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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26221, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K has long been regarded as a procoagulant drug by physicians, and concerns have been raised with regard to its effects on hemostasis. Although many studies have shown that vitamin K supplementation is safe for thrombotic events, the effect of vitamin K supplementation on the activities of vitamin K dependent procoagulation factors in healthy individuals is not available. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin K2 supplementation at recommended doses affects the activity of vitamin K dependent procoagulation factors in healthy individuals without any anticoagulation treatment. DESIGN: Forty healthy volunteers between 25 and 40 years of age were recruited. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was administrated at 90 µg for 30 days. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X activities and Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were measured on days 0 and 30 after MK-7 administration. RESULTS: PT, APTT, and TT showed no significant differences on day 30 when compared with baseline. The activities of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X on day 30 showed no significant differences with those at baseline. PIVKA-II levels were unchanged after 30 days of MK-7 supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: MK-7 supplementation at recommended dosage does not affect vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors' coagulation activity, and does not enhance the carboxylation of prothrombin in healthy individuals. This indicated that MK-7 administration does not alter hemostatic balance in healthy populations without anticoagulation treatment.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fator IX/análise , Fator IX/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator VII/análise , Fator VII/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator X/análise , Fator X/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/métodos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/estatística & dados numéricos , Protrombina/análise , Protrombina/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Protrombina/métodos , Tempo de Protrombina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Trombina/métodos , Tempo de Trombina/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina K 2/uso terapêutico
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1647: 462102, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964619

RESUMO

Despite the widespread use of artichoke-based food supplements for obesity control (FSOC), studies on evaluation of the quality/authenticity of these commercial products are scarce. To that aim, a new multi-analytical strategy, based on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-UV-MS), in combination with chemometrics, has been developed. Twenty-one artichoke FSOC and different bract and leaf extracts (used as reference samples) were analysed. Sugars, inositols, caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids and their glycosides were detected in reference samples and in most artichoke FSOC. Low concentrations of bioactives, and the presence of other compounds probably related to heat treatment during manufacturing (difructosyl anhydrides, 3-deoxyglucosone), or to the addition of caloric additives (maltose, maltotriose) or non-declared plants (e.g. pinitol, disaccharides, silybin derivatives) were also detected in some FSOC by either GC-MS or HPLC-UV-MS. Application of Principal Component Analysis to the combined GC-MS + HPLC-UV data matrix, proved that this multi-analytical strategy provides advantages over single analytical techniques for the detection of the wide variety of fraudulent practices affecting authenticity of artichoke FSOC and for assessment of their quality.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Cynara scolymus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5546843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868570

RESUMO

The current study was performed to investigate whether dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) could regulate liver injury in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) challenged piglet model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Thirty piglets (21 ± 2 days old, 5.86 ± 0.18 kg body weight) were randomly divided into the control (a basal diet, saline injection), LPS (a basal diet), or LPS+HMB (a basal diet + 0.60% HMB-Ca) group. After 15 d of treatment with LPS and/or HMB, blood and liver samples were obtained. The results showed that in LPS-injected piglets, HMB supplementation ameliorated liver histomorphological abnormalities induced by LPS challenge. Compared to the control group, the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased in the LPS-injected piglets (P < 0.05). The LPS challenge also downregulated the mRNA expression of L-PFK, ACO, L-CPT-1, ICDH ß, and AMPKα1/2 and upregulated the mRNA expression of PCNA, caspase 3, TNF-α, TLR4, MyD88, NOD1, and NF-κB p65 (P < 0.05). However, these adverse effects of the LPS challenge were reversed by HMB supplementation (P < 0.05). These results indicate that HMB may exert protective effects against LPS-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms might involve the improvement of hepatic energy metabolism via regulating AMPK signaling pathway and the reduction of liver inflammation via modulating TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Butiratos/farmacologia , Masculino , Suínos
7.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolyzation of glycolipids and glycoprotein commonly found in dietary sources. More than 20% of the general population suffers from abdominal pain or discomfort caused by intestinal gas and by indigested or partially digested food residuals. Therefore, α-Gal is used in dietary supplements to reduce intestinal gases and help complex food digestion. Marketed enzyme-containing dietary supplements must be produced in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMPs). AIM: in this work we illustrated the process used to develop and validate a spectrophotometric enzymatic assay for α-Gal activity quantification in dietary supplements. METHODS: The validation workflow included an initial statistical-phase optimization of materials, reagents, and conditions, and subsequently a comparative study with another fluorimetric assay. A final validation of method performance in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, intermediate-precision repeatability, and system precision was then executed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The proven method achieved good performance in the quantitative determination of α-Gal activity in commercial food supplements in accordance with the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals (ICH) guidelines and is suitable as a rapid in-house quality control test.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , alfa-Galactosidase/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Estabilidade Enzimática , Fluorometria/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , alfa-Galactosidase/normas
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 174: 108728, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662489

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the efficacy of vitamin D3 or B12 supplementation during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women at 6-14 weeks in the intervention arm received oral high dose intermittent vitamin D3 and/or low dose B12 supplementation if they had vitamin D or vitamin B12 deficiency. The control arm received prescribed dietary instruction only. An additional observational arm for those mothers at booking with normal vitamin D and vitamin B12 level was also recruited. All groups received standard care during pregnancy. RESULTS: The primary endpoint of either vitamin D or B12 at term was not met. At baseline 25% participants in both the interventional and control arms had severe D deficiency (<30 nmol/l), reducing to under 3.4% in both groups. No maternal differences in vitamin D or B12 levels were found at delivery between the intervention, control, or observational groups. No significant difference in any of the pregnancy or birth outcomes was observed between three groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, oral supplementation of high dose intermittent vitamin D or low dose vitamin B12 regime failed to correct the relevant nutritional deficiencies in Bangladeshi pregnant women as per protocol. Both dietary supplementation and high dose vitamin D corrected severe vitamin deficiency.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572099

RESUMO

Hovenia dulcis Thunberg is an herbal plant, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, widespread in west Asia, USA, Australia and New Zealand, but still almost unknown in Western countries. H. dulcis has been described to possess several pharmacological properties, such as antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective, especially in the hangover treatment, validating its use as an herbal remedy in the Chinese Traditional Medicine. These biological properties are related to a variety of secondary metabolites synthesized by the different plant parts. Root, bark and leaves are rich of dammarane-type triterpene saponins; dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, 3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavone and dihydromyricetin are flavonoids isolated from the seeds; fruits contain mainly dihydroflavonols, such as dihydromyricetin (or ampelopsin) and hovenodulinol, and flavonols such as myricetin and gallocatechin; alkaloids were found in root, barks (frangulanin) and seeds (perlolyrin), and organic acids (vanillic and ferulic) in hot water extract from seeds. Finally, peduncles have plenty of polysaccharides which justify the use as a food supplement. The aim of this work is to review the whole scientific production, with special focus on the last decade, in order to update phytochemistry, biological activities, nutritional properties, toxicological aspect and regulatory classification of H. dulcis extracts for its use in the European Union.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhamnaceae/química , Animais , União Europeia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Toxicológicos
10.
Am J Nurs ; 121(2): 69, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497135

RESUMO

According to this study: A study of adults age 70 or older without major comorbidities showed that treatment with vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids, or a strength training exercise program didn't result in clinically significant changes in blood pressure, nonvertebral fractures, physical performance, infection rates, or cognitive function.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Treinamento de Força/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Geriatria/normas , Geriatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Placebos , Treinamento de Força/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(2): 614-623, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307023

RESUMO

The notion of probiotics as microbes that confer health benefits has its origins in the speculative ideas that are more than a century old, yet remain largely unsubstantiated by scientific evidence. The recent advances in microbiome science have highlighted the importance of intestinal microbes in human physiology and disease pathogenesis. These developments have provided a boost to the probiotics industry, which continues to experience exponential growth driven mainly by creative marketing. Consumers, patients, and most health care providers are not able to discern the underlying science or differentiate the permitted claims that promise vague health benefits from disease-specific claims reserved for drugs. No probiotic product has been able to satisfy the regulatory requirements to be categorized as a drug, a substance intended to cure, mitigate, or prevent disease. However, patients take probiotic products in the belief that they will help to treat their intestinal or systemic diseases. Thus far, the regulators have failed to create policies that would assist to inform the public in this area. In fact, the existing regulatory regime actually creates formidable barriers to research that could provide evidence for clinical efficacy of probiotic products. We propose a potential solution to this vexing problem, where a committee created through a partnership of academia, professional organizations, and industry, but free of potential conflicts of interest, would be charged with rigorous evaluation of specific probiotic products and the evidence in support of their different claims. Companies that would submit to this process would earn the trust of consumers and healthcare providers, as well as a distinction in the marketplace.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Probióticos , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/economia , Legislação de Medicamentos/normas , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/normas , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
12.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153421, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botanical ingredients based on plants, algae, fungi or lichens have become widely available on the European Union market offering numerous preparations with considerable differences in classification. They are under the categories of food supplements, herbal medicinal products, cosmetics or medical devices. PURPOSE: The aim of the present work is to highlight how the European regulations concerning the different categories of botanicals can lead to different commercial choices such as time/cost for product development, application for a marketing authorisation, permitted indication (medical or health claim), and as a consequence, the same botanical products are sold in European Union as herbal medicinal products, food supplements, cosmetics or medical devices. Five different widely used botanicals, namely St. John's wort, valerian, ginkgo, ginseng, and green tea were selected to better explain the failure of harmonization through European Union. METHODS: A search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, European Medicines Agency and European commission web sites for medical devices and cosmetics, and European Food Safety Authority websites were conducted and the available information on regulation of herbal medicinal products, food supplements, medical devices and cosmetics in the European Union was collected. In addition, a market survey of all the sold botanical products in Europe was analysed by consultation of the medicines, medical devices, cosmetic and food agencies websites of the European countries. RESULTS: The current European legislation needs implementation and follow up because in the different countries the legal positions of the botanical products varied and it is possible to find the same product classified in the different categories, namely registered medicinal product including prescription only medicine, traditional herbal medicinal product, well established herbal medicinal products or food supplement, or medical device, or homoeopathic/anthroposophical medical product, cosmetic. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need of harmonization, together with the implementation of interoperable vigilance databases, to avoid borderline options.


Assuntos
Medicina Herbária/legislação & jurisprudência , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cosméticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , União Europeia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ginkgo biloba , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Hypericum , Panax , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Chá , Valeriana
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(3): 1080-1109, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331682

RESUMO

Herbal products, such as dietary supplements, have become a subject of increasing global importance for their health benefits and economic considerations. However, they have also been targets of adulteration practices, being the accurate identification of botanicals in herbal products of utmost importance to protect the health and expectations of consumers. Particularly, in the case of dietary supplements, which can have different types of formulations, the identification of plant material used in their production is often a research challenge. DNA-based techniques have played a crucial role on the development of a wide range of tools for the authentication of herbal products. Therefore, this review intends to describe their main progresses, critically discussing their advantages and drawbacks when applied to authenticate herbal products, focusing on dietary supplements. DNA barcoding is particularly emphasized because it has provided the highest number of applications, followed by the advances on high-resolution melting analysis combined with DNA barcodes. A special emphasis is also given to the promising approaches relying on DNA metabarcoding and isothermal amplification.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA de Plantas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Plantas Medicinais/genética
14.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(5): 610-618, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131515

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the role of nutritional intervention during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for esophageal cancer and investigate the incidence and risk factors of skeletal muscle loss after CCRT.Methods The clinical data of patients with esophageal cancer who underwent CCRT in our center from April 2017 to November 2019 were retrospectively collected.The CT images before and after CCRT were analyzed.The incidence of skeletal muscle loss,changes in nutritional indicators,and chemoradiotherapy delay were recorded,and the risk factors associated with declined skeletal muscle index (SMI) were analyzed.Results In the nutritional intervention group,the average daily energy intake per person in the oral nutritional supplement (ONS) subgroup,parenteral nutrition (PN) subgroup,and ONS+PN subgroup were (273.5±252.8), (310.6±311.2),and (745.3±637.8) kcal (1 kcal=4.1868 kJ),respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (F=5.870,P=0.005).After CCRT,the incidence of sarcopenia was 40.3% (n=40) in the nutrition intervention group,which was significantly lower than that (45.2%,n=42) in the control group (χ2=4.247,P=0.038);the decline of SMI in the nutrition intervention group was (1.4±8.3) cm2/m2,which was significantly lower than that in the control group [ (5.4±9.1) cm2/m2] (t=2.187,P=0.031).In the nutrition intervention group,the radiotherapy delay and chemotherapy delay occurred in 18 patients and 10 patients,which were significantly lower than those in the control group [25 patients (χ2=4.501,P=0.039) and 19 patients (χ2=8.929,P=0.005) ].The duration of radiotherapy delay and chemotherapy delay in the nutrition intervention group was (2.3±4.4) and (0.9±1.3) days,which were significantly shorter than those in the control group [ (4.2±5.3) (t=0.691,P=0.047) and (2.2±3.2) days (t=0.847,P=0.041) ].The incidence of sarcopenia was 75.2% before CCRT,which was significantly lower than that (88.2%) after CCRT (χ2=5.183,P=0.023).Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that T stage (P=0.007),N stage (P<0.001),and nutritional intervention (P=0.014) at baseline had significant effects on the decrease of SMI in patients with esophageal cancer after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.Conclusions Nutrition intervention can reduce the incidence of delayed chemoradiotherapy during esophageal cancer CCRT and reduce skeletal muscle loss.The decline of SMI is mainly related to the T stage,N stage,and nutrition intervention at baseline.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187062

RESUMO

Globally, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of dietary supplements over recent decades [...].


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Política Nutricional , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(8): 827-831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is the one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, and insufficiency or deficiency can be associated with musculoskeletal and non-skeletal conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: Recent data suggests that Vitamin D is relatively safe and toxicity is rarer than previously indicated. However, international guidelines regarding dosage and target plasma levels are conflicting. Moreover multiple well-designed studies of healthy older adults, unselected in terms of Vitamin D status, have revealed largely negative results (with the possible exception of older patients in care homes/hospitals) in terms of improvement in musculoskeletal and non-skeletal conditions to date. CONCLUSION: On that basis, it is suggested that future trials regarding Vitamin D supplementation should be carried out in high-risk groups. The use of published criteria for evaluating the effect of nutrients and targeting of individuals with Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency for inclusion in such studies is also proposed. The identification of specific subgroups that will benefit from supplementation and replacement, and the establishment of a scientific basis for such therapy, should be possible with this approach.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D/farmacologia
17.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(8): 857-864, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients and may be capable of delaying age-related cognitive decline. However, previous studies indicate that Australians are not meeting recommendations for LCn-3 PUFA intake. The current study therefore examined LCn-3 PUFA intake in an older Australia sample, as well as associations between LCn-3 PUFA intake and cognitive function. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 90 adults aged 50 to 80 years. LCn-3 PUFA intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were used to calculate the Omega-3 Index (RBC n-3 index). Cognitive function was measured using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between age and RBC n-3 index (b=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 - 0.10, P=0.01), and age and LCn-3 PUFA intake from fish oil capsules (b=17.5, 95% CI: 2.4 - 32.5 mg/day, P=0.02). When adjusting for LCn-3 PUFA from fish oil capsules, the association between age and RBC n-3 index was no longer significant. No associations were observed between LCn-3 PUFA intake and cognitive function. CONCLUSION: LCn-3 PUFA and fish oil consumption increased with age in this sample of older Australians, particularly due to supplement intake. However, LCn-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Fam Pract ; 69(7 Suppl): S2-S7, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104100

RESUMO

Identify common shortfalls in the typical American diet. Address the link between poor diet quality and chronic disease. Identify patients at risk for vitamin deficiency and potential vitamin-drug interactions. Recognize patients with vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Partner with patients regarding selection and appropriate use of vitamin and mineral supplements to achieve recommended dietary allowances.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040989, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The spread of misinformation has accompanied the coronavirus pandemic, including topics such as immune boosting to prevent COVID-19. This study explores how immune boosting is portrayed on the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Content analysis. METHODS: We compiled a dataset of 227 webpages from Google searches in Canada and the USA using the phrase 'boost immunity' AND 'coronavirus' on 1 April 2020. We coded webpages for typology and portrayal of immune boosting and supplements. We recorded mentions of microbiome, whether the webpage was selling or advertising an immune boosting product or service, and suggested strategies for boosting immunity. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between webpages that appeared in the searches in Canada and the USA. The most common types of webpages were from news (40.5%) and commercial (24.7%) websites. The concept of immune boosting was portrayed as beneficial for avoiding COVID-19 in 85.5% of webpages and supplements were portrayed as beneficial in 40% of the webpages, but commercial sites were more likely to have these portrayals. The top immune boosting strategies were vitamin C (34.8%), diet (34.4%), sleep (34.4%), exercise (30.8%) and zinc (26.9%). Less than 10% of the webpages provide any critique of the concept of immune boosting. CONCLUSIONS: Pairing evidence-based advice for maintaining one's health (eg, healthy diet, exercise, sleep) with the phrase immune boosting and strategies lacking in evidence may inadvertently help to legitimise the concept, making it a powerful marketing tool. Results demonstrate how the spread of misinformation is complex and often more subtle than blatant fraudulent claims.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Internet , Marketing , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Canadá/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/normas , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/tendências , Marketing/ética , Marketing/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19056, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mass media have been condemned for encouraging young people to take dietary supplements (DS). Media literacy, which includes authors and audiences (AA), messages and meanings (MM), and representation and reality (RR) domains, is a new approach to teaching young adults to make better informed health decisions. However, it is not clear which domains are the most important for media literacy education. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations among individual factors, media literacy, and DS use. METHODS: The survey instrument included demographic items, the DS Media Literacy Scale (DSMLS), and DS use items (users or nonusers, types of DS, current use of DS, and intention to use DS in the future). The DSMLS is an 11-item instrument designed to assess college students' AA, MM, and RR media literacy in relation to DS. A total of 467 Taiwanese college students participated in the study. Descriptive statistical analysis, logistic regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 338/467 (72.4%) participants reported using DS, and 176/467 (37.7%) consumed 3 or more supplements. Moreover, the MM media literacy domain was associated with having been a DS user (odds ratio 0.63, P=.002), current DS use (ß=-.10, P=.02), and intention to use DS in the future (ß=-.12, P=.011). Finally, perceived importance of health was positively related to current DS use (ß=.18, P=.001) and intention to use DS in the future (ß=.18, P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the majority of Taiwanese college students were DS users and used multiple types of supplements. Moreover, students with lower MM media literacy were more likely to be DS users, to take DS more frequently, and to have higher intentions for future frequent DS use. Finally, those who placed extreme importance on health were more likely to take DS frequently and have higher intentions for future frequent DS use.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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