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2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8972-8981, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. Monitoring viral transmission and disease characteristics as the disease spreads globally is vital. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and source of infection in patients with secondary transmission of COVID-19 outside the outbreak area. METHODS: The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data of five patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University (Ningxia, China) from 1 January 2020 to 1 March 2020 were presented. The final follow-up evaluation was performed on 12 March 2020. RESULTS: The five participants included two couples and a young woman, none of whom had visited Hubei. It was likely that four of the participants had been infected by exposure to asymptomatic visitors from Wuhan. The other participant lived in a densely-populated community with potential COVID-19 cases. A variety of symptoms were presented by four participants, including cough, fevers, sputum, breathlessness, chest pain, fatigue, sore limbs, sore throats, headaches, and rhinorrhea. A severe infection, with dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, was experienced by one participant who had a history of chronic bronchitis. A single participant was asymptomatic, but had ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on chest imaging. Another two participants also displayed GGOs. Lymphopenia was noted in three participants. During the follow-up period, all participants were cured and discharged to their homes. CONCLUSIONS: This study included patients who had acquired infections of COVID-19 through local transmission. These findings will provide a better understanding of secondary transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tosse , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(234): 128-133, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of coronavirus disease in Nepal led medical colleges to suspend in person teaching-learning activities and ultimately online platform was introduced to deliver the contents of medical education. The objective of this study was to describe the perception of medical students towards online teaching-learning introduced during the COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal. METHODS: An online survey using a descriptive cross-sectional study design was carried out among 515 undergraduate medical students currently enrolled in medical colleges in Nepal. Ethical approval was sought from Nepal Health Research Council to conduct this study, and digital informed consent was taken from study respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire in Google form was utilized to collect data. The link of the Google form was sent to the potential respondents through email and social media. Descriptive statistics, including frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used to analyze data in Stastical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Ethical approval was sought from Nepal Health Research Council to conduct this study, and digital informed consent was taken from study respondants. RESULTS: The overall score of perception of online teaching-learning was 17.61±7.19, which indicated many problems in this method of teaching-learning. The mean score of perception of online teaching-learning was found to be different across sex, location of enrolled medical colleges, having a personal electronic device, having an internet connection at residence, having separate room/space for attending online classes, and self-rated computer skills. Moreover, only 28 (5.4%) of respondents had perceived online teaching-learning as a better method of delivering content of medical curricula. CONCLUSIONS: Surveyed medical students in Nepal were found to perceive many problems in online teaching-learning. Moreover, management and faculty members need to take the necessary measures for enhancing the online teaching-learning quality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1603, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa became a humanitarian crisis that exposed significant gaps in infection prevention and control (IPC) capacity in primary care facilities in Sierra Leone. Operational partners recognized the national gap and rapidly scaled-up an IPC training and infrastructure package. This prompted us to carry out a mixed-methods research study which aimed to evaluate adherence to IPC practices and understand how to improve IPC at the primary care level, where most cases of Ebola were initially presenting. The study was carried out during the national peak of the epidemic. DISCUSSION: We successfully carried out a rapid response research study that produced several expected and unexpected findings that were used to guide IPC measures during the epidemic. Although many research challenges were similar to those found when conducting research in low-resource settings, the presence of Ebola added risks to safety and security of data collectors, as well as a need to balance research activities with the imperative of response to a humanitarian crisis. A participatory approach that attempted to unify levels of the response from community upwards helped overcome the risk of lack of trust in an environment where Ebola had damaged relations between communities and the health system. CONCLUSION: In the context of a national epidemic, research needs to be focused, appropriately resourced, and responsive to needs. The partnership between local academics and a humanitarian organization helped facilitate access to study sites and approvals that allowed the research to be carried out quickly and safely, and for findings to be shared in response forums with the best chance of being taken up in real-time.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(35)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477055

RESUMO

Giardiasis, the disease caused by the flagellate Giardia duodenalis (syn. G.lamblia, G. intestinalis), is the most commonly reported among the five food- and waterborne parasitic diseases under mandatory surveillance in 24 EU countries. From November 2018 to April 2019, an outbreak of giardiasis occurred in a municipality of the Bologna province, in north-eastern Italy. Microscopy and immunochromatography identified cysts and antigens, respectively, of the parasite in stool samples of 228 individuals. Molecular typing of 136 stool samples revealed a vast predominance (95%) of G. duodenalis assemblage B. Investigations into potential sources indicated tap water as the most likely vehicle of infection, although cysts were not detected in water samples. Control measures mostly aimed at preventing secondary transmission by informing citizens about the outbreak, and by treatment of patients with anti-parasitic drugs. This is the first documented human outbreak of giardiasis in Italy; its investigation has highlighted the difficulties in the timely detection and management of this parasite, which is often overlooked as a cause of human gastroenteritis. The long and variable incubation time, absence of specific symptoms and a general lack of awareness about this pathogen contributed to delay in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 4)(8): S22-S25, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469424

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the problem of unlicensed practitioners and quacks in Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 districts of Sindh province in Pakistan from December 2019 to January 2020. Initial data available with Sindh Health Department about locations where quacks were practicing was used to identify unlicensed practitioners. A structured questionnaire was developed which contained information about certification of practitioners and an observational checklist was developed to assess infection prevention and control practices (IPC) and injection safety. RESULTS: A total of 4315 private practitioners were inspected out of which 3022 (70%) were unlicensed health practitioners belonging to different categories. Within the six surveyed divisions of Sindh, the highest proportion of unlicensed practitioners were documented in Shaheed Benazirabad division (n=739; 24.5%) followed by Hyderabad (n=599; 19.8%). In Mirpur Khas, there were 510 (16.9%), in Karachi 310 (10.3%), in Sukkur 484 (16%) and in Larkana there were 380 (12.6%) unlicensed practitioners. Poor IPC was observed in 89.4% (3861/4315) of all health providers. Reuse of syringes and intravenous drip sets was observed among 78.7% (1916/2432) of the untrained providers across the province. It was also found that 155 MBBS doctors had given their names on rent to be used as a signboard outside the clinics of some of the unlicensed practitioners. Conclusion: The problem of quackery is widespread in the Sindh province. It can be proactively addressed by shutting down all unlicensed practitioners and educating the community to avoid visiting them in order to reduce the probability of exposure to unsafe healthcare practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Charlatanismo , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1223-1227, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473681

RESUMO

On June 30, 2021, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) contacted CDC concerning COVID-19 outbreaks at two events sponsored by the same organization: a 5-day overnight church camp for persons aged 14-18 years and a 2-day men's conference. Neither COVID-19 vaccination nor COVID-19 testing was required before either event. As of August 13, a total of 180 confirmed and probable cases had been identified among attendees at the two events and their close contacts. Among the 122 cases associated with the camp or the conference (primary cases), 18 were in persons who were fully vaccinated, with 38 close contacts. Eight of these 38 close contacts subsequently became infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (secondary cases); among the eight close contacts with secondary cases, one half (four) were fully vaccinated. Among the 180 total persons with outbreak-associated cases, five (2.8%) were hospitalized; no deaths occurred. None of the vaccinated persons with cases were hospitalized. Approximately 1,000 persons across at least four states were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 through attendance at these events or through close contact with a person who had a primary case. This investigation underscores the impact of secondary SARS-CoV-2 transmission during large events, such as camps and conferences, when COVID-19 prevention strategies are not implemented. In Los Angeles County, California, during July 2021, when the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was predominant, unvaccinated residents were five times more likely to be infected and 29 times more likely to be hospitalized from infection than were vaccinated residents (1). Implementation of multiple prevention strategies, including vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions such as masking, physical distancing, and screening testing, are critical to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and serious complications from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Acampamento , Congressos como Assunto , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1214-1219, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473683

RESUMO

On May 25, 2021, the Marin County Department of Public Health (MCPH) was notified by an elementary school that on May 23, an unvaccinated teacher had reported receiving a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The teacher reported becoming symptomatic on May 19, but continued to work for 2 days before receiving a test on May 21. On occasion during this time, the teacher read aloud unmasked to the class despite school requirements to mask while indoors. Beginning May 23, additional cases of COVID-19 were reported among other staff members, students, parents, and siblings connected to the school. To characterize the outbreak, on May 26, MCPH initiated case investigation and contact tracing that included whole genome sequencing (WGS) of available specimens. A total of 27 cases were identified, including that of the teacher. During May 23-26, among the teacher's 24 students, 22 students, all ineligible for vaccination because of age, received testing for SARS-CoV-2; 12 received positive test results. The attack rate in the two rows seated closest to the teacher's desk was 80% (eight of 10) and was 28% (four of 14) in the three back rows (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.036). During May 24-June 1, six of 18 students in a separate grade at the school, all also too young for vaccination, received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Eight additional cases were also identified, all in parents and siblings of students in these two grades. Among these additional cases, three were in persons fully vaccinated in accordance with CDC recommendations (1). Among the 27 total cases, 22 (81%) persons reported symptoms; the most frequently reported symptoms were fever (41%), cough (33%), headache (26%), and sore throat (26%). WGS of all 18 available specimens identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. Vaccines are effective against the Delta variant (2), but risk of transmission remains elevated among unvaccinated persons in schools without strict adherence to prevention strategies. In addition to vaccination for eligible persons, strict adherence to nonpharmaceutical prevention strategies, including masking, routine testing, facility ventilation, and staying home when symptomatic, are important to ensure safe in-person learning in schools (3).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1195-1200, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473687

RESUMO

To prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, colleges and universities have implemented multiple strategies including testing, isolation, quarantine, contact tracing, masking, and vaccination. In April 2021, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of a large cluster of students with COVID-19 at an urban university after spring break. A total of 158 cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed among undergraduate students during March 15-May 3, 2021; the majority (114; 72.2%) lived in on-campus dormitories. CDPH evaluated the role of travel and social connections, as well as the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, on transmission. Among 140 infected students who were interviewed, 89 (63.6%) reported recent travel outside Chicago during spring break, and 57 (40.7%) reported indoor social exposures. At the time of the outbreak, undergraduate-aged persons were largely ineligible for vaccination in Chicago; only three of the students with COVID-19 (1.9%) were fully vaccinated. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 104 specimens revealed multiple distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting several nearly simultaneous introductions. Most specimens (66; 63.5%) were B.1.1.222, a lineage not widely detected in Chicago before or after this outbreak. These results demonstrate the potential for COVID-19 outbreaks on university campuses after widespread student travel during breaks, at the beginning of new school terms, and when students participate in indoor social gatherings. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, colleges and universities should encourage COVID-19 vaccination; discourage unvaccinated students from travel, including during university breaks; implement serial COVID-19 screening among unvaccinated persons after university breaks; encourage masking; and implement universal serial testing for students based on community transmission levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Chicago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interação Social , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(8): 619-628, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world for more than a year, with multiple waves of infections resulting in morbidity, mortality and disruption to the economy and society. Response measures employed to control it have generally been effective but are unlikely to be sustainable over the long term. METHODS: We examined the evidence for a vaccine-driven COVID-19 exit strategy including academic papers, governmental reports and epidemiological data, and discuss the shift from the current pandemic footing to an endemic approach similar to influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases. RESULTS: A desired endemic state is characterised by a baseline prevalence of infections with a generally mild disease profile that can be sustainably managed by the healthcare system, together with the resumption of near normalcy in human activities. Such an endemic state is attainable for COVID-19 given the promising data around vaccine efficacy, although uncertainty remains around vaccine immunity escape in emergent variants of concern. Maintenance of non-pharmaceutical interventions remains crucial until high vaccination coverage is attained to avoid runaway outbreaks. It may also be worthwhile to de-escalate measures in phases, before standing down most measures for an endemic state. If a variant that substantially evades immunity emerges, it will need to be managed akin to a new disease threat, with pandemic preparedness and response plans. CONCLUSION: An endemic state for COVID-19, characterised by sustainable disease control measures, is likely attainable through vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466184

RESUMO

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Universidades
12.
Mil Med ; 186(12 Suppl 2): 61-67, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The European SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak threatened military beneficiaries receiving care outside of the United States. Military treatment facilities located outside the United States were the first to respond to the pandemic, requiring immediate action to establish novel protocols. The purpose of this case series is to describe challenges, solutions, and future recommendations during a pandemic response at three small naval military treatment facilities located outside the continental United States (OCONUS). RESULTS: The analysis and discussion reviews challenges in information processing, communication methods and patterns, process changes, actions for staff protection, and change fatigue experienced during this time. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for future work include filling the gaps in the evidence for a prolonged pandemic response and crisis management, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, including best practices to communicate, maintain staff resilience, and manage or mitigate associated prolonged stress and uncertainty.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Militares , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17543, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475443

RESUMO

End of the year 2019 marks an unprecedented outbreak of a pandemic named COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2. It was first discovered in China and later spread to the whole world, currently inflicting almost 200 countries. After China, few other countries have emerged as potential epicenters of this disease including the US, Italy, Spain and Pakistan, as indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since proper preventive and curative measures in the form of a vaccine or medication are currently unavailable throughout the world, the only remedy devised to stop the spread of this virus is self-isolation. Such a measure necessitates ample awareness and understanding among people to avoid actions that lead to the spread of this virus. Pakistan is the fifth-most populous country in the world (212.2 million) and has a record of contagious outbreaks in the past. Therefore, it is key to evaluate the general understanding regarding the cause, spread and control of this disease in Pakistani population and acquire data to anticipate the possible spread and persistence of this disease to design relevant preventive measures. We have attempted to collect such data from professionals who are susceptible to acquiring the infection due to an unavoidable exposure. Keeping in view the current lock down, we have relied on an internet based collection of data by filling a self-designed questionnaire that is responded to by 1132. Descriptive and Frequency Analysis were performed on the responses received using MS Excel and SPSS software. A total of 1132 individuals responded to the questionnaire among which include academic (45.8%), non-academic (20.8%), healthcare (7.8%), security (5.9%) and other (19.7%) professionals. The questionnaire addressed the level of basic information regarding the cause, spread, cure and prevention of this disease among professionals, in an attempt to provide directions for awareness campaigns at different levels in Pakistan and provide a model for similar outbreaks in the future.To our expectations, almost after a month of the coronavirus outbreak in Pakistan, above 50% to up to 90% of the recorded responses against every question showed ample understanding regarding the cause, spread and control of the disease which is an indicator of effective public awareness campaigns throughout the country largely based on media drive.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047227, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak resurged in Beijing and to assess the effects of three non-pharmaceutical interventions. DESIGN: Descriptive and modelling study based on surveillance data of COVID-19 in Beijing. SETTING: Outbreak in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: The database included 335 confirmed cases of COVID-19. METHODS: To conduct spatiotemporal analyses of the outbreak, we collected individual records on laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 from 11 June 2020 to 5 July 2020 in Beijing, and visitor flow and products transportation data of Xinfadi Wholesale Market. We also built a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-removed model to investigate the effect of interventions deployed in Beijing. RESULTS: We found that the staff working in the market (52.2%) and the people around 10 km to this epicentre (72.5%) were most affected, and the population mobility entering-exiting Xinfadi Wholesale Market significantly contributed to the spread of COVID-19 (p=0.021), but goods flow of the market had little impact on the virus spread (p=0.184). The prompt identification of Xinfadi Wholesale Market as the infection source could have avoided a total of 25 708 (95% CI 13 657 to 40 625) cases if unnoticed transmission lasted for a month. Based on the model, we found that active screening on targeted population by nucleic acid testing alone had the most significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The non-pharmaceutical interventions deployed in Beijing, including localised lockdown, close-contact tracing and community-based testing, were proved to be effective enough to contain the outbreak. Beijing has achieved an optimal balance between epidemic containment and economic protection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021338, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487092

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate how the spread of Sars-Cov-2 has changed the epidemiology of proximal femur fractures in two major trauma centers in Italy, understanding the workload and the best allocation of the resources for the orthopedics department in such an emergency situation. The rate of patients from January 2019 to April 2020 hospitalized with femoral neck fractures (group A) and trochanteric fractures (group B) were recorded. Demographic data, timing of surgical treatment and the length of stay were recorded. Data show that the number of proximal femur fractures has remained unchanged in the COVID and pre-COVID era (ranging from an average of 91.14/month in the pre-COVID era to 76/month in March and 80/month in April). In our trauma centers, the rate of patients operated on within 48 hours has remained stable (78.19% vs 77.92%), while the length of stay has decreased during the COVID period (8.9 days vs 6.5 days in March and 6.8 days in April). Proximal femur fractures, even during the COVID period, are a constant issue and a new challenge for the healthcare system. The main goals of management are to preserve patients from viral infection, to provide early surgical treatment and fast track protocol for discharge.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surtos de Doenças , Fêmur , Humanos , Centros de Traumatologia
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490191

RESUMO

Background: Adequate understanding and precautionary behaviors are of vital importance to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among different populations have been reported, whereas such information is unavailable in teachers. We aimed to investigate the KAP of teachers associated with COVID-19 during the global outbreak. Methods: A large-scale population-based survey was conducted to gather information on COVID-19-related KAP among Chinese teachers using a self-administered questionnaire. We received 10,658 responses in April 2020, out of which 8,248 were enrolled in the final analysis. Participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics and KAP associated with COVID-19. Results: This work included 4,252 (51.6%) teachers in kindergartens, 2,644 (32.1%) teachers in primary schools, and 1,352 (16.4%) teachers in secondary schools. The knowledge level (mean: 4.46 out of seven points) was relatively lower than the levels of attitudes (mean: 3.27 out of four points) and practices (mean: 4.29 out of five points) toward COVID-19. Knowledge scores significantly varied by the collected demographic variables except education worksite (p < 0.05), whereas practice scores significantly differed in age groups (p < 0.05), education level (p < 0.001), education worksite (p < 0.001), and years of teaching (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that poor knowledge related to COVID-19 was common among men, younger, and less-educated teachers. In contrast, female teachers and those with higher education levels tend to have good practices against COVID-19. Conclusion: The present work suggested the knowledge gaps regarding COVID-19 were needed to be corrected immediately in teachers. Given the critical role of teachers in the education system, health authorities should take gender, age, and education level into account when developing suitable health interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501520

RESUMO

Health risk communication plays a crucial role in preventing the spread of infectious disease outbreaks such as the current coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Yet, migrants are far too often forgotten in health risk communication responses. We investigate the challenges and efforts made by migrants in Denmark-in the initial months of the pandemic-to access information about COVID-19. We draw on 18 semi-structured interviews conducted in May and June 2020. All interviews are thematically coded and analyzed. Our analysis reveals that many of the migrants faced several challenges, including accessing information in a language understandable to them and navigating constant streams of official news flows issuing instructions about which actions to take. However, we also note that the participating migrants found numerous creative ways to address some of these challenges, often aided by digital tools, helping them access crucial health and risk information. This paper highlights that migrants constitute an underserved group in times of crises. They are vulnerable to getting left behind in pandemic communication responses. However, we also identify key protective factors, social resources, and agentic capabilities, which help them cope with health and risk information deficits. National governments need to take heed of these findings to inform future pandemic responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501634

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains a global health issue for several reasons, such as the low vaccination rates and a lack of developed herd immunity to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its potential inclination to elude neutralizing antibodies. It should be noted that the severity of the COVID-19 disease is significantly affected by the presence of co-infections. Comorbid conditions are caused not only by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms but also by some representatives of the environmental microbiome. The presence of patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease in hospitals indicates the need for epidemiological monitoring of (1) bacterial pathogens circulating in hospitals, especially the ESKAPE group pathogens, and (2) the microbiome of various surfaces in hospitals. In our study, we used combined methods based on PCR and NGS sequencing, which are widely used for epidemiological monitoring. Through this approach, we identified the DNA of pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, CoNS, and Achromobacter spp.) on various surfaces. We also estimated the microbiome diversity of surfaces and identified the potential reservoirs of infections using 16S rRNA profiling. Although we did not assess the viability of identified microorganisms, our results indicate the possible risks of insufficient regular disinfection of surfaces, regardless of department, at the Infectious Diseases Hospital. Controlling the transmission of nosocomial diseases is critical to the successful treatment of COVID-19 patients, the rational use of antimicrobial drugs, and timely decontamination measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bactérias/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitais , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2
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