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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 52-62, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994616

RESUMO

AIM: Fish oil supplements are regulated in New Zealand under the Dietary Supplement Regulations (Section 42, Food Act 1981) and therefore are not subject to the same level of scrutiny and regulations as medicines. We investigated accuracy of labelling, stated health benefits of fish oil supplements sold in New Zealand, and risks relating to possible mercury content. METHOD: The amounts of omega-3 fatty acids contained per capsule were determined by an independent laboratory using gas chromatography on 10 of the most popular over-the-counter fish oil supplements sold in New Zealand and were compared with amounts stated on product labels. Information on doses recommended to achieve a specific health benefit were taken from the 10 labels as well as the company websites. These recommended doses were compared with published recommended doses identified as being effective in those health areas stipulated on the labels, based on either systematic reviews, meta-analyses and/or consensus statements. Mercury was analysed by an independent laboratory using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The actual amounts of EPA and DHA per capsule in 90% of the over-the-counter fish oil supplements analysed were within 10% of the amount stated on the product labels. Only one product was greater than 10% below the stated dose on the label. All products suggested benefit across heart, brain and joint health and all but two products stated a range of capsules required to achieve that health benefit (eg, 2-6 capsules). Based on the maximum number of capsules recommended (which ranged from 3-6 capsules), only three products would likely confer the dose identified as optimal for achieving a health benefit across all three health areas. Only two products recommended doses that would likely confer a health benefit both at the minimum and maximum number of capsules. More products would likely benefit brain and heart health than joint health. Mercury was not detected in any sample. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that the doses of 90% of the products were accurate and that mercury was not detected in any sample; however, less than a third of the supplements would likely confer all the health benefits stated, even at the highest recommended daily doses. This paper has highlighted the ongoing challenges associated with the regulation of "health claims" associated with dietary supplements in New Zealand. Indeed, the literature on health effects is contradictory at best. Clearer definitions of the types of health statements that can be made and the research necessary to support them requires regulatory clarification.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Óleos de Peixe/química , Óleos de Peixe/normas , Mercúrio/análise , Nova Zelândia , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 775-789, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943303

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a metalloid that exists as a red amorphous powder, reddish crystal, silver-gray crystal, or brown-black solid. Its potency as a nutrient and a toxicant is such that few people have seen the pure element. It is easy to lose sight of the narrow margin between too little and too much. The most common cause of selenosis is accidental or intentional overuse of supplements. Many target organs and effects of Se toxicity are similar to those of Se deficiency, so laboratory confirmation is necessary. Prevention consists of minimizing exposure to seleniferous feedstuffs and optimizing dietary factors that might aggravate selenosis.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/veterinária , Ruminantes , Selênio/envenenamento , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/envenenamento , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia
3.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 557-565, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933607

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of folic acid (FA) supplementation in Chinese couples planning for pregnancy and in women during early pregnancy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on the Shanghai PreConception Cohort (SPCC) study. Data on FA supplementation and socio-demographic features were collected using questionnaires. Couples visiting clinics for pre-pregnancy examination and pregnant women at < 14 gestational weeks were recruited in Shanghai, China, between March 2016 and September 2018. Results: Among the pregnancy planners, 42.4% (4,710/11,099) women and 17.1% (1,377/8,045) men used FA supplements, while 93.4% (14,585/15,615) of the pregnant women used FA supplements. FA supplement use was higher in female pregnancy planners who were older ( RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18), had higher education ( RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.53-1.92), and were residing in urban districts ( RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) of FA supplementation; female pregnancy planners with alcohol consumption ( RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99) had lower odds of FA supplementation. In early pregnancy, women with higher educational level ( RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06), who underwent pre-pregnancy examination ( RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) had higher odds of using an FA supplement; older aged ( RR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99), and multigravida ( RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98) had lower odds of FA supplementation. Conclusion: Although the majority of pregnant women took FA supplements, more than half of the women planning for pregnancy did not. Urgent strategies are needed to improve pre-conception FA supplementation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet HIV ; 7(7): e463-e471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and mortality among people living with HIV. The primary aims of this study were to assess the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the risk of mortality and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation among adults living with HIV who initiated ART and had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 30 ng/mL at four large HIV care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years, pregnant at the time of randomisation, or were enrolled in any other clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either weekly oral 50 000 IU vitamin D3 supplements (cholecalciferol) for the first month of ART followed by daily 2000 IU vitamin D3 supplements or a matching weekly and daily placebo regimen. The randomisation list was computer-generated by a non-study statistician with sequence blocks of ten that were stratified by study clinic. Complete allocation concealment was ensured and patients, field team, and investigators were masked to group assignment. The trial follow-up duration was 1 year and the primary efficacy outcomes were death and incident pulmonary tuberculosis. An intention-to-treat analysis was followed for all-cause mortality; participants diagnosed with or receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis at randomisation, or suspected to have tuberculosis at randomisation and who later had that diagnosis confirmed, were excluded from analyses of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence. Safety was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01798680, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Feb 24, 2014, and Feb 24, 2017, 6250 adults initiating ART had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D screening, 4000 of whom were enrolled in the trial and followed up for 1 year (follow-up of all participants was completed on March 7, 2018). 2001 patients were randomly assigned to the vitamin D3 supplementation group, and 1999 to the placebo group. 415 deaths were recorded: 211 in the vitamin D3 group and 204 in the placebo group. Among all randomly assigned participants, there was no overall effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·85-1·25; p=0·73). There was also no difference in the overall incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis between the vitamin D3 (50 events in 1812 patients analysed) and placebo groups (64 events in 1827 patients; HR 0·78, 0·54-1·13; p=0·19). The vitamin D3 regimen did not increase the risk of hypercalcaemia (three events in the vitamin D3 group and two events in the placebo group; relative risk 1·25, 95% CI 0·43-3·66; Fisher's exact p=1·00). 101 hospital admissions were reported in the vitamin D3 group and 94 in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1·06, 95% CI 0·80-1·41; p=0·66). INTERPRETATION: Additional research is needed before vitamin D3 supplementation should be considered for implementation in HIV care and treatment programmes for the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis or mortality. FUNDING: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Placebos , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461230, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709311

RESUMO

Two isomeric biphenyl neolignans, magnolol and honokiol, are considered as constituents responsible for the healing effect of magnolia bark, a traditional Oriental medicine. To survey the increasing number of dietary supplements that contain magnolia bark or its extract, an affordable quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry method was developed. The methanol extracts were analyzed on the silica gel plates after manual sample application using n-hexane - ethyl acetate - ethanol (16:3:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. For quantitation, the chromatograms were scanned in the absorbance mode at the wavelength λ = 290 nm. The limits of detection and quantitation were 90 and 280 ng/zone for magnolol and 70 and 200 ng/zone for honokiol, respectively. None of the two targeted neolignans were detected in two of the six analyzed supplements. In the other four samples, the measured amounts were between 0.95-114.69 mg g-1 for magnolol and 4.88-84.86 mg g-1 for honokiol. Moreover, separations of these two neolignans on the TLC and high-performance TLC (HPTLC) layers were compared and HPTLC was combined with antioxidant (DPPH) and antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri) assays and mass spectrometry (MS), using the elution-based interface. Both magnolol and honokiol exhibited effects in all bioactivity assays. The HPTLC-MS tests confirmed purity of neolignan zones in the extracts of dietary supplements and supported tentative identification of the alkaloid piperine and the isoflavone daidzein as additional bioactive components of the investigated dietary supplements. Using the same mobile phase in the orthogonal directions 2D-HPTLC-MS experiments proved degradation, i.e., instability of magnolol and honokiol on the silica gel adsorbent.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lignanas/análise , Densitometria , Limite de Detecção , Magnolia/química , Magnolia/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of nutritional supplements on weight gain in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment (ART) remains uncertain. Starting supplements depends upon current weight-for-age or other acute malnutrition indicators, producing time-dependent confounding. However, weight-for-age at ART initiation may affect subsequent weight gain, independent of supplement use. Implications for marginal structural models (MSMs) with inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) are unclear. METHODS: In the ARROW trial, non-randomised supplement use and weight-for-age were recorded monthly from ART initiation. The effect of supplements on weight-for-age over the first year was estimated using generalised estimating equation MSMs with IPTW, both with and without interaction terms between baseline weight-for-age and time. Separately, data were simulated assuming no supplement effect, with use depending on current weight-for-age, and weight-for-age trajectory depending on baseline weight-for-age to investigate potential bias associated with different MSM specifications. RESULTS: In simulations, despite correctly specifying IPTW, omitting an interaction in the MSM between baseline weight-for-age and time produced increasingly biased estimates as associations between baseline weight-for-age and subsequent weight trajectory increased. Estimates were unbiased when the interaction between baseline weight-for-age and time was included, even if the data were simulated with no such interaction. In ARROW, without an interaction the estimated effect was +0.09 (95%CI +0.02,+0.16) greater weight-for-age gain per month's supplement use; this reduced to +0.03 (-0.04,+0.10) including the interaction. DISCUSSION: This study highlights a specific situation in which MSM model misspecification can occur and impact the resulting estimate. Since an interaction in the MSM (outcome) model does not bias the estimate of effect if the interaction does not exist, it may be advisable to include such a term when fitting MSMs for repeated measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(1): 61-75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479013

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that develops and progresses in the arterial wall in response to a variety of stimuli. Among various other stimuli, hyperlipidemia is an extremely important factor that is correlated with the development of atherosclerosis. Lemon and citrus fruits contain various bioactive flavonoids, such as eriocitrin, that prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases. Therefore we concentrated on eriocitrin, a potent flavonoid with numerous therapeutic properties, particularly its beneficial lipid-lowering action in rats subjected to high fat diet. The anti-atherosclerotic efficacy of eriocitrin was assessed in rats administered a diet rich in fat. Wistar rats were divided into five groups consisting of six animals in all groups. Group I served the control, Group II was fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and the third and fourth groups were fed an HFD supplemented with varying doses of eriocitrin, and the last group was administered simvastatin for the last 30 days. Body weight, organ weight, lipid and lipoprotein parameters, cardiac and inflammatory markers, and histological examination were evaluated in animals induced with an HFD. Eriocitrin displayed a significant anti-atherosclerotic action by lowering the body weight, organ weight, reduction in lipid content, cardiac and inflammatory markers, myocardial changes confirmed by histopathology, malondialdehyde and increased antioxidant enzyme activities, nitric oxide, as well as 6-keto-PGF1α and high-density lipoprotein levels in rats fed an HFD. The findings of the experiment suggest that the anti-atherosclerotic action of eriocitrin was due to its modulatory activity in lipid metabolism. Considering the overall results of the study it can be validated that a use of flavonoid eriocitrin might be beneficial in altering HFD-induced alterations in atherosclerotic rats.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(1): 89-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479015

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are regarded as prime reasons for the progression and development of diabetic retinopathy. Currently, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways are under increasing focus in research on oxidative stress and inflammation-related diseases. On the other hand, tilianin (TN) has received much attention because of its various pharmacological properties. Based on results of these studies, this investigation was performed to inspect the therapeutic efficiency of TN on the retina in diabetic rats. Rats were arbitrarily assigned to three groups: control group, diabetic group, and diabetic plus TN (20 mg/ kg body weight for 42 days, orally) group. TN supplementation in diabetic rats, their food intake, fasting blood glucose status, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were drastically reduced, and there was a marked augmentation in serum insulin status. TN treatment of diabetic rats increased mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, HO-1, and noticeably decreased the malondialdehyde status. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GPX) were increased relative to diabetic rats. Furthermore, administering TN to the diabetic rats resulted in decreased expression of TXNIP, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, and IL-1ß proteins and decreased distribution of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 proteins in retinas. In addition, TN treatment ameliorated morphological and morphometric changes in the retinas of diabetic rats. Together, all of these findings provide clear evidence that TN treatment of diabetic rats attenuated diabetic retinal changes through its hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic retinas occur at least in part through the modulation of Nrf2/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, which may have remedial benefits in the healing of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 334-342, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the frequent use of video display units, eye fatigue is becoming more common globally. An alternative nutritional strategy is needed to prevent the aggravation of eye fatigue symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the protective effect of a novel botanical combination of lutein ester, zeaxanthin, and extracts of blackcurrant, chrysanthemum, and goji berry on adults with eye fatigue in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. METHODS: We randomly allocated 360 participants into 4 groups to receive placebo and 3 doses of our formula (chewable tablets, containing 6 mg, 10 mg, or 14 mg of lutein) once daily for 90 d. Each participant had 3 visits at baseline (V1), 45 d (V2), and 90 d (V3) during the study. RESULTS: Intervention with the formula improved individual scores of eye fatigue symptoms, including eye soreness, blurred vision, dry eye, foreign body sensation, and tearing. Compared with placebo, the formula at all 3 doses significantly decreased the total score of eye fatigue symptoms and increased the visuognosis persistence time at both V2 and V3. According to the Schirmer test, both 10-mg and 14-mg lutein formula groups had improved tear secretion at V3 compared with the placebo. The keratography results indicated that the first tear break-up time, average tear break-up time, and tear meniscus height were significantly increased after formula intervention. The formula at all 3 doses significantly increased the macular pigment optical density at V2 and V3 compared with the placebo, whereas optical coherence tomography showed no significant difference in retinal thickness and retinal volume across all groups at both visits. CONCLUSIONS: Our botanical formula improves eye fatigue, dry eye, and macular function without changing the retinal structure, and thus it could serve as an effective nutritional strategy in improving eye fatigue without causing serious side effects.Clinical Trial Registry: chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1800018987).


Assuntos
Astenopia/tratamento farmacológico , Chrysanthemum/química , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Ribes/química , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/administração & dosagem , Luteína/análise , Lycium/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Zeaxantinas/administração & dosagem , Zeaxantinas/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 331: 127291, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559598

RESUMO

This study investigated inulin and calcium-rich milk mineral incorporation into a pork sausage in order to examine the effects on microbiome and biochemical activity in the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion. Rats (n = 48) were fed one of four sausages; a pork sausage enriched with 1) inulin (6.0%) and milk mineral (3%), 2) inulin (6.0%), 3) milk mineral (3%) or 4) control sausages without enrichment. NMR-based metabolomics revealed that inulin-enrichment increased the fecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Milk mineral-enrichment also increased SCFA concentrations, although less pronounced. In addition, milk mineral reduced the concentration of nitroso compounds in feces and small intestinal content. Combined enrichment with both inulin and milk mineral showed no cumulative effect on SCFA formation and seemed to oppose the milk mineral-induced reduction of nitroso compound formation. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that alterations of the gut microbiome contributed to the observed effects.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Leite/química , Minerais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Masculino , Ratos
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461210, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505294

RESUMO

Illegal dietary supplements adulterated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are increasingly widely distributed through internet markets and underground routes. For this reason, it demands development of reliable screening methods to determine a wide range of PDE-5i drugs in various types of dietary supplements. Herein, we developed a screening method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for simultaneous detection of 53 PDE-5i drugs in supplements. Common formulations (such as capsule, powder, pill, and tablet) of supplements with complicated matrices were treated by simple liquid-liquid extraction and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization. With the aid of TMS derivatization, 53 PDE-5i drugs could be successfully separated and detected within 15 min, using a short microbore GC column (15 m). Moreover, owing to enhanced detection sensitivity and selectivity of PDE-5i TMS derivatives, 0.5 mg of sample was sufficient to screen and confirm targeted PDE-5i drugs. In this study, specific common ions according to structural characteristics of PDE-5i drugs were found under the electron ionization (EI) of their TMS derivatives. These specific common fragments could reflect the common pharmacophores for 4 classes of PDE-5i drugs (sildenafil, other sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil analogues). Based on characteristic EI fragment ions, extracted common ion chromatograms (ECICs) and discriminant analysis (DA) were effectively used for reliable screening and classification of various types of PDE-5i drugs. Specific ECICs and DA using characteristic EI fragments here will aid in identification of newly emerging PDE-5i counterfeits in supplements. This study will be helpful to supervise illegal adulteration of PDE-5i drugs in dietary supplements to protect public health and consumer safety.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Análise Discriminante , Íons , Citrato de Sildenafila/análise , Tadalafila/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579549

RESUMO

High postprandial blood glucose levels are associated with increased mortality, cardiovascular events and development of diabetes in the general population. Interventions targeting postprandial glucose have been shown to prevent both cardiovascular events and diabetes. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel nutritional supplement targeting postprandial glucose excursions in non-diabetic adults. Sixty overweight healthy male and female participants were recruited at two centers and randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The supplement, a water-based drink containing 2.6g of amino acids (L-Leucine, L-Threonine, L-Lysine Monohydrochloride, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine) and 250 mcg of chromium picolinate, was consumed with a standardized carbohydrate-rich meal. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for venous blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. Secondary endpoints included glucose iAUC 0-180 minutes and the maximum glucose concentration (Cmax), for both venous and capillary blood glucose. In the intention-to-treat-analysis (n = 60) the supplement resulted in a decreased venous blood glucose iAUC0-120min compared to placebo, mean (SE) of 68.7 (6.6) versus 52.2 (6.8) respectively, a difference of -16.5 mmol/L•min (95% CI -3.1 to -30.0, p = 0.017). The Cmax for venous blood glucose for the supplement and placebo were 6.45 (0.12) versus 6.10 (<0.12), respectively, a difference of -0.35 mmol/L (95% CI -0.17 to -0.53, p<0.001). In the per protocol-analysis (n = 48), the supplement resulted in a decreased Cmax compared to placebo from 6.42 (0.14) to 6.12 (0.14), a difference of -0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.12 to -0.47, p = 0.002). No significant differences in capillary blood glucose were found, as measured by regular bed-side glucometers. The nutritional supplement drink containing amino acids and chromium improves the postprandial glucose homeostasis in overweight adults without diabetes. Future studies should clarify, whether regular consumption of the supplement improves markers of disease or could play a role in a diet aiming at preventing the development of diabetes.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Cromo/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520963

RESUMO

The tolerance of ruminants to gossypol, a natural phenolic compound derived from the cotton plant, is greater than that of monogastric animals, partially because of the gossypol-degrading bacteria in the rumen of the ruminants. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of gossypol supplementation on fermentation characteristics, bacterial α-diversity and community structure in the rumen fluid of sheep to analyse the change of bacterial in response to gossypol. 8 sheep with permanent fistula were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control and gossypol acetate supplementation groups. Sheep in the latter group were supplemented with gossypol acetate at the levels of 600 mg and 1,200 mg/animal per day during the first (S1, days 1 to 27) and subsequent (S2, days 28 to 47) stages. Gossypol supplementation significantly increased the molar proportion of acetate, and decreased the molar proportion of isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid in the rumen fluid. Gossypol supplementation have no significant effect on bacterial diversity in the rumen fluid. At the phylum level, gossypol had no effect on bacterial community. At the genus level, gossypol supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Treponema_2. However, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of dominant bacterial genera. In conclusion, gossypol supplementation had an effect on molar proportion of acetate, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid, but had no significant effect on the bacterial diversity and relative abundance of dominant bacteria in rumen fluid of sheep.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossipol/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Gossipol/farmacologia , Rúmen/microbiologia
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 219-224, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis, the "quiet epidemic", is one of the most serious threats to public health. It is known that estrogen plays a significant role in the regulation of bone turnover, and its loss at menopause causes osteoporosis. Added to this, insufficient calcium intake accelerates bone mass loss, increasing the risk of fractures. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to answer the question whether a fructan-enriched diet could be helpful in preventing from disturbances in bone turnover caused by calcium restriction combined with ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency. The differences related to the kind of fructan and 'matrix effect' of fructan action (form of addition) were also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted using sham-operated (control groups) or ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a calcium restricted diet. The treatment diets contained one of three fructan sources - Jerusalem artichoke, yacon and Beneo Orafti Synergy1 - added alone or as an ingredient of strawberry sorbet, all in the amount providing 8% fructans. Analyses of biological material included: serum Ca, Mg and P concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and C-telopeptide degradation products from type I collagen (CTX). Densitometric parameters of femora were also assayed. RESULTS: Among markers of bone turnover, the ALP activity depended both on the kind of fructan and the form of addition. The highest value was shown in the OVX group fed a low-calcium diet, whereas administration of diet enriched with Jerusalem artichoke led to an almost 50% decrease in the value of this parameter. Dietary fructans also lowered the OC level. Feeding rats with diet containing sorbet enriched in yacon or Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a decrease of CTX, compared to the diet containing yacon alone or fructan formulation in both forms No significant differences were observed in densitometric parameters between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained findings suggest that fructan administration with a calcium-restricted diet might exert a positive effect on bone turnover parameters. Regarding the form of their addition, it is possible that other constituents of sorbets contributed to the fructan action. It remains open whether this impact would be significant over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/deficiência , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutanos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Frutanos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(4): 309-324, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441546

RESUMO

The study was conducted to determine effects of a complex of fibre-degrading enzymes (xylanase, cellulase and ß-glucanase) on nutrient digestibility, fibre fermentation and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) at different parts of digestive tract in pigs fed different fibre-rich ingredients. A total of 36 barrows fitted with T-cannulas in the distal ileum (initial body weight of 41.1 ± 2.7 kg) were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with three different high-fibre diets including maize bran (MB), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and soybean hulls (SH) with or without supplementation of fibre-degrading enzymes. Enzyme supplementation improved (p < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dietary gross energy (GE), crude protein, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), total dietary fibre (TDF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary GE, DM, OM, TDF, insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) when pigs were fed MB, SBP or SH diets. When compared to the SBP and SH diets, the AID of GE, DM, ash, OM and NDF in diet MB was higher (p < 0.05), but the hindgut disappearance and ATTD of nutrients, except for ether extract and crude ash, were lower (p < 0.05). Enzyme supplementation increased acetate and total SCFA concentrations in ileal digesta and faeces of pigs. In conclusion, enzyme addition improved IDF fermentation and SCFA concentration in the whole intestine of pigs, and there was a large variation of digestibility of fibre components among MB, SH and SBP owing to their different fibre composition. Therefore, fibre-degrading enzymes should be applied to fibrous diets to improve efficient production of swine, especially considering low fibre digestibility of fibre-rich ingredients.


Assuntos
Celulase/metabolismo , Digestão , Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Íleo/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulase/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase/administração & dosagem , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja/química , Zea mays/química
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379891

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important disease, and the ingestion of soy isoflavones (ISF) may benefit PRRSV-infected pigs due to demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of ISF consumption on fecal microbiome characteristics at different timepoints across a disease challenge and determine whether any changes, if present, elude to potential biological mechanisms for previously observed performance benefits. In total, 96 weaned barrows were group-housed in a Biosafety Level-2 containment facility and allotted to one of three experimental treatments that were maintained throughout the study: noninfected pigs receiving an ISF-devoid control diet (NEG, n = 24) and infected pigs receiving either the control diet (POS, n = 36) or that supplemented with total ISF in excess of 1,600 mg/kg (ISF, n = 36). Following a 7-d adaptation, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either a sham-control (phosphate-buffered saline) or live PRRSV (1 × 105 median tissue culture infectious dose[TCID]50/mL, strain NADC20). Fecal samples were collected from 48 individual pigs at pre-infection (-2 d post-inoculation [DPI]), peak-infection (10 DPI), and post-infection (144 DPI) timepoints. Extracted DNA was used to quantify fecal microbiota profiles via 16S bacterial rRNA sequencing. Differences in bacterial communities among diet groups were evaluated with principal coordinate analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance using UniFrac distance matrices based on both unweighted and weighted UniFrac distances using QIIME 2. All other data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA performed on square root transformations using R. Across all timepoints, only a few differences were observed due to ISF alone mainly in lowly abundant genera. The most notable differences observed were decreased relative abundance of Actinobacteria at 144 DPI between noninfected and infected treatments (P < 0.05), which is consistent with various dysbioses observed in other disease models. Our findings indicate that the differences present were mainly due to PRRSV-infection alone and not strongly influenced by diet, which implies that previously observed performance benefits conferred by dietary ISF are not likely due to the changes in microbiome composition.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Soja/química , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 48-56, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials evaluating the effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in lactating women have been small, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in lactating women. METHODS: An electronic search of databases was conducted from inception to January 2020. Two authors screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Percentage change in BMD was pooled using random-effects models and reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% CIs. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials including 567 lactating women were included. All had a high risk of bias. Mean baseline calcium intake ranged from 562 to 1333 mg/d. Compared with control groups (placebo/no intervention), calcium supplementation (600/1000 mg/d) had no significant effect on BMD at the lumbar spine (WMD: 0.74%; 95% CI: -0.10%, 1.59%; I2 = 47%; 95% CI: 0%, 81%; n = 527 from 5 trials) or the forearm (WMD: 0.53%; 95% CI: -0.35%, 1.42%; I2 = 55%; 95% CI: 0%, 85%; n = 415 from 4 trials). BMD at other sites was assessed in single trials: calcium supplementation had a small to moderate effect on total-hip BMD (WMD: 3.3%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 5.1%) but no effect on total body or femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the meta-analysis indicates that calcium supplementation does not provide clinically important benefits for BMD in lactating women. However, there was adequate dietary intake before supplementation in some studies, and others did not measure baseline calcium intake. Advising lactating women to meet the current recommended calcium intakes (with supplementation if dietary intake is low) is warranted unless new high-certainty evidence to the contrary from robust clinical trials becomes available. More research needs to be done in larger samples of women from diverse ethnic and racial groups.This systematic review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero as CRD42015022092.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469870

RESUMO

Obtaining a nutrient-rich diet during pregnancy is a challenge for pregnant women living in low-income countries. This randomized, controlled trial was designed to determine if a freshly prepared food supplement from local animal-source foods and dark-green leafy vegetables given prior to and/or during pregnancy improved birth outcomes in rural Vietnamese women. Primiparous women, 18 to 30 years of age, who participated in the study were assigned to one of three groups: PC-T women received the supplement from pre-conception to term, MG-T women received the supplement from mid-gestation to term, and the RPC women received routine prenatal care. Supplement intake was observed and quantified. Infant anthropometry was measured at birth and/or within seven days of delivery. The effect of the intervention on maternal and birth outcomes was determined using linear regression modeling. Of the 460 women enrolled in the study, 317 women completed the study. Those not completing the study had either moved from the area, did not conceive within 12 months of study enrollment, or miscarried. The food-based supplement increased protein, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A and B12 intakes in the PC-T and the MG-T groups. However, it failed to alter infant anthropometric measurements at birth. In the entire cohort, maternal gestational weight gain was greater in women with a low pre-pregnancy BMI (<18.5) and in women with a higher educational attainment. Working as a farmer reduced gestational weight gain but it did not affect birth weight or length. In summary, a nutrient-rich, food-based supplement given to rural Vietnamese women from pre-conception to term or mid-gestation to term did not affect maternal or infant outcomes. The low weight gains, possibly due to demanding farm work done throughout the reproductive cycle, may have obviated any effects of the low energy, nutrient-rich food supplement on birth outcomes. Trial registration : Registered Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01235767.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Resultado da Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem ; 326: 126933, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438228

RESUMO

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) are widely applied in detergents, cosmetics, and food additives. A simultaneous analytical method was developed to detection the polyethylene glycol (100-10000 Da). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) could analyze successively PEG products. The method was verified with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The retention times of PEG 200-8000 ranged from 1.97 to 12.33 min. Method validation was performed to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS); linearity: R2 > 0.997, LOD: 7.47-16.24 µg/mL, LOQ: 22.40-75 µg/mL, repeatability (%RSD): 0.2-2.5, recovery (%): 90.4-104.9% for film-coated tablet, 80.1-95.9% for sugar-coated tablet. A total of 115 PEG could be identified by extracted ion chromatography in mass analysis, based on the charge state represented as [M+Na++H3O+n-1]. This method can be applied for successive identification of PEGs in PEG-containing products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , República da Coreia , Comprimidos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of a 12-month double-blind randomized active placebo-controlled trial, treatment of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) with a readily absorbable structured lipid (Encala™, Envara Health, Wayne, PA) was safe, well-tolerated and improved dietary fat absorption (stool coefficient of fat absorption [CFA]), growth, and plasma fatty acids (FA). OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Encala™ treatment effect varied by severity of baseline fat malabsorption. METHODS: Subjects (n = 66, 10.5±3.0 yrs, 39% female) with baseline CFA who completed a three-month treatment with Encala™ or a calorie and macronutrient-matched placebo were included in this subgroup analysis. Subjects were categorized by median baseline CFA: low CFA (<88%) and high CFA (≥88%). At baseline and 3-month evaluations, CFA (72-hour stool, weighed food record) and height (HAZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI (BMIZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fasting plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Subjects in the low CFA subgroup had significantly improved CFA (+7.5±7.2%, mean 86.3±6.7, p = 0.002), and reduced stool fat loss (-5.7±7.2 g/24 hours) following three months of EncalaTM treatment. These subjects also had increased plasma linoleic acid (+20%), α-linolenic acid (+56%), and total FA (+20%) (p≤0.005 for all) concentrations and improvements in HAZ (0.06±0.08), WAZ (0.17±0.16), and BMIZ (0.20±0.25) (p≤0.002 for all). CFA and FA were unchanged with placebo in the low CFA group, with some WAZ increases (0.14±0.24, p = 0.02). High CFA subjects (both placebo and Encala™ groups) had improvements in WAZ and some FA. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with CF, PI and more severe fat malabsorption experienced greater improvements in CFA, FA and growth after three months of Encala™ treatment. Encala™ was safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in patients with CF and PI with residual fat malabsorption and improved dietary energy absorption, weight gain and FA status in this at-risk group.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/terapia , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/terapia , Administração Oral , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/complicações , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Síndromes de Malabsorção/metabolismo , Masculino , Efeito Placebo
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