four groups per species, namely maternalC/offspringC, maternalC/offspringP, maternalP/offspringC, and maternalP/offspringP. In lambs but not in goats, maternalP increased average daily gain and improved slaughter performance whereas offspringP had no effect. Maternal and offspring diet did not affect physicochemical meat quality in lambs, but direct intake of grape seed extract increased rancid aroma of burger patties. In goat kids, both maternal and offspring diets slightly affected meat colour. While groups of meat fatty acids (FAs) were not affected by diet in both species, maternalP in lambs as well as maternalP and offspringP in goat kids increased the meat n-6 to n-3 FA ratio compared to the respective control groups. In goat kid but not in lamb meat, direct intake of polyphenols affected the proportions of several rumen biohydrogenation intermediates. In conclusion, grape seed extract can be applied in both the maternal and offspring diets in sheep and goats while maintaining or even improving offspring growth performance and carcass quality. Only few species-specific effects of grape seed extract supplementation were observed, and additive effects were scarce. Larger studies are required to confirm the observed species-specific growth response to maternalP during lactation. The underlying reasons for this differential response need to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Cabras , Polifenóis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Carne/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444705

RESUMO

Exposure of individuals to radioactive material as a result of ingestion of contaminated food and water is an increasing public health concern. Unfortunately, there are limited treatment modalities for dealing with these types of potentially toxic exposures. Recent research suggests that many plant-based nutraceuticals may possess metal-binding properties. This preliminary study investigated the ability of genistein, curcumin, quercetin, and lentinan to bind metals considered internal contamination risks, namely cesium, uranium, cobalt, and strontium, in a variety of matrices. The efficacy of these nutraceuticals in protecting cultured cells from metal-induced toxicity was also explored. Results showed that none of the compounds bound cesium or strontium. However, genistein, curcumin, and quercetin could bind uranium. Curcumin and quercetin also bound cobalt and could also protect cultured cells from metal-induced cytotoxicity. Lentinan did not bind any of the metals tested. Metal binding was also pH dependent, with no binding observed at lower pH values. This project showed that nutraceuticals could function as chelators for metals considered internal radionuclide contamination hazards. Further investigations are required in order to determine whether these compounds will become a new nontoxic arsenal of pharmaceutical compounds with which to treat radionuclide contamination.


Assuntos
Quelantes/farmacologia , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Elementos Radioativos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Césio/toxicidade , Cobalto/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Genisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , Lentinano/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Estrôncio/toxicidade , Urânio/toxicidade
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360538

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are closely associated and represent a key public health problem worldwide. An excess of adipose tissue, NAFLD, and gut dysbiosis establish a vicious circle that leads to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Caloric restriction (CR) is the most promising nutritional approach capable of improving cardiometabolic health. However, adherence to CR represents a barrier to patients and is the primary cause of therapeutic failure. To overcome this problem, many different nutraceutical strategies have been designed. Based on several data that have shown that CR action is mediated by AMPK/SIRT1 activation, several nutraceutical compounds capable of activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling have been identified. In this review, we summarize recent data on the possible role of berberine, resveratrol, quercetin, and L-carnitine as CR-related nutrients. Additionally, we discuss the limitations related to the use of these nutrients in the management of T2DM and CVD.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Animais , Humanos
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101275, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273648

RESUMO

Feed costs represent a significant portion of the cost of poultry production. This study, in 3 experiments, was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a heat-stable xylanase (XYL) as a dietary supplement and its effect on digesta viscosity, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and live performance in broiler chicks. Experiment 1: the objective was to determine the effects of the amount and type of enzyme supplementation on digesta viscosity, AMEn, and bird performance using 7 diets. The dietary treatments were: no supplementation (C), 5 levels of XYL (1 to 16 ppm), or supplementation with a carbohydrase cocktail (CC). Experiment 2: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and the energy content of the feed. There were 2 levels of XYL (0 and 20 ppm) and 3 dietary energy levels (2,770, 2,920, and 3,070 kcal/kg ME). Experiment 3: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and feed form. The treatments were: 5 levels of XYL (0 to 40 ppm) and 2 feed forms (mash and crumble). Broiler chicks were reared in battery cages to 21 d. Statistical analysis of the data was completed using Proc GLM of SAS (9.2) (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In experiment 1, increasing XYL (0 to 16 ppm) resulted in a decrease in digesta viscosity and an increase in AMEn. The XYL included as low as 1 ppm resulted in a significant increase in AMEn which reached 5% with 16 ppm XYL. In contrast, increase in BWG (4%) above values with the basal diet was greatest with 1 ppm XYL. In experiment 2, the caloric content of the diet influenced the increase in AMEn with inclusion of XYL, 8% and 6% increases with 2,920 kcal/kg and 3,070 kcal/kg diets, respectively. Without addition of XYL, BWG was significantly lower when fed the diet with the highest energy content. In experiment 3, feed form x XYL influenced the effect of XYL on BWG. The BWG was greater when birds were fed the crumble diet with XYL vs when they were fed the mash feed with XYL. The xylanase proved effective for broilers to 21 d when fed the diets used herein with changes in digesta viscosity, increased dietary AMEn, and improved bird performance represented by either BW gain or FCR.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Temperatura Alta , Triticum/metabolismo , Viscosidade
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101326, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303145

RESUMO

A total of 300 un-sexed Japanese quail chicks (1-wk-old) were randomly allotted to 5 experimental groups to study the effect of citric acid (CA) on performance development, carcass estimates, blood measurements, antioxidant and immune measurements, digestive enzymes, and cecum microbiology traits of growing Japanese quail. The chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with CA (5, 10, 15, and 20 g/kg in diet) had significantly (P < 0.05) greater live body weights at 3 and 5 wk of age and increased weight gain across all experimental periods (1-3, 3-5 and 1-5 wks of age) compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in any of the measured carcass traits. The digestion coefficients of crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, and nitrogen free extract as well as metabolizable energy significantly improved (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups compared to the control. CA supplementation from 10 to 20 g/kg had increased digestive enzyme activities (amylase and lipase). All treatment groups had higher (P < 0.05) albumin and globulin concentrations than the control group. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in phosphorus (P) concentrations in the plasma was observed in all treatment groups. The IgG levels were greater (P < 0.05) in the 5 or 10 g/kg groups than the control group. Chicks fed CA at different levels had significantly decreased caecal content of TBC, coliform, E. coli, and Salmonella. We concluded that the inclusion of CA (especially 10 g/kg diet) in growing Japanese quail diets improved growth performance, immune response, and health.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Nutrientes
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101278, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273650

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of raspberry (RA), black currant (BC), and black chokeberry (CA) dried pomace, at 30 g per kg of feed, on performance, egg quality, white blood cells, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and lymphatic organs in Hy-Line laying hens. Hens fed a basal diet comprised the control group (CO). A total of 480, 42-week-old Hy-Line commercial hybrid laying hens were randomly divided into 4 equal groups differing in the diet: in control group (CO), the birds received a standard diet, in groups CH, BC and RA, the birds were fed with a standard diet enriched with 30 g/kg of dried fruit pomace: Black chokeberry, black currant, and raspberry, respectively. Differences in yolk color were observed between the CO and groups BC and RA, as well as between groups CA and BC (P < 0.001). The eggs of group RA were characterized by a lower weight (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002) and shell density (P = 0.025 and P = 0.002) in comparison to eggs from the control group CO. The lightest yolk color was observed in the eggs of group BC in comparison with the other groups (P = 0.006). The greatest yolk weight was observed for group CH, while the smallest was for group CO (P = 0.017). Laying hens in the groups BC and RA were characterized at wk 62 of age by a higher percentage of spleen in comparison with the control group CO (P = 0.018). In conclusion, the BC and RA diet resulted in a paler yolk color and was associated with slightly poorer shell quality parameters. On the other hand, the CH and BC diet had a positive impact on the immune system of the laying hens, as confirmed by the changes in the white blood cell smear and the higher spleen percentage. Therefore, the use of these by-products in the diets of poultry, i.e., dried pomace of black chokeberry and black currant may have a positive impact by improving the immunological status of laying hens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Frutas , Leucócitos , Óvulo
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101315, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280650

RESUMO

Antibiotic overuse in poultry husbandry poses a potential threat to meat safety and human health. Lauric acid (LA) is a primary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) with a strong antibacterial capacity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of LA on the growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolism, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. One-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups: CON, fed a basal diet; ANT, a basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg antibiotic; LA500, a basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg LA; LA1000, a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg LA. The feeding period was 42 d. The results showed that LA significantly improved broiler growth and immune functions, as evidenced by increased body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier, upregulated immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY), and downregulated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10) (P < 0.05). HPLC/MS-based metabolome analysis revealed that the serum metabolites in the LA group differed from those of CON and ANT groups. LA markedly decreased the abundance of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), increased lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), and inhibited the sphingolipid metabolism pathway, indicating its capacity to modulate lipid metabolism. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that LA significantly altered cecal microbiota composition by reducing Phascolarctobacterium, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Bacteroides, and increasing Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Spearman correlation analysis revealed that changes in metabolism and microbiota were highly correlated with the growth and immune indices; strong links were also found between lipid metabolism and microbial composition. Taken together, LA promotes broiler growth and immune functions by regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. The above findings highlight the substantial potential of LA as a supplement in poultry diets and provide a new strategy to reduce antibiotic usage and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Láuricos , Masculino , Metaboloma , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299448

RESUMO

Robust and selective quantification methods are required to better analyze feed supplementation effectiveness with specific amino acids. In this work, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection is proposed and validated for lysine quantification, one of the most limiting amino acids in ruminant nutrition and essential towards milk production. To assess and widen method applicability, different matrices were considered: namely Li2CO3 buffer (the chosen standard reaction buffer), phosphate buffer solution (to mimic media in cellular studies), and rumen inoculum. The method was validated for all three matrices and found to be selective, accurate (92% ± 2%), and precise at both the inter- and intra-day levels in concentrations up to 225 µM, with detection and quantification limits lower than 1.24 and 4.14 µM, respectively. Sample stability was evaluated when stored at room temperature, 4 °C, and -20 °C, showing consistency for up to 48 h regardless of the matrix. Finally, the developed method was applied in the quantification of lysine on real samples. The results presented indicate that the proposed method can be applied towards free lysine quantification in ruminant feeding studies and potentially be of great benefit to dairy cow nutrition supplementation and optimization.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Lisina/análise , Lisina/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ruminantes/metabolismo
17.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208895

RESUMO

The aim of this research was phenolics and protein characterization and antioxidant properties evaluation of skimmed thermally treated goat's milk powder enriched with different concentration of grape pomace seed extract (SE). The dominant phenolics in SE were phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols and procyanidins. Different electrophoretic techniques together with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of phenolics-protein interactions in the samples, mainly procyanidins with whey protein/caseins complexes. Addition of SE into thermally treated goat's milk significantly improved antioxidant properties of goat's milk such as TAC, FRP, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Gallic acid, catechin, and procyanidins mostly contributed to these activities. The schematic representation of phenolics-casein micelles interactions in thermally treated goat's milk enriched with SE was given. The addition of SE into thermally treated goat's milk can be a promising strategy in food waste recovery and to enhance the beneficial health effects of goat's milk-based functional foods.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Leite/química , Animais , Caseínas , Flavonoides/análise , Cabras/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós , Proantocianidinas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101166, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214745

RESUMO

The influence of supplemental carbohydrase (Carb) and conditioning temperature (CT) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphometry of broilers (d 1-21) fed barley-based diets was examined in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, evaluating 2 levels of Carb (0 and 150 g/tonne of feed) and three CT (60, 74, and 88°C). A total of 288, 1-day-old male broilers (8 birds/cage; 6 cages/treatment) were used. The activities of endo-1,4-ß- glucanase, endo-1,3 (4)-ß-glucanase and endo-1,4-ß-xylanase in the Carb were 800 BGU/g, 700 BGU/g and 2,700 XU/g, respectively. On d 21, ileal digesta was collected for the determination of nutrient digestibility. There was no significant interaction between Carb and CT for any tested parameter. Supplemental Carb, regardless of CT, increased weight gain (WG; P < 0.05) and reduced feed per gain (F/G; P < 0.001) by 30 g/bird and 6.5 points, respectively. Increasing CT to 88°C reduced (P < 0.05) WG, but increased (P < 0.05) F/G compared to the diets conditioned at 60° and 74°C. Regardless of CT, Carb enhanced (P < 0.05) the digestibility of starch and AMEn by 1.15% and 32 kcal/kg, respectively. Compared to the diets conditioned at 60° and 74°C, CT at 88°C reduced (P < 0.05) digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, gross energy, and AMEn. Birds fed diets conditioned at 88°C showed lower (P < 0.05) starch digestibility compared to those fed diets conditioned at 60°C. Conditioning at 88°C increased (P < 0.05) jejunal digesta viscosity by 10.2% compared to diets conditioned at 60° and 74°C. Overall, Carb supplementation improved WG, F/G, starch digestibility and AMEn in broilers fed barley-based diets, irrespective of CT applied. Conditioning barley-based diets at 88°C impaired the ability of birds to utilize nitrogen, starch, phosphorus and energy, and consequently deteriorated WG and F/G. The lack of significant interactions between Carb and CT indicated that negative impacts caused by high CT on bird performance and nutrient utilization occurred regardless of Carb enzyme supplementation. Supplemental Carb per se could not remedy the adverse effects of high CT.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Masculino , Nutrientes , Vapor , Temperatura
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101266, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225203

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impacts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on the growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microbiota, liver and kidney functions, immunity, oxidative status, and lipid profile of Japanese quails. A total of 200 one-week-old unsexed Japanese quails with an average initial body weight of 26.24 ± 0.2 g were randomly distributed into 5 equal groups of 40 birds and further subdivided into 5 replicates. The first (control) group was fed a diet without any licorice, while licorice powder was added at levels of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg per kg diet in the second, third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively. At the age of 3 wk, the group of quail fed on a diet supplemented with 750 and 1000 mg licorice/kg of diet gained the highest body weight (BW) and daily body weight (DBW), while attaining the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to other groups. Meanwhile, groups fed diets with licorice at levels of 0 and 250 mg/kg showed the highest feed intake. After the 5-wk feeding trial, the highest BW and DBW values, and the lowest FCR were recorded in the group fed with 750 mg licorice/kg diet. The different treatments produced no significant differences (P > 0.05) in quail carcass characteristics, including percentages of carcass, liver, gizzard, heart, giblets, and dressing. The blood of the group fed a 750 mg licorice diet had higher contents of total protein and GLOB, while its contents of A/G%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were lower. Apart from the high level of licorice (1000 mg/kg), the MDA level was linearly and quadratically (P = 0.0413 and 0.001) decreased with different licorice groups, while superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and M (IgM) were quadratically increased when compared to the control group. Licorice supplementation resulted in marked reductions in the number of total bacteria, coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella, compared to those in the control. In conclusion, the inclusion of licorice at levels of 750 and 1000 mg/kg into the diet of Japanese quail enhances the animal's performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and maintains a healthy gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glycyrrhiza , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Codorniz
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