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1.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 69-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparing the long-term neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of lower and higher cumulative dexamethasone exposure in preterm infants ventilated for a minimum cumulative duration of 7 days. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort medical chart review of infants born in Western Australia <29 weeks' gestation between January 2007 and May 2016 who were mechanically ventilated >7 days. INTERVENTION: No dexamethasone (controls) or a total cumulative dexamethasone dose of <2 mg/kg (lower) and ≥2 mg/kg (higher). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-term disability at 2 and 5 years and growth measurement outcomes at 2 years of age. RESULTS: Dexamethasone was given to 104 infants (66 with cumulative dose <2 mg/kg; 38 with cumulative dose ≥2 mg/kg), and 324 infants were controls. There was no difference in odds of long-term disability in infants with any dexamethasone exposure compared with controls (aOR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.02, p=0.784). No difference in long-term disability was found between the lower and higher groups (p=0.494). The prevalence of cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Functional Classification System level ≥2) between the control, lower and high-dose groups did not differ significantly (5.8% vs 4.0% vs 0%). The higher dose group had lower mean weight z-score (mean effect: -0.83, 95% CI: -1.54 to -0.01, p=0.023), height z-score (mean effect: -0.63, 95% CI: -12.5 to -0.01, p=0.048) and head circumference z-score (mean effect: -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05, p=0.035) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, dexamethasone use was not associated with increased odds of long-term disability. Dexamethasone use was associated with lower growth measurements compared with controls.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental
2.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190119, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1133869

RESUMO

The present work analyzes the access of deaf people fluent in Brazilian Sign Language in the National High School Exam, which was created to measure the performance based on the curriculum and on the High School guidelines, which acquired the purpose of providing the access of High school seniors to higher education. The methodological theoretical approach upon which this study is based is the qualitative research of exploratory nature. The sequential mixed method was used for the collection and analysis of qualitative data and, based on these, the quantitative analysis was performed. The results show an increase in the number of deaf participants in the exams and justify the offer of bilingual exams to measure learning.


O presente trabalho analisa o acesso de pessoas surdas fluentes em Língua Brasileira de Sinais ao Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio. Este foi criado para mensurar o desempenho com base no currículo e nas diretrizes do ensino médio e adquiriu a finalidade de selecionar concluintes do ensino médio para ingresso em cursos superiores. A abordagem teórico-metodológica que fundamenta este trabalho é a pesquisa qualitativa de cunho exploratório. O método misto sequencial foi empregado para a coleta e a análise de dados qualitativos e, a partir destes, foi realizada a análise quantitativa. Os resultados evidenciam o aumento do número de participantes surdos nas provas e justificam a oferta de provas bilíngues para aferir a aprendizagem.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Línguas de Sinais , Surdez , Avaliação Educacional
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253245

RESUMO

The absence of comparable epidemiological data challenges the correct estimation of the prevalence of congenital hearing loss (HL) around the world. Sign language (SL) is known as the main type of communication of deaf people. We suggest that the distribution of SL can be interpreted as an indirect indicator of the prevalence of congenital HL. Since a significant part of congenital HL is due to genetic causes, an assessment of the distribution of SL users can reveal regions with an extensive accumulation of hereditary HL. For the first time, we analyzed the data on the distribution of SL users that became available for the total population of Russia by the 2010 census. Seventy-three out of 85 federal regions of Russia were ranked into three groups by the 25th and 75th percentiles of the proportion of SL users: 14 regions-"low proportion"; 48 regions-"average proportion"; and 11 regions-"high proportion". We consider that the observed uneven prevalence of SL users can reflect underlying hereditary forms of congenital HL accumulated in certain populations by specific genetic background and population structure. At least, the data from this study indicate that the highest proportions of SL users detected in some Siberian regions are consistent with the reported accumulation of specific hereditary HL forms in indigenous Yakut, Tuvinian and Altaian populations.


Assuntos
Surdez/epidemiologia , Línguas de Sinais , Censos , Surdez/congênito , Humanos , Prevalência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 226, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical genetic diagnosis of non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is quite challenging. With regard to its high heterogeneity as well as large size of some genes, it is also really difficult to detect causative mutations using traditional approaches. One of the recent technologies called whole-exome sequencing (WES) has been thus developed in this domain to remove the limitations of conventional methods. METHODS: This study was a report on a research study of two unrelated pedigrees with multiple affected cases of hearing loss (HL). Accordingly, clinical evaluations and genetic analysis were performed in both families. RESULTS: The results of WES data analysis to uncover autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) disease-causing variants was reported in the present study. Initial analysis identified two novel variants of MYO15A i.e. c.T6442A:p.W2148R and c.10504dupT:p.C3502Lfs*15 correspondingly which were later confirmed by Sanger validations and segregation analyses. According to online prediction tools, both identified variants seemed to have damaging effects. CONCLUSION: In this study, whole exome sequencing were used as a first approach strategy to identify the two novel variants in MYO15A in two Iranian families with ARNSHL.


Assuntos
Surdez/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Mutação , Miosinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Consanguinidade , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Miosinas/deficiência , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147256

RESUMO

The idea that deaf intermarriage increases the prevalence of deafness was forcefully pushed in the late 19th century by Alexander Graham Bell, in proceedings published by the National Academy of Science. Bell's hypothesis was not supported by a 19th century study by Edward Allen Fay, which was funded by Bell's own organization, the Volta Bureau. The Fay study showed through an analysis of 4,471 deaf marriages that the chances of having deaf children did not increase significantly when both parents were deaf. In light of an apparent increase in non-complementary pairings when a modern dataset of Gallaudet alumni was compared with the 19th century Fay dataset, Bell's argument has been resurrected. This hypothesis is that residential schools for the deaf, which concentrate signing deaf individuals together, have promoted assortative mating, which in turn has increased the prevalence of recessive deafness and also the commonest underlying deafness allele. Because this hypothesis persists, even though it contradicts classical models of assortative mating, it is critically important that it be thoroughly investigated. In this study, we used an established forward-time genetics simulator with parameters and measurements collected from the published literature. Compared to mathematical equations, simulations allowed for more complex modeling, operated without assumptions of parametricity, and captured ending distributions and variances. Our simulation results affirm predictions from classical equations and show that intense assortative mating only modestly increases the prevalence of deafness, with this effect mostly completed by the third generation. More importantly, our data show that even intense assortative mating does not affect the frequency of the underlying alleles under reported conditions. These results are not locus-specific and are generalizable to other forms of recessive deafness. We explain the higher rate of non-complementary pairings measured in the contemporary Gallaudet alumni sample as compared to the Fay dataset.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Surdez/genética , Frequência do Gene , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
6.
Codas ; 32(6): e20190147, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to know the family interaction with the hearing impaired child/adolescent. METHODS: descriptive and exploratory qualitative research developed at a Special School in Southern Brazil. Participants were 10 primary caregivers of deaf children/adolescents between 10 and 19 years old. The collection took place in November 2017, through semi-structured interviews containing questions about the communication process of deaf children/adolescents with their families. The information was analyzed through thematic analysis. The study was submitted and approved by the Ethics Committee under opinion number 2.333.560. RESULTS: as the main theme of the study "Interaction between the family and the child/adolescent with hearing impairment", it addresses two sub-themes: potentialities and weaknesses in the communication of the family with the child/adolescent with hearing impairment and learning in the care of the child/adolescent with hearing impairment. CONCLUSION: it was identified that the interaction of the deaf with the family and society is impaired by people's lack of knowledge about the deaf community and the Brazilian Sign Language, which raises concern in caregivers who often overprotect the child/adolescent which may limit the full development of their skills and autonomy.


Assuntos
Surdez , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Família , Audição , Humanos , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S237-S245, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139437

RESUMO

In this article, we provide a narrative review of research literature on the development of pragmatic skills and the social uses of language in children and adolescents, with a focus on those who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). In the review, we consider how pragmatic skills may develop over time for DHH children and adolescents depending on age, language context, amplification devices, and languages and communication modalities. The implications of these findings for enhancing intervention programs for DHH children and adolescents and for considering ideal contexts for optimizing the pragmatic development of DHH children are considered.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Auxiliares de Audição , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Línguas de Sinais , Habilidades Sociais
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S246-S261, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139438

RESUMO

In this article, we review relational factors in early childhood believed to contribute in unique ways to pragmatic skill development in deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) infants and toddlers. These factors include attending to infant interactions with caregivers and others, supporting development of theory of mind through play and use of mental state language (ie, describing one's own or others' thoughts, feelings, and beliefs), and providing accessible opportunities for social interaction. On the basis of a review of the literature and clinical experience, we offer prescriptive strategies for supporting DHH children's development in these areas. To improve outcomes for DHH children, medical care providers and allied health professionals have a responsibility to support the development of young DHH children's pragmatic abilities by understanding these variables, coaching caregivers regarding their importance, and facilitating referrals for support when necessary.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Atenção Plena , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Jogos e Brinquedos , Habilidades Sociais , Percepção Visual
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S262-S269, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A set of important pragmatic skills emerge during infancy and pave the way for later language learning. It is thought these early social communication skills develop through infant-caregiver interaction. In a microanalysis, we tested whether deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) infants (typically at high risk of reduced access to rich communicative interaction in infancy) are less likely to engage in gestural and vocal pragmatic behaviors. METHODS: We coded the naturalistic communication of 8 DHH infants who had no additional needs, who were not preterm or low birth weight, whose parents were hearing, monolingual English speakers, and who had spoken English as their primary target language. The frequency of use of 5 types of infant communication known to positively predict later language development (show gestures, give gestures, index-finger pointing, communicative vocalizations, and early word use) was compared with that of 8 typically hearing infants matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Hearing loss had a significant negative effect on the frequency with which infants engaged in all types of early communication that predict later language development. CONCLUSIONS: DHH infants are at high risk of delay in the gestural and vocal communicative skills that lay the foundations for later language. Delay in the gestural domain suggests this is not simply a consequence of difficulties in imitating auditory stimuli. There is significant potential to lift DHH infants onto a positive developmental trajectory by supporting caregivers to nurture interaction from the first year.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Relações Pais-Filho , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Humanos , Lactente , Habilidades Sociais
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S270-S277, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pragmatic language skills form the foundation for conversational competence, whereas deficits in this area are associated with behavioral problems and low literacy skills. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate significant delays in this critical area of language. Our purpose with this research was to identify variables associated with pragmatic language ability in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 124 children with bilateral hearing loss between 4 and 7 years of age living in Colorado. As part of a comprehensive speech and language assessment, pragmatic language skills were evaluated annually by using the Pragmatics Checklist. RESULTS: The children's pragmatic skills increased significantly with age. Higher levels of pragmatic language ability at 7 years of age were predicted by (1) meeting Early Hearing Detection and Intervention 1-3-6 guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, identification of hearing loss by 3 months, and receiving intervention by 6 months of age), (2) greater quantity of parent talk, (3) higher nonverbal intelligence, (4) lesser degrees of hearing loss, and (5) higher maternal education. CONCLUSIONS: With the findings of this study, we underscore the importance of pediatricians and other health care professionals counseling parents about the value of adherence to the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention 1-3-6 guidelines with regard to intervention outcomes. The strong association between amount of child-directed parent talk in the first 4 years of life and pragmatic language outcomes at 7 years of age emphasizes the need for professionals to encourage parents to talk to their children as much as possible.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Relações Pais-Filho , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Surdez/reabilitação , Diagnóstico Precoce , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/reabilitação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S278-S283, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139441

RESUMO

Speakers and signers naturally and spontaneously gesture when they use language to communicate. These gestures not only play a central role in how language is used in social situations but also offer insight into speakers' and signers' cognitive processes. The goals of this article are twofold: (1) to document how gesture can be used to identify concerns in language development and (2) to illustrate how gesture can be used to address those concerns, particularly with respect to pragmatic development. These goals are explored in this article, with a focus on deaf and/or hard of hearing (DHH) children. Medical providers and allied health professionals, as well as educators and parents, can use the information gleaned from the gestures of DHH children to determine if intervention is needed. Gesture can also be used to design interventions, including interventions in which children who are DHH are presented gestures in combination with speech or signs and interventions in which they are encouraged to gesture themselves. Children's gestures not only increase their learning potential but also create opportunities for medical and health professionals, as well as educators and parents, to gain access to a DHH child's unspoken and unsigned ideas, capitalizing on the opportunity to provide intervention when it is likely to be effective.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Gestos , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pais/psicologia , Línguas de Sinais
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S284-S291, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139442

RESUMO

The development of pragmatic skills does not often receive attention by professionals who are recommending or undertaking assessment of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children, yet social communication is vital for linguistic, social, emotional, and academic development. We acknowledge the challenges that DHH children have with pragmatic skills, advocate for monitoring of pragmatic development for all DHH children by medical professionals, and provide direction for assessment of pragmatic skills in young DHH children, particularly for clinicians and teachers who are tasked with that work. Pragmatic assessment is challenging because it must involve observations of the child in interaction with a communication partner, either directly during a specific interaction or through the reflections of a familiar adult. In this article, we recommend two complementary assessment procedures for young DHH children who use spoken language. Assessment 1 recommends that a parent or caregiver completes The Pragmatic Checklist to provide a picture of the child's functional communication. In assessment 2, the information gained through the checklist is complemented by using direct observations of a child in interaction with an adult or a peer. The Pragmatic Protocol uses a video-recorded conversation sample between the child and familiar person that is analyzed by a DHH professional for 30 different pragmatic behaviors. We conclude this article with a recommendation for pediatricians and health care professionals to monitor pragmatic developmental milestones in DHH children, to refer them for pragmatic assessments, and to collaborate with researchers to develop valid, reliable tools that adequately capture the pragmatic skill strengths and needs of DHH children.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Surdez/diagnóstico , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S292-S297, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139443

RESUMO

Increasingly, across the globe, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students are educated in mainstream schools using spoken language for communication. Classroom interactions require the use of sophisticated pragmatic language skills. Pragmatic skills can be delayed in DHH students and create challenges for the social and emotional adjustment of DHH students at school. School-aged DHH children may present to pediatric health care providers with concerns about communicating effectively and forming friendships with hearing school peers. This review of pragmatic research between school-aged DHH students and their typically hearing peers reveals that this group of students displays some well-developed pragmatic skills such as turn taking, questioning, seeking general clarifications, and using a range of turn types. In it, we identify key areas in which DHH students experience significant challenges in both the social use of language and expository interactions (involving descriptions or explanations) that characterize classroom communication. DHH students tend to dominate interactions and have challenges with being contingent on their partners' contributions. In addition, many DHH students display some difficulty with sequencing instructions and may use referents poorly, making it difficult for peers to follow their instructions and fully grasp their meaning. The conversation model is presented in this article as a guide for pediatric health care providers, clinicians, educators, and parents and/or caregivers to understand these pragmatic challenges. The model guides medical and education practitioners with the development of targeted intervention that will support these students' ability to interact with others, learn more effectively, and develop friendships.


Assuntos
Surdez/psicologia , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Inclusão Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Ajustamento Social
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S298-S303, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goals of the current study were to (1) examine differences in pragmatic abilities and peer relationship behaviors among deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents who use spoken language, in comparison with their hearing peers; and (2) explore the contribution of pragmatic skills and speech (ie, articulation and intelligibility [AI]) to social aspects of school functioning among DHH and typically hearing adolescents. METHODS: Thirty-three DHH adolescents and 34 adolescents with typical hearing participated. All DHH adolescents attended mainstream school settings and used spoken language. Teacher reports were obtained on prosocial behaviors, peer problems, pragmatic abilities, and speech AI of the adolescents. Adolescents self-reported on the supportiveness of their peer relationships and their school emotional engagement. RESULTS: Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DHH adolescents had greater difficulties with peers than their hearing counterparts. Increased pragmatic difficulties were related to more peer problems and decreased prosocial behaviors, regardless of adolescents' hearing status. A significant positive correlation was found between pragmatic competence and adolescents' perceptions of peers' support. Finally, better speech AI were associated with higher levels of school emotional engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the significant role of pragmatics for both DHH and typically hearing adolescents. Medical care providers and allied health professionals should be aware of possible difficulties that DHH adolescents may have in complex and nuanced pragmatic skills. Some adolescents may require a referral to specialized services to support the development of their pragmatic understanding and their skills.


Assuntos
Surdez/psicologia , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Inclusão Escolar , Grupo Associado , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Ajustamento Social
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S304-S309, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139445

RESUMO

In this article, we discuss deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children's pragmatic difficulties and strengths from within the lived experiences of 5 hearing parents of DHH children and 5 DHH adults (one of whom is also a parent of a deaf child). We define lived experience as both a specific form of knowledge (first-hand stories from everyday life) and a unique way of knowing (reflecting and telling from insider perspectives). The parents and DHH adults involved coauthored the article alongside 2 experienced researcher-practitioners. Key themes include what pragmatic challenges feel like for a DHH person, why they arise, how they might result in longer-term consequences (such as implications for well-being) that can continue into adulthood, what might be pragmatic strengths in this population, and what might be done to ameliorate pragmatic difficulties. We end the article with reflections on the significance of individual parents and DHH adults in the coproduction and execution of research on this topic and make suggestions for future directions of inquiry.


Assuntos
Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Pais/psicologia
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 3): S310-S315, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139446

RESUMO

Although major strides have been made in supporting the linguistic development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children, a high risk of pragmatic delay persists and often goes unrecognized. Pragmatic development (the growing sensitivity to one's communication partner when producing and comprehending language in context) is fundamental to children's social-cognitive development and to their well-being. We review the reasons why DHH children are vulnerable to pragmatic developmental challenges and the potential to create positive change. In this call to action, we then urge (1) medical providers to recognize the need to monitor for risk of pragmatic difficulty and to refer for timely intervention (beginning in infancy), (2) allied health professionals involved in supporting DHH children to incorporate development of pragmatic abilities into their work and to foster awareness among caregivers, and (3) the research community to deepen our understanding of pragmatics in DHH children with investigations that include pragmatics and with longitudinal studies that chart the paths to positive outcomes while respecting the diversity of this population. By working together, there is substantial potential to make rapid progress in lifting developmental outcomes for DHH children.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Habilidades Sociais
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0236729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201887

RESUMO

In psycholinguistics and clinical linguistics, the Sentence Repetition Task (SRT) is known to be a valuable tool to screen general language abilities in both spoken and signed languages. This task enables users to reliably and quickly assess linguistic abilities at different levels of linguistic analysis such as phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax. To evaluate sign language proficiency in deaf children using French Sign Language (LSF), we designed a new SRT comprising 20 LSF sentences. The task was administered to a cohort of 62 children- 34 native signers (6;09-12 years) and 28 non-native signers (6;08-12;08 years)-in order to study their general linguistic development as a function of age of sign language acquisition (AOA) and chronological age (CA). Previously, a group of 10 adult native signers was also evaluated with this task. As expected, our results showed a significant effect of AOA, indicating that the native signers repeated more signs and were more accurate than non-native signers. A similar pattern of results was found for CA. Furthermore, native signers made fewer phonological errors (i.e., handshape, movement, and location) than non-native signers. Finally, as shown in previous sign language studies, handshape and movement proved to be the most difficult parameters to master regardless of AOA and CA. Taken together, our findings support the assumption that AOA is a crucial factor in the development of phonological skills regardless of language modality (spoken vs. signed). This study thus constitutes a first step toward a theoretical description of the developmental trajectory in LSF, a hitherto understudied language.


Assuntos
Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Psicolinguística/métodos , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1213-1216, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect additional variants for newborn carriers of single heterozygous variants of the GJB2 or SLC26A4 gene by genechip analysis in Changsha area, and explore the variation spectrum of deafness-related genes in this region. METHODS: For 462 newborns carrying single heterozygous variants of the GJB2 or SLC26A4 gene, all exons of the genes were subjected to Sanger sequencing. The pathogenicity of the variants was analyzed by database and literature search. RESULTS: For 305 newborns carrying a heterozygous GJB2 variant, 143 (46.49%) were found to carry additional variants, including 29 (9.51%) with c.109G>A likely pathogenic variant, and 1 (6.48%) with c.551G>A pathogenic variant. Among 153 newborns carrying single heterozygous variant of the SLC26A4 gene, 2 (1.31%) were found with a c.281C>T variant, and 1 (0.65%) with a c.1547_1548ins pathogenic variant. Among 4 newborns simultaneously carrying GJB2 and SLC26A4 variants, two were found to carry c.109G>A and c.844T>C variants (clinical significance unknown), respectively. CONCLUSION: For newborns carrying single heterozygous variants of the GJB2 or SLC26A4 gene by genechip analysis, the detection rate for other variants is quite high. Sanger sequencing can significantly improve the detection rate of high-risk newborns and enrich the variant spectrum of deafness genes.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
20.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 29-32, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140930

RESUMO

To determine the electrode impedance dynamics changes in the postoperative period after cochlear implantation as well as the time of their stabilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 75 patients with a bilateral sensorineural deafness aged from 1 to 4 years (average age - 1.5 years) were included in the study. 50 patients were implanted with Nucleus cochlear implants (Cochlear - Australia) and other 25 patients - with Advanced Bionics implants (Switzerland). RESULTS: The impedance dynamics analysis in two groups of patients implanted with «Cochlear¼ and «Advanced Bionics¼ cochlear implants demonstrated that statistically significant decrease in impedance (p<0.05) was observed after the beginning of electrical stimulation and the reduction of postoperative inflammatory process in the inner ear. The stabilization of the impedance levels in both groups of patients was obtained in 3-6 months after the switch-on of speech processor.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cóclea , Impedância Elétrica , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente
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