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2.
Trials ; 21(1): 942, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a therapeutic role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients are adults with self-reported new-onset olfactory dysfunction of any duration associated with laboratory-confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Exclusion criteria include patients with pre-existing olfactory dysfunction, history of chronic rhinosinusitis or history of sinus surgery, current use of nasal steroid sprays or omega-3 supplementation, fish allergy, or inability to provide informed consent for any reason. The trial is conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group will receive 2000 mg daily of omega-3 supplementation in the form of two "Fish Oil, Ultra Omega-3" capsules (product of Pharmavite®) daily. The comparator group will take 2 placebo capsules of identical size, shape, and odor daily for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Each subject will take a Brief Smell Identification Test at study enrolment and completion after 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be change in Brief Smell Identification Test over the 6-week period. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized by the Investigational Drug Pharmacy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Sinai via a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 allocation to treatment or control arms. BLINDING (MASKING): Both participants and researchers will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There will be 88 participants randomized to each group. A total of 176 participants will be randomized. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1, 8/3/2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started 8/5/2020 with estimated completion 11/30/2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with Protocol Identifier: NCT04495816 . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495816 . Registered 3 August 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia
3.
J Fam Pract ; 69(7 Suppl): S2-S7, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104100

RESUMO

Identify common shortfalls in the typical American diet. Address the link between poor diet quality and chronic disease. Identify patients at risk for vitamin deficiency and potential vitamin-drug interactions. Recognize patients with vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Partner with patients regarding selection and appropriate use of vitamin and mineral supplements to achieve recommended dietary allowances.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 876, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigates the effectiveness of curcumin-containing Nanomicelles as a therapeutic supplement in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and its effect on immune responses balance changes following treatment. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is conducted as a prospective, placebo-controlled with parallel group, single-center randomized clinical trial on COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: Patients are selected from the COVID-19 ward of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Real time PCR-approved positive COVID-19 test. 2. Both gender 3. Age between 18 and 75 years 4. Signing a written consent 5. Lack of participation in other clinical trials Exclusion criteria: 1. Pregnancy or lactation 2. Allergy to turmeric or curcumin 3. Smoking 4. Patient connected to the ventilator 5. SaO2 less than 90% or PaO2 less than 8 kPa 6. Having comorbidities (such as severe renal failure, Glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min, liver failure, Congestive heart failure, or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) 7. History of gallstones 8. History of gastritis or active gastrointestinal ulcer INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In addition to the routine standard treatments for COVID-19, in the intervention group, 40mg nanomicelles containing curcumin (SinaCurcumin Capsule, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran), four times per day (after breakfast, lunch, dinner and before bedtime) and in the placebo group as the control group, capsules with the same appearance and characteristics (Placebo capsules, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran) are prescribed for two weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: The effectiveness of Nano micelles containing curcumin treatment will be evaluated as daily clinical examinations of patients in both groups and, on days 0, 7 and 14, complete clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including peripheral blood and serum parameters such as inflammatory markers will be measured and recorded. Moreover, in order to evaluate the balance of immune responses changes following treatments, serum level of IFN-γ, IL-17, Il-4 and TGF-ß serum cytokines will be measured in both groups at time points of 0, 7 and 14 days post treatment. Gene expression of t-bet, GATA-3, FoxP3 and ROR- γT will also be measured at mentioned time points to assess the shift of T helper1, T helper2, T regulatory and T helper 17 immune responses following treatment. RANDOMISATION: Randomized trials will be performed on 40 COVID-19 patients which will be randomized using encoded sealed boxes with computer generated random digits with 1:1 allocation ratio. In order to randomization, placebo and SinaCurcumin Capsules will be numbered first by computer generated random digits. SinaCurcumin and placebo will then be stored and numbered in sealed packages based on generated random numbers. Finally, according to the order in which patients enter the study, packages are given to patients based on their number. BLINDING (MASKING): The present study will be blind for all patients, physicians and nurses, laboratory technicians and statisticians. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 40 patients will be included in the study, 20 of them will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and 20 to the placebo group. TRIAL STATUS: This is Version 1.0 of protocol dated 21 May 2020. The recruitment was started June 24, 2020 and is expected to be completed by October 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This present clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the registration code of "IRCT20200611047735N1", https://www.irct.ir/trial/48843 . Dated: 19 June 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Curcumina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Interleucinas/imunologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Micelas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5465, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122660

RESUMO

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid, has been widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and treat brain diseases alone or in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the impact of EPA and DHA supplementation on normal cognitive function and the molecular targets of EPA and DHA are still unknown. We show that acute administration of EPA impairs learning and memory and hippocampal LTP in adult and prepubescent mice. Similar deficits are duplicated by endogenously elevating EPA in the hippocampus in the transgenic fat-1 mouse. Furthermore, the damaging effects of EPA are mediated through enhancing GABAergic transmission via the 5-HT6R. Interestingly, DHA can prevent EPA-induced impairments at a ratio of EPA to DHA similar to that in marine fish oil via the 5-HT2CR. We conclude that EPA exhibits an unexpected detrimental impact on cognitive functions, suggesting that caution must be exercised in omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and the combination of EPA and DHA at a natural ratio is critical for learning and memory and synaptic plasticity.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Camundongos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
7.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938758

RESUMO

Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners.Vitamin D activation requires magnesium. Hyperinsulinaemia promotes: magnesium depletion via increased renal excretion, reduced intracellular levels, lowers vitamin D status via sequestration into adipocytes and hydroxylation activation inhibition. Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity. Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions. Degree/level of restriction is determined by serial testing of blood glucose, insulin and ketones. Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered. By implementing refined carbohydrate restriction, three primary risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, that increase inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis risk are rapidly managed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Insulina/sangue , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Cetonas/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/uso terapêutico
8.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941710

RESUMO

Multiple prescription medications may cause or aggravate acne. A number of dietary supplements have also been linked to acne, including those containing vitamins B6/B12, iodine, and whey, as well as "muscle building supplements" that may be contaminated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Acne linked to dietary supplements generally resolves following supplement discontinuation. Lesions associated with high-dose vitamin B6 and B12 supplements have been described as monomorphic and although pathogenesis is unknown, a number of hypotheses have been proposed. Iodine-related acne may be related to the use of kelp supplements and has been reported as monomorphic, inflammatory pustules on the face and upper trunk. Whey protein supplements, derived from milk and used for bodybuilding, are associated with papulonodular acne involving the trunk and sometimes the face. Finally, AAS-induced acne has been described as acne fulminans, acne conglobata, and acne papulopustulosa. With studies indicating that about half of US adults report using dietary supplements, it is important that dermatologists directly ask acne patients about their supplement use and educate them on the potential risks of even seemingly innocuous dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Vitamina B 12/efeitos adversos , Vitamina B 6/efeitos adversos , Complexo Vitamínico B/efeitos adversos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2379-2388, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric patients often suffer from vitamin D (VD) deficiency, and both, morbid obesity and VD deficiency, are related to an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, we assessed the change of known CVD risk factors and its associations during the first 12 months following one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this secondary analysis, CVD risk factors, medical history and anthropometric data were assessed in fifty VD deficient (25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/l) patients, recruited for a randomized controlled trial of VD supplementation. Based on previous results regarding bone-mass loss and the association between VD and CVD risk, the study population was divided into patients with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/l (adequate VD group; AVD) and into those <50 nmol/l (inadequate VD group; IVD) at 6 and 12 months (T6/12) postoperatively. In the whole cohort, substantial remission rates for hypertension (38%), diabetes (30%), and dyslipidaemia (41%) and a significant reduction in CVD risk factors were observed at T12. Changes of insulin resistance markers were associated with changes of total body fat mass (TBF%), 25(OH)D, and ferritin. Moreover, significant differences in insulin resistance markers between AVD and IVD became evident at T12. CONCLUSION: These findings show that OAGB leads to a significant reduction in CVD risk factors and amelioration of insulin resistance markers, which might be connected to reduced TBF%, change in 25(OH)D and ferritin levels, as an indicator for subclinical inflammation, and an adequate VD status. REGISTERED AT CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: (Identifier: NCT02092376) and EudraCT (Identifier: 2013-003546-16).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Áustria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
12.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(9): 862-874, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818465

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare, unpredictable, and potentially serious adverse reaction. It is induced by many drugs, herbs, and dietary supplements and represents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Older people (aged 65 years and older) are often polymedicated, and their declining physiological function affects drug pharmacokinetics. There is no consistent evidence that age is a general risk factor for DILI; however, age might be a risk factor with specific medications, with antimicrobials and cardiovascular drugs being the most likely medications to cause DILI in older people. Ageing influences DILI phenotypes, making cholestatic damage and chronic DILI more likely. In older people with DILI, comorbidities act as confounding causes and account for higher mortality unrelated to the liver. There are no specific therapies for DILI and supportive measures are still the mainstay of management. This Review highlights current advances and gaps in DILI epidemiology, mechanisms, and diagnosis that are pertinent to older individuals.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Farmacocinética , Fenótipo , Polimedicação , Fatores de Risco
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(4): H906-H914, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857616

RESUMO

Reduced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cutaneous vasodilation, secondary to increased oxidative stress, presents in young African American (AA) compared with European American (EA) adults and may be modulated by vitamin D status. We assessed cutaneous microvascular function in 18 young, healthy (21 ± 2 yr; 9 men, 9 women) subjects before (pre, 8 AA, 10 EA) 4 wk of 2,000 IU/day oral vitamin D supplementation and in 13 subjects after (post, 7 AA, 6 EA) 4 wk of 2,000 IU/day oral vitamin D supplementation. Serum vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] were measured at each visit. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers placed in the ventral forearm were randomized for treatment with 10 µM Tempol, 100 µM apocynin, or lactated Ringer's solution (control). Local heating (39°C) induced cutaneous vasodilation; red cell flux was measured at each site (laser-Doppler flowmetry), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC = flux/MAP) was expressed as a percentage of maximum (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, +43°C) for each phase of local heating. After stable elevated blood flow was attained, 15 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor) was perfused at all sites to quantify the NO contribution to cutaneous vasodilation (%NO), calculated as the difference between local heating and l-NAME plateaus. Serum [25(OH)D], the magnitude of the local heating response, and %NO were all lower in AAs versus EAs (P < 0.01). Tempol (P = 0.01), but not apocynin (P ≥ 0.19), improved the local heating response and %NO. Four weeks of supplementation improved serum [25(OH)D], the local heating response, and %NO in AAs (P ≤ 0.04) but not in EAs (P ≥ 0.41). Vitamin D supplementation mitigated endothelial dysfunction, an antecedent to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), in otherwise healthy, young AA adults.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Endothelial dysfunction, an antecedent to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), is observed earlier and more frequently in otherwise healthy African Americans (AAs) when compared with other ethnic groups. Vitamin D may modulate endothelial function, and darkened skin pigmentation increases risk of vitamin D deficiency. We show that 4 wk of 2,000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation improves microvascular responses to local heating in AAs. Ensuring adequate vitamin D status may mitigate development of cardiovascular dysfunction in this at-risk population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Life Sci ; 259: 118200, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758621

RESUMO

AIMS: Diet is one of the factors affecting the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Choline is a dietary component that is crucial for normal cellular function. However, choline intake imbalance can lead to liver injury, inflammation, and changes of the gut microbiota composition. The study aimed to explore the effects of choline supplementation on liver biology, gut microbiota, and inflammation in H. pylori-infected mice. MAIN METHODS: Liver function was detected by biochemical and histopathological analysis. Serum inflammatory markers were measured using ELISA. Fecal microbial profiles were determined via 16S rRNA sequencing. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that choline supplementation decreased serum LDL level, while increased the activities of serum AST and ALT in normal BALB/c mice. Besides, choline also reduced hepatic SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevated hepatic MDA level of H. pylori-infected mice. Moreover, choline markedly enhanced the concentrations of inflammatory factors including LPS, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL1 in H. pylori-infected mice. Meanwhile, choline and H. pylori cotreatment altered the richness and diversity of the mice gut microbiota, and increased the relative abundance of Escherichia_Shigella, which had a significant positive correlation with the levels of LPS, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and CXCL1. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest, for the first time, that choline can aggravate H. pylori-induced inflammation, which may be associated with the alterations of gut microbiota. This study may provide novel insights into the possible effects of food-derived choline on H. pylori infection-related diseases.


Assuntos
Colina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(8): 1594-1603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the frequency and severity of federally reported adverse events between caffeine-containing and non-caffeine-containing products while also identifying the category of caffeine-containing products associated with the highest frequency and severity of adverse events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adverse event reports that met specified eligibility criteria and were submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System between January 1, 2014, and June 29, 2018, were extracted. In this retrospective observational study, the most severe adverse event experienced, an ordinal variable, was categorized into death, life-threatening, hospitalization/disability, and emergency department visit. A nonproportional odds model was used to compare the odds of caffeine-containing products being associated with more severe adverse events relative to a noncaffeine group. The analysis is of data only from those reporting adverse events and may or may not be representative of the entire population exposed to these products, which is not known from the examined data. RESULTS: Energy and preworkout products saw a significant increase in the odds of the adverse event experienced being death rather than the other less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. Those products, along with weight loss products, had greater odds of the adverse event being death or life-threatening vs the less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. CONCLUSION: Caffeine-containing products have a greater association with severe adverse events compared with non-caffeine-containing products. Exposure to preworkout and weight loss products had greater odds of being associated with a more serious adverse event relative to noncaffeinated products. Health care practitioners should use these outcomes to better inform and educate patients about the many factors related to caffeine intake and adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Cafeína/toxicidade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Café/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chá/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Microvasc Res ; 132: 104066, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate conjunctival microvascular responses in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy (MDR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (D + PM) after administration of Ocufolin™, a medical food containing 900 µg l-methylfolate (levomefolate calcium or [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, calcium salt), methylcobalamin, and other ingredients. METHODS: Eight D + PM patients received Ocufolin™ for six months (6 M). Bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and microcirculation metrics, including vessel diameter (D), axial blood flow velocity (Va), cross-sectional blood flow velocity (Vs), flow rate (Q), and vessel density (VD, Dbox), were measured at baseline, 4 M, and 6 M. RESULTS: The mean age was 54 ± 7 years. No significant demographic differences were found. Conjunctival microcirculation, measured as Va, Vs, and Q was significantly increased at 4 M and 6 M, compared to baseline. Va was 0.44 ± 0.10 mm/s, 0.58 ± 0.13 mm/s, 0.59 ± 0.13 mm/s in baseline, 4 M, and 6 M, respectively (P < 0.01). Similarly, Vs was 0.31 ± 0.07 mm/s, 0.40 ± 0.09 mm/s, 0.41 ± 0.09 mm/s in baseline, 4 M, and 6 M, respectively (P < 0.05). Q was 107.8 ± 49.4 pl/s, 178.0 ± 125.8 pl/s, 163.3 ± 85.8 mm/s in baseline, 4 M, and 6 M, respectively (P < 0.05). The VD at 6 M was significantly higher than that at baseline (P = 0.017). Changes of D were positively correlated with changes of Va, Q, and VD. Effects of MTHFR and haptoglobin polymorphisms on the improvements of conjunctival microcirculation and microvasculature were found. CONCLUSIONS: Ocufolin™ supplementation improves conjunctival microcirculation in patients with diabetic retinopathy and common folate polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/irrigação sanguínea , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1807941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670409

RESUMO

Nephropathic patients show elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. In order to delve deeper into the understanding of this phenomenon, it is necessary to recognize risk factors that are distinctive to the uremic state, such as oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, gender differences have been reported in nephrology, as it has been observed that chronic kidney disease has higher prevalence in males than in females. The use of an oral food supplement (OFS) containing natural active compounds from Capsicum annuum L., Garcinia cambogia, Centella asiatica L., artichoke, and Aesculus hippocastanum L. which are virtually devoid from side effects, but rich in antioxidant and antiradical properties, could represent a valid therapeutic adjunct in the clinical management of nephropathic patients. Moreover, quantitative analysis performed in vitro on such compounds showed that they expressed good total antioxidant (7.28 gallic acid equivalents) and antiradical activity (above 80%). In this study, 23 male nephropathic patients and 10 age and body composition parameter matched healthy males (control group) were enrolled and took 3 cps/day of OFS for 5 weeks. At the end of the study, the nephropathic patient group showed a statistically significant reduction in the following laboratory parameters: total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.044), atherogenic index TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.010), inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, p = 0.048, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, p = 0.019), systolic (p = 0.044), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (p = 0.003). Regarding body composition, there was an increase in total body water % (p = 0.035) with redistribution of extracellular water % (p = 0.030) and intracellular water % (p = 0.049). In the control group, there was a reduction in fat mass % (p = 0.017) and extracellular water % (p = 0.047). Therefore, this OFS may represent a valid adjunct therapy to counteract comorbidities related to uremia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
N Engl J Med ; 383(4): 359-368, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D metabolites support innate immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Data from phase 3, randomized, controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation to prevent tuberculosis infection are lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned children who had negative results for M. tuberculosis infection according to the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) to receive a weekly oral dose of either 14,000 IU of vitamin D3 or placebo for 3 years. The primary outcome was a positive QFT result at the 3-year follow-up, expressed as a proportion of children. Secondary outcomes included the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level at the end of the trial and the incidence of tuberculosis disease, acute respiratory infection, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 8851 children underwent randomization: 4418 were assigned to the vitamin D group, and 4433 to the placebo group; 95.6% of children had a baseline serum 25(OH)D level of less than 20 ng per milliliter. Among children with a valid QFT result at the end of the trial, the percentage with a positive result was 3.6% (147 of 4074 children) in the vitamin D group and 3.3% (134 of 4043) in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.38; P = 0.42). The mean 25(OH)D level at the end of the trial was 31.0 ng per milliliter in the vitamin D group and 10.7 ng per milliliter in the placebo group (mean between-group difference, 20.3 ng per milliliter; 95% CI, 19.9 to 20.6). Tuberculosis disease was diagnosed in 21 children in the vitamin D group and in 25 children in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.55). A total of 29 children in the vitamin D group and 34 in the placebo group were hospitalized for treatment of acute respiratory infection (adjusted risk ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.40). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation did not result in a lower risk of tuberculosis infection, tuberculosis disease, or acute respiratory infection than placebo among vitamin D-deficient schoolchildren in Mongolia. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02276755.).


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento , Teste Tuberculínico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1777-1784, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been used to improve body composition in weight management. However, clinical trial results are inconsistent and limited among Asians. We aimed to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition of Chinese adults with elevated body fat percentage. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 66 Chinese adults (aged 18-45 years old, 37.9% male) with elevated body fat percentage were provided with 3.2 g/day CLA (n = 33) or 3.2 g/day placebo (sunflower oil; n = 33) for 12 weeks. Both groups received lifestyle counseling, featured with low fat and low sugar diet, and moderate physical activity. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and end of the trial. Sixty-four participants finished this study. Compared with the placebo group, the CLA group showed increased trunk muscle mass (MM) (0.6 ± 1.7 vs. -0.3 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.019). Among those with an adherence score higher than 0.80 (n = 56, 87.5%), a greater increase in both total and trunk MM was observed in the CLA group (both P < 0.05). Moreover, the effect on MM appeared to be more evident in men, those with a body mass index <25 kg/m2, or those with higher self-rated physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese adults with elevated body fat percentage, 3.2 g/day CLA supplementation may be effective in preserving MM, especially in the trunk region. REGISTRATION: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03915808 on April 9, 2019.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing is associated with changes of physical and physiological parameters, but there is evidence that regular physical activity could minimize these effects. Additionally, the older population presents a great risk of suboptimal nutrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the evidence of nutritional strategies and endurance exercises in the older population. METHODS: A systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was carried out in three different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the present review. The use of caffeine and beta-alanine supplementation with proteins have been found to be beneficial in both sexes. In older women, a balanced diet, an increase in protein, supplementation with beta hydroxy methyl butyrate, and supplementation with sodium bicarbonate have been favorable. However, no benefit has been seen in older men with sodium bicarbonate or ubiquinone supplementation. Nevertheless, the use of supplements should be prescribed according to individual characteristics and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and high protein supplement with beta-alanine may provide positive effects in the older population. In addition, in older women, bicarbonate supplementation and beta-hydroxyethyl butyrate (HMB), lysine, and arginine supplementation have shown positive effects on exercise performance.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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