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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867260

RESUMO

The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health has become more evident than ever before. Often delivered through food, dietary products, supplements, and drugs, different legislations for safety and efficacy issues have been prepared. Furthermore, regulatory agencies have addressed various approaches toward these products, whether they authorize claims mentioning a disease's diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Due to the diversity of bacteria and yeast strains, strict approaches have been designed to assess for side effects and post-market surveillance. One of the most essential delivery systems of probiotics is within food, due to the great beneficial health effects of this system compared to pharmaceutical products and also due to the increasing importance of food and nutrition. Modern lifestyle or various diseases lead to an imbalance of the intestinal flora. Nonetheless, as the amount of probiotic use needs accurate calculations, different factors should also be taken into consideration. One of the novelties of this review is the presentation of the beneficial effects of the administration of probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Thus, this paper provides an integrative overview of different aspects of probiotics, from human health care applications to safety, quality, and control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Doenças Diverticulares/terapia , Disenteria/terapia , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/normas , Controle de Qualidade
2.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(2): 177-187, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228273

RESUMO

A 2016 plea for revision of the 1 mg/day upper level of folic acid intake prompted us to comprehensively review the 1945-2017 literature on folic acid hazards in subjects with low cyanocobalamin. The concept of folic acid treatment 'masking' the anemia in undiagnosed cyanocobalamin deficiency, thereby delaying the diagnosis of neuropathy, does not account for the dissociation between the deficiency's hematologic and neurologic manifestations. Possible risks of this concept were addressed by 1963-1971 FDA rulings, classifying all folic acid preparations as prescription-only drugs, delivering ≤1 mg daily. The neuropathy in folic acid trials for 'pernicious anemia' is due to the singular use of folic acid-neuropathy improved or disappeared with replacement of folic acid by liver extract or cyanocobalamin. The hypothesis that cognitive impairment in 'subclinical' cyanocobalamin deficiency is folate-mediated is untenable. Of 6 papers specifically investigating this, none could prove that increased cognitive impairment was related to high folate intake. This review fully supports the safety of the 1 mg/day upper level for folic acid intake.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(3): 15, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185555

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the overall and latest observations of the effect of diet, lifestyle, supplements, and some prescription heart healthy medications for prostate cancer prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of maximizing heart health to prevent aggressive prostate cancer continues to be solidified with the addition of more prospective observational and randomized controlled trial data. Heart healthy is prostate healthy, and heart unhealthy is prostate unhealthy. The primary goal of reducing the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality also coincides with maximizing prostate cancer prevention. The obesity epidemic in children and adults along with recent diverse research has only strengthened the nexus between heart and prostate health. Greater dietary adherence toward a variety of healthy foods is associated with a graded improved probability of CVD and potentially aggressive cancer risk reduction. Preventing prostate cancer via dietary supplements should encourage a "first do no harm," or less is more approach until future evidence can reverse the concerning trend that more supplementation has resulted in either no impact or an increased risk of prostate cancer. Supplements to reduce side effects of some cancer treatments appear to have more encouraging data. A discussion of quality (QC) before utilizing any pill also requires attention. Medications or interventions that potentially improve heart health including statins, aspirin, and metformin (S.A.M.), specific beta-blocker medications, and even preventive vaccines are in general generic, low-cost, "natural," and should continue to garner research interest. A watershed moment in medical education has arrived where the past perception of a diverse number of trees seemingly separated by vast distances, in reality, now appear to exist within the same forest.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Alimentos/normas , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931332

RESUMO

A rapid, simple, and generic analytical method that could simultaneously determine 291 undesirable low molecular weight chemical contaminants from different drug families in protein powder, such as veterinary drugs and pesticides, etc, had been developed. This method comprised the extraction with acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), clean-up through dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and low temperature filtration, and analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry at multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Acetonitrile-DMSO was more generic than acetonitrile or methanol for the extraction of large-scale organic chemical contaminants with different polarities in protein powder. Most interferences in the extract were eliminated by the combination of D-SPE and low temperature filtration, which simultaneously provided satisfactory recoveries of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic analytes. In particular, besides the purification function, the sorbent of D-SPE also played an important role in grinding samples to improve extraction efficiency during homogenization. This streamlined approach allowed the processes of extraction and the main purification were carried out in one-step, and dramatically reduced sample preparation turnaround times and solvent consumption. For quantification, matrix-fortified calibration curves showed competent linearity for most of the target compounds with linear regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9900, except for two analytes. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 µg/kg to 50 µg/kg, which was usually sufficient to verify the compliance of products with legal tolerances. The average recoveries for spiked protein powder ranged from 65.6% to 142.2% with associated RSD values between 0.5% and 28.5%. For over 90% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 70% and 120% with RSD values in the range of 1%-15%. Applying this method in routine monitoring programs would drastically reduce both effort and time.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(3): 204-211, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971812

RESUMO

Objectives: Considering high prevalence of use of dietary supplements and their easy access on the internet, the aim of this research was to examine and assess the prevalence of the internet marketing of heart-protective supplements as the most popular supplements of today, and to investigate the quality and quantity of information that are available to consumers on the sale websites. Design: Three major search engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) and keywords "cardiovascular supportive supplements online buy" were used to identify websites that sell cardioprotective dietary supplements. Content of first 50 listed websites in each engine was evaluated for its compliance with regulatory acts while information about supplements' efficacy and safety was compared with the results of the latest scientific research. Results: Of a total of 150 listed websites, 89 selling supplements for the specific indication underwent further analysis. The most commonly registered cardioprotective dietary supplements on the internet were supplements based on omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) (57 websites, 64.05%). Related to the websites selling omega-3 supplements, risk reduction claims were presented at 23 (40.35%), whereas structure or function claims were present at 50 (87.72%) analyzed websites, but followed with Food and Drug Administration disclaimer only on 68.00% of them. Information about adverse effects were rarely pointed out (1 website, 1.75%) unlike warnings, which were significantly more available to consumers (38, 66.67%). Conclusions: According to obtained results, most of the analyzed websites that sell omega-3 supplements did not contain all important medical information required by Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. Since use of internet marketing is in expansion and since consumers have no access to relevant medical information about dietary supplements on the selling websites, there is a clear need for better quality control of websites and greater public awareness of these widely used products.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiotônicos/economia , Cardiotônicos/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente
6.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4698, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements (DS) containing undeclared substances may pose serious risk to s public health. The consumers of DS should be aware of such products in order to avoid the risk of fatal outcomes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study is based on the determination and identification of undeclared substances - theobromine (TB), theophylline (TH), pseudoephedrine (PE), caffeine (C), hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) and yohimbine (Y) - in market-available DS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD) was utilized to identify and quantify the presence of undeclared substances, in 52 different DS collected from the market. RESULTS: A fast and reliable UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the analyte where an efficient separation was achieved within 7 min runtime (TB 1.47, TH 1.79, PE 2.08, C 2.26, HTZ 3.78, Y 6.50) with resolution >1.5. The method validation produced r2 values ranging from 0.975 to 0.999 within a linearity range of 1-300 ppm. The UHPLC method revealed the presence of undeclared substances in 11 samples (HD3, HD4, HD9, HD13, HD14, HD15, HD21, HD24, HD27, HD38 and HD40), where the most widely distributed analyte was PE and C. The analyte found to have the highes concentrations (mg) in these DS were PE (11) and C (2.01). Among the 52 DS products tested, the product HD3 revealed a greater number and amount (mg) of undeclared substances, i.e. TH (0.05), C (2.01), HTZ (0.37) and Y (0.05), followed by HD14, i.e. PE (9.31), C (0.40), HTZ (0.01) and HD9 PE (11.00), C (0.41). CONCLUSION: The abundance of undeclared substances in these DS products was PE > C > Y > HTZ. None of the DS contained TB whereas TH was present in only one sample.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fármacos Antiobesidade/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112843, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509788

RESUMO

An UHPLC method was developed for the determination of 15 prenylflavonoids from aerial parts of Epimedium grandiflorum and related species (Berberidaceae). The separation was achieved using a reverse phased column and water/acetonitrile gradient as a mobile phase at a temperature of 40°C. The developed analytical method was validated for linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ), stability and repeatability. The LOD and LOQ were found to be in the range from 0.1-0.5 µg/mL and 0.3-1 µg/mL, respectively. The wavelength used for quantification with the photodiode array detector was 269 nm. The total content of 15 prenylflavonoids was 9.1-20.6 mg/g for E. grandiflorum (except for sample #2899 and #20862), 5.6-35.4 mg/g for E. brevicornu and 10.8-30.5 mg/g for E. sagittatum. Twenty dietary supplements contained in the range from 0.1 to 81.7 mg/day. The developed method is simple, rapid and especially suitable for quality assessment of E. grandiflorum and dietary supplements containing E. grandiflorum. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QToF) is described for the identification and confirmation of compounds in plant samples and dietary supplements. This technique is also used for chemical profiling of Epimedium samples. This method involved the use of protonated ions in the positive ion mode and deprotonated ions in the negative ion mode with extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). Chemometric analytical tools for visualizing the plant and commercial samples quality were used for discriminating between Epimedium species and dietary supplements with regards to the relative content or presence of components. A HPTLC method was also developed for the fast chemical fingerprint analysis of Epimedium species.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112877, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568967

RESUMO

The present study aimed to design, develop, and optimize an analytical procedure to perform the quantitative determination of ecdysterone in commercially available dietary supplements. The newly developed procedure is based on the extraction of ecdysterone from the supplements and the subsequent analysis by an optimized UHPLC-MS/MS method. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, particle size 1.8 µm). The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ionization mode (ESI+) with acquisition in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) mode. Using the protonated molecular ion [M+H]+ ecdysterone (target) and cortisol (internal reference) were detected at m/z 481 and 363, respectively. The assay was fully validated according to ICH guidelines and the method resulted to be fit for purpose in terms of accuracy and precision (CV% and RE% <15). Time-different intermediate precision was found within the reported range according to AOAC guideline for dietary supplements and botanicals. Quantitation has been performed using an external calibration considering the minimal matrix influences, preliminarily assessed following a cross comparison with an elaborate and time consuming standard addition method. The method was successfully applied to 12 different dietary supplements labelled to contain ecdysterone, showing an actual content generally much lower than the labelled one.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/normas , Ecdisterona/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
J Law Health ; 33(1): 47-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841617

RESUMO

People are often looking for that quick fix when it comes to their health. With dietary supplements so readily available on the market, the public assume that they have been through rigorous testing. Dietary supplements are not tested as much as consumers believe. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not initiate the same type of testing and analysis for supplements as it does for food, drink and medication. Given that people are now choosing supplemental meal replacements and the like, as opposed to whole foods, regulations drastically need to be stepped up in an effort to emphasise public safety. An authoritative body needs to stop manufacturers from taking advantage of an already vulnerable marketplace. I suggest a new form of regulation that takes the pressure away from the FDA and into the hands of someone who wholly focuses on the supplement market. Dietary supplements have revolutionised the "health" world; however, the only way that the market can keep growing is through enacting more stringent rules and regulations--at the same time allowing consumers to maintain their autonomy and freedom when purchasing.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Estados Unidos , United States Federal Trade Commission , United States Food and Drug Administration
10.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0222780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869323

RESUMO

Soy protein concentrate (SPC), as a protein source, is widely used to replace partial fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds, especially for carnivorous fish. This study investigated the effects of partial FM replacement by SPC for juvenile pearl gentian grouper. The fish were fed with diets containing six levels of SPC (SPC 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75) for 6 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, average body weight gain (BWG), specific growth ratio (SGR), and weight gain ratio (WGR) had the highest values in fish fed with diet SPC 15, followed by that of fish fed with SPC 0 while fish fed with SPC 75 had the lowest values (P < 0.05). Fish fed with diet SPC 15 and SPC 30 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (PER) while fish fed with diet SPC 15, SPC 30, and SPC 45 had the highest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Daily feed intake (DFI) was significantly decreased in fish fed with diets containing any level of SPC (P < 0.05). Survival rate was significantly higher in fish fed with diets SPC 15, SPC 30, and SPC 45 as compared to other treatments. Fish fed the diet including less than 30% FM replacement showed a higher protein content in the muscle. The ADC of dietary protein and some amino acids were significantly higher in diets SPC 0, followed by SPC 15; while SPC 75 had the lowest content (P < 0.05). Similarly, fish fed with SPC 30 and SPC 15 showed significantly higher protein and amino acid (AA) retention than other dietary treatments. The optimal FM replacement with SPC for specific growth ratio (SGR) was estimated to be 14.41% using a non-linear higher order regression model. These results indicated that pearl gentian grouper has a limited ability to utilize SPC as a protein source, and the FM replacement with SPC should be less than 30% (FM45.5 g 100g -1 and SPC18g 100g -1).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bass/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Peixes , Perciformes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The new regulatory framework for dietary supplements in Brazil prompted this analysis of the current outlook of these products and the challenges posed by the new guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative, observational and descriptive study of dietary supplements commercialized in Brazilian online stores with the help of the Google® search tool. We considered the ingredients on the labels, the effects attributed to these products and the commercial claims used as a means of promoting them to assess the necessary changes for the legal framework in the new guidelines. Finally, with the help of a database, we compared the effects declared by the manufacturers and attributed to certain ingredients with the scientific evidence described in literature. RESULTS: In total, we purchased 44 dietary supplements from Brazilian online stores (n = 7). Of the samples studied, 34.2% could not be classified in the category Dietary Supplements, as recommended by the new regulation of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency due to the presence of prohibited substances; 16% of products should be commercialized as medicines. Regarding the commercial appeals, 97.7% had banned expressions. Numerous claims of effects attributed to certain products were characterized as consumer fraud because they have no scientific evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The necessary changes represent a major regulatory and production challenge due to the wide range of dietary supplements and markets, an effort that aims to protect the consumers' health. Some previous gaps in the regulatory framework were not fully solved.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Comércio/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Ingredientes de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Skin Therapy Lett ; 24(5): 7-13, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584785

RESUMO

Dermatology supplements, often marketed as "skin, hair, and nail" supplements, are becoming increasingly popular. However, many consumers lack an understanding of the science of dietary supplements or the specifics of the supplement industry. While certain supplements at the right dose in the right population may prove beneficial, the evidence is sparse for many supplements. In addition, the use of some supplements has resulted in serious adverse effects. From a regulatory standpoint, the US FDA recognizes dietary supplements as foods. This distinction has multiple ramifications, including the fact that manufacturers do not need to prove efficacy, safety, or quality prior to sale. Therefore, physicians and consumers must evaluate each supplement ingredient and formulation individually. This article outlines an evidence-based approach to assess dermatology supplements. As a starting point, all supplements should be evaluated for PPIES: purity, potency, interactions, efficacy, and safety.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Unhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
14.
Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul ; 13(2): 105-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577201

RESUMO

Traditional nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals hold pragmatic nature with respect to their definitions, claims, purposes and marketing strategies. Their definitions are not well established worldwide. They also have different regulatory definitions and registration regulatory processes in different parts of the world. Global prevalence of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals is noticeably high with large market share with minimal regulation compared to traditional drugs. The global market is flooded with nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals claiming to be of natural origin and sold with a therapeutic claim by major online retail stores such as Amazon and eBay. Apart from the traditional formulations, many manufacturers and researchers use novel formulation technologies in nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations for different reasons and objectives. Manufacturers tend to differentiate their products with novel formulations to increase market appeal and sales. On the other hand, researchers use novel strategies to enhance nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals activity and safety. The objective of this review is to assess the current patents and research adopting novel formulation strategies in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Patents and research papers investigating nutraceutical and cosmeceutical novel formulations were surveyed for the past 15 years. Various nanosystems and advanced biotechnology systems have been introduced to improve the therapeutic efficacy, safety and market appeal of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, quantum dots, nanoparticles, and dendrimers. This review provides an overview of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals current technologies, highlighting their pros, cons, misconceptions, regulatory definitions and market. This review also aims in separating the science from fiction in the nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals development, research and marketing.


Assuntos
Cosmecêuticos/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Biotecnologia/métodos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosmecêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Cosmecêuticos/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Patentes como Assunto
15.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(7): 442-450, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615715

RESUMO

The current craze for vegan diets has an effect on the pediatric population. This type of diet, which does not provide all the micronutrient requirements, exposes children to nutritional deficiencies. These can have serious consequences, especially when this diet is introduced at an early age, a period of significant growth and neurological development. Even if deficiencies have less impact on older children and adolescents, they are not uncommon and consequently should also be prevented. Regular dietary monitoring is essential, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplementation is always necessary, while iron, calcium, docosahexaenoic acid, and zinc should be supplemented on a case-by-case basis.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana/normas , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta Vegana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegana/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , França , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 176: 112834, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472365

RESUMO

Use of herbal medicines and supplements by consumers to prevent or treat disease, particularly chronic conditions continues to grow, leading to increased awareness of the minimal regulation standards in many countries. Fraudulent, adulterated and contaminated herbal and traditional medicines and dietary supplements are a risk to consumer health, with adverse effects and events including overdose, drug-herb interactions and hospitalisation. The scope of the risk has been difficult to determine, prompting calls for new approaches, such as the combination of DNA metabarcoding and mass spectrometry used in this study. Here we show that nearly 50% of products tested had contamination issues, in terms of DNA, chemical composition or both. Two samples were clear cases of pharmaceutical adulteration, including a combination of paracetamol and chlorpheniramine in one product and trace amounts of buclizine, a drug no longer in use in Australia, in another. Other issues include the undeclared presence of stimulants such as caffeine, synephrine or ephedrine. DNA data highlighted potential allergy concerns (nuts, wheat), presence of potential toxins (Neem oil) and animal ingredients (reindeer, frog, shrew), and possible substitution of bird cartilage in place of shark. Only 21% of the tested products were able to have at least one ingredient corroborated by DNA sequencing. This study demonstrates that, despite current monitoring approaches, contaminated and adulterated products are still reaching the consumer. We suggest that a better solution is stronger pre-market evaluation, using techniques such as that outlined in this study.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fitoterapia/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Acetaminofen/análise , Clorfeniramina/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/normas , Fitoterapia/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1608: 460408, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378531

RESUMO

Antioxidant nutraceuticals functional characteristic science is a challenging field for combining sensitivity and comprehensiveness. A untargeted screening and quantification method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Quadrupole-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry has been developed for determination of multiple classes of flavonoids in eight-three nutraceuticals samples. The data acquisition is based on a non-target approach of sequential full scan and variable data independent acquisition of twenty consecutive fragmentation events. The flavonoids include flavanols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanidins, flavonols and isoflavones. A processing strategy is introduced to implementing filtering methods based on data feature extraction, common ion selection, shoulder peak removal, response threshold adjustment, mass shift and characteristic structural fragments evaluation. Confirmation is based on both accurate mass and isotopic assignment of standards, and further quantification is achieved by fragmentation. This scheme allows in depth characterization of flavonoids with the entire fragments.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390812

RESUMO

An electrocatalytic screen-printed sensor has been investigated for the measurement of the biologically important biomolecule vitamin B1 (thiamine) for the first time in food supplements. Under basic conditions, the vitamin was converted to its electrochemically active thiolate anion species. It was shown that an electrocatalytic oxidation reaction occurred with the screen-printed carbon electrode containing the mediator cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC-SPCE). This had the advantage of producing an analytical response current at an operating potential of 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl compared to +0.34 V obtained with plain SPCEs. This resulted in improved selectivity and limit of detection. Detailed studies on the underlying mechanism occurring with the sensor are reported in this paper. A linear response was obtained between 0.1 and 20 µg mL-1, which was suitable for the quantification of the vitamin in two commercial products containing vitamin B1. The mean recovery for a multivitamin tablet with a declared content of 5 mg was 101% (coefficient of variation (CV) of 9.6%). A multivitamin drink, which had a much lower concentration of vitamin B1 (0.22 mg/100 mL), gave a mean recovery of 93.3% (CV 7.2%). These results indicate that our sensor holds promise for quality control of food supplements and other food types.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Tiamina/análise , Calibragem , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Indóis/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Compostos Organometálicos/química
19.
Nurs Womens Health ; 23(4): 340-350, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine maternal and newborn factors that influence non-medically indicated (NMI) formula supplementation of newborns in the hospital setting. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1, 2000, and September 30, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 616 studies were returned from the search. After removal of duplicates, 558 studies remained, 531 of which were excluded based on factors of not being related to term newborns, not being published in a peer-reviewed journal, or study not completed in a hospital setting. Five studies were included that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Data from the five studies were extracted and compiled into a summary table. DATA SYNTHESIS: Synthesis indicated that maternal ethnicity, educational level, and income influence the decision to provide NMI formula supplementation to newborns. First-time mothers and those with cesarean birth, no previous breastfeeding experience, female newborns, and large-for-gestational-age newborns were at greater risk for NMI formula supplementation. Neonates born at night are more likely to receive NMI formula supplementation, and NMI formula supplementation increases during the night hours and during the first 24 hours after birth. CONCLUSION: Identification of newborn/maternal risk factors, continuous breastfeeding support, and provision of consistent breastfeeding education to women are factors that influence NMI formula supplementation of newborns. With collaboration among hospital physicians, midwives, nurse practitioners, nurses, and lactation consultants to identify at-risk newborns, the goal of decreasing NMI formula supplementation of newborns in the hospital can be achieved.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Métodos de Alimentação/normas , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho/normas
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394838

RESUMO

Tendinopathies are very common in general population and a huge number of tendon-related procedures take place annually worldwide, with significant socio-economic repercussions. Numerous treatment options are commonly used for tendon disorders. Besides pharmacological and physical therapy, nutrition could represent an additional tool for preventing and treating this complex pathology that deserve a multidisciplinary approach. In recent years, nutraceutical products are growing up in popularity since these seem to favor the prevention and the healing processes of tendon injuries. This narrative literature review aims to summarize current understanding and the areas of ongoing research about the management of tendinopathies with the help of oral supplementation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Tendinopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Tendinopatia/fisiopatologia , Tendinopatia/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tendões/efeitos dos fármacos , Tendões/fisiopatologia
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