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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416000

RESUMO

Four jams were made using two wild species of Physalis spp., two containing seeds (P1WS and P2WS) and two without seeds (P1WHS and P2WHS). Physicochemical, nutraceutical and rheological properties of the jams were determined and a sensory evaluation made. P1WS and P2WS jams had lower carbohydrates contents, reducing sugars and calories, and higher fiber contents than P1WHS and P2WHS. The presence of seeds in the jams increased phenols and flavonoids. However, the seedless jams had better sensory acceptance. The dynamic rheological testing indicated a gel-like behavior (G'>G'') in whole jams. Also, shearing flow testing showed shear-thinning and thixotropic behaviors, which are shared characteristics with others fruit jams, such as mango or gabiroba. The presence of seeds in the jam affected directly yield stress, apparent viscosity, hysteresis area, and viscoelastic parameters, which were described in the sensory analysis as a "less desirable texture". The use of seeds from wild species of Physalis spp., increased the nutritional value of jam. However, it would be necessary to improve consumer acceptance through technological processes prior to marketing.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Physalis/química , Reologia , Sementes/química , Paladar , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
2.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 969-976, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642301

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method and a TraceFinder database were developed for the screening and identification of 15 adulterated weight loss compounds in dietary supplements. The samples were extracted with methanol and filtered through a 0.22 µm microfiltration membrane prior to LC-HRMS analysis. The Full MS/dd-MS2 mode was utilized in both positive and negative ion modes and the collected data were imported into the TraceFinder screening software. The established compound database and screening method were used for rapid, automatic, and high-precision screening to determine if the weight loss compounds were adulterated. The method validation results indicated that all of the analytes showed excellent linear relationships with regression coefficients (r) above 0.998. The recoveries were in the range of 79.7%-95.4% while the precisions ranged from 3.3% to 8.7%. The method and database were used to screen weight loss adulterants in 29 batches of dietary supplements; six batches of samples tested positive for adulterants with the identification of four compounds including sibutramine. This method enables the automatic high-precision screening and identification of adulterants, providing a novel and powerful tool for combating the increasingly rampant occurrence of adulteration in dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 96-107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474657

RESUMO

LC/Tribrid Orbitrap was developed to determine phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogs as adulterants in dietary supplements. High-resolution MS/MS and MS3 spectra of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs were obtained by LC/Tribrid Orbitrap using both higher-energy collisional dissociation and collision-induced dissociation. We investigated dietary supplements that claim to enhance men's sexual performance, and detected PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs. We also estimated the structures of the PDE-5 inhibitor analogs and the impurities of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs in the dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9719-9726, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398015

RESUMO

Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are normally highly concentrated emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles with a minimum internal phase volume fraction of 0.74. They have received considerable attention in many fields, including pharmaceuticals, tissue engineering, foods, and personal care products. The aim of this perspective is to update the current knowledge on the field of protein-based Pickering HIPEs, emphasizing those aspects that need to be explored and clarified. Research progress in constructing HIPEs by protein-type colloid particles and promising research trends in basic research and potential applications were highlighted. Promising studies in this field include (1) clarifying bioavailability and evolution of activity of active ingredients in Pickering HIPEs by oral administration, (2) constructing a Pickering interfacial catalysis platform using protein colloidal particles, and (3) expanding the emerging applications of Pickering HIPEs in fields, such as partially hydrogenated oil replacers, probiotic encapsulation, and the template for porous materials.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Emulsões/química , Proteínas/química , Coloides/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Excipientes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10285-10295, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443611

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) is capable of promoting abnormal proliferation and differentiation in primary cultured mouse osteoblasts (OB cells), although the underlying mechanism responsible remains rare. This study aimed to explore the roles of wingless and INT-1 (Wnt) signaling pathways and screen appropriate doses of calcium (Ca2+) to alleviate the sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced OB cell toxicity. For this, we evaluated the effect of dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) and Ca2+ on mRNA levels of wingless/integrated 3a (Wnt3a), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), dishevelled 1 (Dv1), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß), ß-catenin, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (cMYC), as well as Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1) in OB cells challenged with 10-6 mol/L NaF for 24 h. The demonstrated data showed that F significantly increased the OB cell proliferation rate. Ectogenic 0.5 mg/L DKK1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of OB cells induced by F. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a, LRP5, Dv1, LEF1, ß-catenin, cMYC, and Ccnd1 were significantly increased in the F group, while significantly decreased in the 10-6 mol/L NaF + 0.5 mg/L DKK1 (FY) group. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a, LRP5, ß-catenin, and cMYC were significantly decreased in the 10-6 mol/L NaF + 2 mmol/L CaCl2 (F+CaII) group. The protein expression levels of Wnt3a, Cyclin D1, cMYC, and ß-catenin were significantly increased in the F group, whereas they were decreased in the F+CaII group. However, the mRNA and protein expression levels of GSK3ß were significantly decreased in the F group while significantly increased in the F+CaII group. In summary, F activated the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and changed the related gene expression and ß-catenin protein location in OB cells, promoting cell proliferation. Ca2+ supplementation (2 mmol/L) reversed the expression levels of genes and proteins related to the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/classificação , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/genética
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 270, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common canine disease frequently treated with nutritional supplements that often lack independent verification of ingredients, active ingredient concentration, efficacy, or safety. Human supplements containing Boswellia serrata extracts (BSE) with high concentrations of active constituents 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (AKBA) and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (KBA) are bioavailable, safe, and efficacious in the alleviation of symptoms of naturally occurring osteoarthritis in people. Thus, oral AKBA and/or KBA supplementation could be a promising novel therapy for dogs with osteoarthritis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of AKBA and KBA within six human and seven canine market formulations containing BSE administered to dogs, using a derivation of the previously validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The secondary objective was to compare measured concentrations to label claims. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of AKBA and KBA within the formulations tested were 42.3 mg/g AF (0.1-155.7 mg/g AF) and 5.2 mg/g AF (0-24.8 mg/g AF), respectively, with four of the formulations containing an undetectable amount of KBA. None of the market formulations had a label claim for KBA. For the five tested formulations with a label claim for AKBA, the mean percentage of detected AKBA was 173% of the concentration listed on the label (range: 114-224%). Formulations claiming to contain AKBA had a mean AKBA concentration of 98.2 mg/g AF, significantly higher than formulations claiming only to contain BSE (7.4 mg/g AF; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a large variation of boswellic acid concentrations in market formulations claiming to contain BSE, with products claiming to contain AKBA containing higher concentrations of AKBA than other products. There was also a large variation in, and overall high, percent difference between label claims and measured concentrations of AKBA. All products met or exceeded label claims. However, differences between label amounts and detected concentrations confirm the need for independent laboratories to quantify concentrations of active ingredients in supplements containing BSE. This would be necessary prior to the use of these formulations in the research or clinical setting.


Assuntos
Boswellia/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cães
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 29, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311550

RESUMO

Supplementation with UC-II® undenatured type II collagen has been shown to provide joint health benefits for both healthy adults and adults with knee osteoarthritis in controlled clinical trials. These trials used UC-II® materials with undenatured type II collagen characterized by an ELISA method that utilizes a monoclonal antibody specific for epitopes expressed by undenatured type II collagen protein only. In 2014, we modified the sample preparation part of the ELISA method in order to reduce the amount of time devoted to this procedure. We undertook these modifications in order to provide commercial manufacturers with a streamlined assay methodology better aligned with their product testing requirements. In doing so, it altered the percent of undenatured collagen now reported for UC-II® undenatured type II collagen. The intent of this letter is to clarify that the UC-II® materials used in the published clinical research cited herein, and the commercially available ingredient, remain identical and to describe the rationale for the change in the extraction method.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo II/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Administração Oral , Humanos
10.
Food Chem ; 300: 125195, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326676

RESUMO

Presence of pungent gingerols in ginger oleoresin makes it an ideal natural flavoring candidate for the food industry. The study reports its incorporation for synergistic enhancement of flavor and nutraceutical portfolio of candied mango. The process is systematically optimized at bench-scale for gingerols infusion and subsequent candying treatment in a range of hypo and hypertonic osmotic solutions for critical transport properties. After that, optimization of the drying process and the scale-up study was conducted with a 200 folds increase in the batch size. Collated effects of multistep optimization resulted in 85.6, 76.8, 60.2% retention in ß-carotene, total phenolics, Vitamin C, respectively, along with minor color difference and significant improvement in sensory scores over fresh mango. Mass transfer and quality parameters were comparable in both scales, implying excellent repeatability and scalability of the process. Compared with a similar commercial product, substantial improvement in quality characteristics along with 376.7% reduction in overall processing time was achieved.


Assuntos
Doces , Catecóis/química , Álcoois Graxos/química , Aromatizantes/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Mangifera/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Cor , Dessecação/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Paladar , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/química
11.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274343

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of different doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) on growth performance, immune function and antioxidative capacity in piglets. In a 21-d trial, 35 weaned pigs were divided into five groups and diets were supplemented with 5.5 (control), 43.0, 80.5, 118.0 and 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg, respectively. No treatment effects were observed for average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed to gain ratio. Increasing dietary 25(OH)D3 levels increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations linearly (p < 0.01), decreased the frequency of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells (p < 0.01), and the serum level of complement component 3 (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 80.5 and 118.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg enhanced the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) and addition of 43.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg increased the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding high-dose 25(OH)D3 to weaned pigs partly improved immune functions and the antioxidative capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Desmame
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294678

RESUMO

The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6515-6521, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fortification of animal products with natural bioactive compounds appears to improve their quality and protects consumers against oxidation effects. An experiment was therefore conducted to examine the effects of hesperidin or naringin on milk oxidative stability, yield, composition, coagulation properties, and the fatty acid profile in dairy sheep. Thirty-six Chios ewes were assigned to four groups. A control group was fed a concentrate diet without supplementation. The other three groups were provided with the same diet further supplemented with hesperidin (6000 mg kg-1 ), naringin (6000 mg kg-1 ), or α-tocopheryl acetate (200 mg kg-1 ). The efficacy of flavonoids after a change in diet composition that lowered milk oxidation values by itself was also tested. The duration of the experiment was 28 days with alfalfa hay being the only forage source for the first 14 days, whereas after the 15th day a mixture of alfalfa hay and wheat straw (65:35) was provided. RESULTS: The oxidative stability of milk was improved after 14 days of addition of the examined flavonoids (P < 0.05). Milk malondialdehyde (MDA) values were also decreased as a result of flavonoid dietary supplementation, 14 days after the modification of the forage source. On the other hand, no significant differences in yield, chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile of ewe milk were observed among the treatments throughout the experiment. CONCLUSION: Enrichment of dairy ewes' diets with hesperidin and naringin might be effective in improving milk's oxidative stability without any effects on the milk's chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Leite/química , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6582-6588, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on laying performance, zinc (Zn) status, intestinal morphology, and Zn transporters in laying hens compared with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 ). A total of 384 Hyline Grey laying hens (38 weeks old) with similar performance (1.42 ± 0.07 kg) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with Zn, either as Zn-Met at 40 and 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet or as ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet, for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference in egg weight, egg production, feed intake, and feed conversation ratio among all groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, Zn contents were increased (P < 0.05) in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum of laying hens fed diets supplemented with different Zn sources. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in Zn contents in liver, duodenum, and jejunum between diets supplemented with Zn-Met or ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet. Compared with the control and the ZnSO4 group (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet), supplementation with Zn-Met of 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet increased (P < 0.05) villus height, villus area, and villus height/crypt depth ratio but reduced (P < 0.05) crypt depth in jejunum. Expression of metallothionein messenger RNA of jejunum in the group fed a diet containing Zn-Met (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet) was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that Zn-Met has positive effects on the Zn status of liver, duodenum, and jejunum, intestinal morphology, and metallothionein messenger RNA expression in jejunum of laying hens compared with ZnSO4 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
15.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(24): 4585-4605, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284852

RESUMO

Gac, Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is more considered as a super fruit. The demand for this plant is growing in countries where its reputation is high, including traditional countries of gac culture and countries fond of super fruits and food supplements. In these latter countries, the industrial strategy aims at producing high added value in food supplements or nutritional rich preparations. However, when marketing is not the driving force and claims have to be related to scientific data, the situation of gac is less "heavenly", mainly because its most remarkable properties are in the field of micronutrients. These latter components are indeed very important for health but their supplementation on healthy populations brings no significant advantage. This paper proposes to review aspects important for the nutritional reputation of this plant: where it comes from, how it is cultured to have an optimal nutritional composition, what is its composition and how it can impact health of consumers, in which products it is used and what are the regulations to use it in different markets. One important goal of this review is to give a critical and scientific approach to confirm data on this fruit, which has been promoted by marketing departments injecting so many wrong and unverified information. Missing data will be highlighted and potential positive applications are proposed all along the text.


Assuntos
Momordica/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Momordica/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/química
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125010, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284091

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 dietary supplement can be critical to the alleviation strategies against micronutrient malnutrition and food insecurity. An HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated, per AOAC SMPR 2016.017 (Standard Method Performance Requirements), for the quantitation of four bioactive forms of vitamin B12 (adenosylcobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin) from dietary ingredients and supplements. The method achieves chromatographic baseline resolution of vitamin B12 forms on a modern column platform without the expensive requirement of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry. The method has a wide analytical range (0.0005%w/w-85%w/w), high precision (reproducibility relative standard deviations ranged from 1.43% to 4.67%), and high accuracy (>96% spike recovery rate for 11 out of 12 accuracy testing data points). The method detection and quantification limits are less than 0.16 and 0.52 µg/mL, respectively. To our best knowledge, it is simpler, less time-consuming, and more economical than other published methods for its intended uses.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Vitamina B 12/análise , Cobamidas/análise , Laboratórios , Limite de Detecção , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise , Complexo Vitamínico B/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2337-2346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294468

RESUMO

Unopened flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. (capers), generally used in the Mediterranean area as food flavoring, are known to be a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutraceutical value of salt-fermented capers collected from different areas of Pantelleria Island (Italy), testing their methylglyoxal and glyoxal trapping capacity and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), [2,2-azinobis(3-ethylben- zothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Hydrophilic extracts were also characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Among 24 detected compounds, several flavonol derivatives and glucosinolates were identified. The levels of kaempferol and quercetin derivatives varied considerably among the five accessions considered (6.46 to 267.93 and 22.39 to 367.14 mg kaempferol and quercetin equivalent /g fresh weight, respectively), with kaempferol derivatives more representative than quercetin ones. Person's coefficient indicated a high correlation between total phenolic content and anti-DPPH radical capacity (R2 = 0.665), as well as between total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity (by ORAC assay; R2 = 0.888) and between total flavonoid content and glyoxal and methylglyoxal trapping capacity (R2 = 0.918). Results indicate that capers from Pantelleria Island represent a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical relevance. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study highlight the health benefits of Pantelleria capers consumption due to their composition in antioxidants and their biological properties (antiradical and alpha-dicarbonyls trapping) correlated with the development of a high number of chronic-degenerative diseases. These results are also important for the agricultural and commercial sectors involved in the production of capers from Pantelleria, which received the Protected Geographical Indications recognition.


Assuntos
Capparis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Itália , Quempferóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quercetina/análise , Sementes/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22522-22528, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161544

RESUMO

High rates of irreversible oligo- or azoospermia are found among Nigerian men, leading many to consume herbal male sex enhancement products. The possibility of reproductive toxicity due to heavy metal contamination (Cr, As, Co, Hg, Cd, and Pb) of herbal products commonly used to boost libido or treat erectile dysfunction necessitated this study. In this study, herbal sex enhancement supplements were bought from pharmaceutical shops in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, As, Co, Hg, Cd, and Pb) contents using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The estimated daily metal intake (EDImetal), target hazard quotients (THQ), and total target hazard quotients (TTHQ) were determined. All the herbal sex enhancers used in this study contained heavy metals in these ranges: lead (0.032-0593), cobalt (0.025-0.075), cadmium (0.0011-0.048), and chromium (0.016-0.49) mg/kg. About 24.32% of the samples had TTHQ greater than 1. The EDImetal, THQ, and TTHQ of herbal sex enhancement supplements suggest that the use of some of these herbal sex enhancement supplements may not be risk-free after chronic exposure. Herbal sex enhancement supplements sold in Nigeria contain high levels of lead and cadmium. Since these metals are known to have male reproductive toxicity, these supplements may be adding to both the body burden of these metals and also implicated in the increasing incidence of male infertility in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Cobalto , Humanos , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Espectrofotometria Atômica
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7832-7843, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242723

RESUMO

Oxidative-stress-induced senescence constitutes a great risk factor for chronic diseases. Therefore, ameliorating oxidative-stress-induced senescence is expected to prevent chronic diseases. The beneficial effects of bilberry anthocyanin (BA) on healthy aging were evaluated using 12 month old, aging female SD rats in this study. The experimental results suggested that consumption of a middle-dose of BA (MBA) appreciably increased the relative liver mass by 7.34% when compared with that of the AC group. Furthermore, BA significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase activity, and catalase activities; decreased malondialdehyde, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), and glycated serum protein (GSP) levels; and reduced TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. In addition, MBA decreased the activity of fecal bacterial enzymes and increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids. The Western blot results showed that MBA significantly upregulated the expression of OCLN, ZO-1, and autophagy-related proteins (ATP6 V0C, ATG4D, and CTSB) in aging rats. Moreover, it also showed that MBA induced the phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3a and inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR, which indicated that bilberry anthocyanin induced autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathways. This induction of autophagy further promoted oxidative stress resistance effects and intestinal epithelial barrier function of bilberry anthocyanin in aging female rats.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6108-6113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotides are key constituents of milk, where they are utilized in cell replication, although there are limited studies for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of uridine monophosphate (UMP) with uridine (UR) feed supplementation on the intestinal development and nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. RESULTS: Supplementation with UMP significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, and UR supplementation significantly reduced (0.05 < P < 0.10) the plasma total cholesterol (TC) of piglets when compared with that of the control group, although non-significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth performance was observed among three groups. Piglets fed supplementary UR exhibited greater (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum when compared with those in the supplementary UMP and control groups. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results revealed that UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the relative mRNA levels of genes encoding the transmembrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin in the duodenum mucosa, and ZO-1 in the jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). Similarly, UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) expression of solute carriers SLC28A1 and SLC29A1 in the duodenum mucosa. Conversely, claudin-1 expression in the duodenum mucosa was inhibited (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation with UMP or UR. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data indicated that dietary supplementation with UMP or UR was conducive to stimulating intestinal development and promoting nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
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