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2.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-10-18.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-336197
3.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-10-11.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-336034
4.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-10-04.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-335876
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1457-1459, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842400

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that children and adolescents can efficiently transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). During July-August 2020, four state health departments and CDC investigated a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred during a 3-week family gathering of five households in which an adolescent aged 13 years was the index and suspected primary patient; 11 subsequent cases occurred.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Família , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1064-1067, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841573

RESUMO

Nurses have a vital role in providing nursing care to patients requiring mobile radiography. Mobile radiography is requested when a patient's condition makes it impossible for them to be transported to the radiology department. All health professionals involved in mobile radiography, such as nurses, medical doctors and radiographers should be knowledgeable in this area. This is even more important in current practice, where nurse consultants and nurse advanced practitioners are assessing and referring patients for limited radiological examinations. However, there is little literature to equip nurses with knowledge about mobile radiography. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of this subject at a time when the number of patients requiring mobile radiography has increased globally, due to the outbreak of coronavirus. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 require portable chest X-rays to diagnose complications of the disease, such as pneumonia.


Assuntos
Radiografia/instrumentação , Radiografia/enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840524

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1492-1493, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874995

RESUMO

On June 16, 2020, a recreational ice hockey game was played at an ice rink in the Tampa Bay, Florida, metropolitan area. Teams A and B, each consisting of 11 players (typically six on the ice and five on the bench at any given time), included men aged 19-53 years. During the 5 days after the game, 15 persons (14 of the 22 players and a rink staff member) experienced signs and symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)*; 13 of the 15 ill persons had positive laboratory test results indicating infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been documented at a choir practice (1) and at meat processing plants (2,3); however, apart from an outbreak involving 57 infected dancers that has been linked to high-intensity fitness dance classes in South Korea (4) and a cluster of five infected persons at a squash facility in Slovenia (5), few published reports are available regarding transmission associated with specific sports games or practices. In addition, outbreaks of COVID-19 infections among amateur hockey players in the United States have recently been reported in the news.†.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Hóquei , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Recreação , Adulto , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
10.
Codas ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. METHODS: participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). RESULTS: the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. CONCLUSION: 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 745, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other containment areas. The role of presymptomatic people in transmission has been shown to be important and the early detection of these people is critical for the control of new outbreaks. Pooling strategies have proven to preserve SARS-CoV-2 testing resources. The aims of the present study, based in our local experience, were (a) to describe SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in institutionalized people in Galicia (Spain) during the Coronavirus pandemic and (b) to evaluate the expected performance of a pooling strategy using RT-PCR for the next rounds of screening of institutionalized people. METHODS: A total of 25,386 Nasopharyngeal swab samples from the total of the residents and workers at Care Homes in Galicia (March to May 2020) were individually tested using RT-PCR. Prevalence and quantification cycle (Cq) value distribution of positives was calculated. Besides, 26 pools of 20 samples and 14 pools of 5 samples were tested using RT-PCR as well (1 positive/pool). Pooling proof of concept was performed in two populations with 1.7 and 2% prevalence. RESULTS: Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection at Care Homes was uneven (0-60%). As the virus circulation global rate was low in our area (3.32%), the number of people at risk of acquiring the infection continues to be very high. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated that pooling of different groups of samples at low prevalence clusters, can be done with a small average delay on Cq values (5 and 2.85 cycles for pools of 20 and 5 samples, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A new screening system with guaranteed protection is required for small clusters, previously covered with individual testing. Our proposal for Care Homes, once prevalence zero is achieved, would include successive rounds of testing using a pooling solution for transmission control preserving testing resources. Scale-up of this method may be of utility to confront larger clusters to avoid the viral circulation and keeping them operative.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19 is increasingly being recognised. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 complicated by secondary Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is poorly understood. METHODS: This retrospective case series was conducted between March and April 2020 at four hospitals of Steward Health Care Network of Massachusetts, USA. Seven patients out of 169 who had echocardiogram were identified to have features of TC. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome were gathered from their electronic medical records. We also reviewed all the published cases of COVID-19 and TC in the literature to recognise their common clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: In our series of seven patients, three typical, two inverted, one biventricular and one global TC were recognised. Three were females and four were males. The mean age was 71±11 years. In-hospital death was observed in 57% of patients. Patients who belonged to the high-risk group and had high-risk echocardiographic features in our series had a 100% mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 complicated by TC has a high mortality rate. Early identification of patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk for developing secondary TC is important for the prevention of complications, and thus improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Coração Auxiliar , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/terapia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036132

RESUMO

The continued spread of COVID-19 suggests a significant possibility of reimposing the lockdowns and stricter social distancing similar to the early phase of pandemic control. We present a dynamic model to quantify the impact of isolation for the contagion curves. The model is calibrated to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain to study the effects of the isolation enforcement following the declaration of the state of alarm (14 March 2020). The simulations indicate that both the timing and the intensity of the isolation enforcement are crucial for the COVID-19 spread. For example, a 4-day earlier intervention for social distancing would have reduced the number of COVID-19 infected people by 67%. The model also informs us that the isolation enforcement does not delay the peak day of the epidemic but slows down its end. When relaxing social distancing, a reduction of the contagion probability (with the generalization of preventive actions, such as face mask wearing and hands sanitizing) is needed to overcome the effect of a rise in the number of interpersonal encounters. We report a threshold level for the contagion pace to avoid a second COVID-19 outbreak in Spain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036176

RESUMO

The strict quarantine measures employed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led the global tourism industry to a complete halt, disrupting the livelihoods of millions. The economic importance of beach tourism for many destinations has led many governments to reopen tourist beaches, as soon as the number of infection cases decreased. The objective of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for understanding the key issues for beach tourism management in these circumstances. These issues include risk perception, environmental considerations directly related to beaches and COVID-19, and management strategies designed to limit the risk of contagion on the beach. The contribution of this paper lies in its interdisciplinary approach to delivering the findings from the latest studies, highly relevant for beach tourism, in psychology, health science, and environmental science (often in preprint and in press format). Particular attention was given to identifying the knowledge gaps evident in the areas of COVID-19 risk perception, with the drivers explaining the risk-taking behavior and the protective strategies employed by beachgoers. Gaps were also found in areas such as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bathing waters and the sand, the potential of contaminated sand being a viable route of transmission, and the impact of the use of chemical disinfectants on the marine environment and on bathers. The paper identifies research prospects in these areas, additionally pointing out other questions such as new carrying capacity methods, the opportunity given by COVID-19 in estimation of the impacts of visitation and beach-litter.


Assuntos
Praias , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Codas ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. METHODS: participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). RESULTS: the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. CONCLUSION: 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1492-1493, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056952

RESUMO

On June 16, 2020, a recreational ice hockey game was played at an ice rink in the Tampa Bay, Florida, metropolitan area. Teams A and B, each consisting of 11 players (typically six on the ice and five on the bench at any given time), included men aged 19-53 years. During the 5 days after the game, 15 persons (14 of the 22 players and a rink staff member) experienced signs and symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)*; 13 of the 15 ill persons had positive laboratory test results indicating infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been documented at a choir practice (1) and at meat processing plants (2,3); however, apart from an outbreak involving 57 infected dancers that has been linked to high-intensity fitness dance classes in South Korea (4) and a cluster of five infected persons at a squash facility in Slovenia (5), few published reports are available regarding transmission associated with specific sports games or practices. In addition, outbreaks of COVID-19 infections among amateur hockey players in the United States have recently been reported in the news.†.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Hóquei , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Recreação , Adulto , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
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