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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147252

RESUMO

As the number of global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases increases, the number of imported cases is gradually rising. Furthermore, there is no reduction in domestic outbreaks. To assess the risks from imported COVID-19 cases in South Korea, we suggest using the daily risk score. Confirmed COVID-19 cases reported by John Hopkins University Center, roaming data collected from Korea Telecom, and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker index were included in calculating the risk score. The risk score was highly correlated with imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days. To forecast daily imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days in South Korea, we developed prediction models using simple linear regression and autoregressive integrated moving average, including exogenous variables (ARIMAX). In the validation set, the root mean squared error of the linear regression model using the risk score was 6.2, which was lower than that of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA; 22.3) without the risk score as a reference. Correlation coefficient of ARIMAX using the risk score (0.925) was higher than that of ARIMA (0.899). A possible reason for this time lag of 12 days between imported cases and the risk score could be the delay that occurs before the effect of government policies such as closure of airports or lockdown of cities. Roaming data could help warn roaming users regarding their COVID-19 risk status and inform the national health agency of possible high-risk areas for domestic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Estatísticos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Risco
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(11): 1560-1562, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138937

RESUMO

An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) can be devastating for residents and staff. Difficulty identifying asymptomatic and presymptomatic cases and lack of vaccination or treatment options make management challenging. We created, implemented, and now present a guide to rapidly deploy point-prevalence testing and 3-tiered cohorting in an SNF to mitigate an outbreak. We outline key challenges to SNF cohorting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Demência , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalência , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036132

RESUMO

The continued spread of COVID-19 suggests a significant possibility of reimposing the lockdowns and stricter social distancing similar to the early phase of pandemic control. We present a dynamic model to quantify the impact of isolation for the contagion curves. The model is calibrated to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain to study the effects of the isolation enforcement following the declaration of the state of alarm (14 March 2020). The simulations indicate that both the timing and the intensity of the isolation enforcement are crucial for the COVID-19 spread. For example, a 4-day earlier intervention for social distancing would have reduced the number of COVID-19 infected people by 67%. The model also informs us that the isolation enforcement does not delay the peak day of the epidemic but slows down its end. When relaxing social distancing, a reduction of the contagion probability (with the generalization of preventive actions, such as face mask wearing and hands sanitizing) is needed to overcome the effect of a rise in the number of interpersonal encounters. We report a threshold level for the contagion pace to avoid a second COVID-19 outbreak in Spain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036176

RESUMO

The strict quarantine measures employed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led the global tourism industry to a complete halt, disrupting the livelihoods of millions. The economic importance of beach tourism for many destinations has led many governments to reopen tourist beaches, as soon as the number of infection cases decreased. The objective of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for understanding the key issues for beach tourism management in these circumstances. These issues include risk perception, environmental considerations directly related to beaches and COVID-19, and management strategies designed to limit the risk of contagion on the beach. The contribution of this paper lies in its interdisciplinary approach to delivering the findings from the latest studies, highly relevant for beach tourism, in psychology, health science, and environmental science (often in preprint and in press format). Particular attention was given to identifying the knowledge gaps evident in the areas of COVID-19 risk perception, with the drivers explaining the risk-taking behavior and the protective strategies employed by beachgoers. Gaps were also found in areas such as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bathing waters and the sand, the potential of contaminated sand being a viable route of transmission, and the impact of the use of chemical disinfectants on the marine environment and on bathers. The paper identifies research prospects in these areas, additionally pointing out other questions such as new carrying capacity methods, the opportunity given by COVID-19 in estimation of the impacts of visitation and beach-litter.


Assuntos
Praias , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic powerfully demonstrates the consequences of biothreats. Countries will want to know how to better prepare for future events. The Global Health Security Index (GHSI) is a broad, independent assessment of 195 countries' preparedness for biothreats that may aid this endeavour. However, to be useful, the GHSI's external validity must be demonstrated. We aimed to validate the GHSI against a range of external metrics to assess how it could be utilised by countries. METHODS: Global aggregate communicable disease outcomes were correlated with GHSI scores and linear regression models were examined to determine associations while controlling for a number of global macroindices. GHSI scores for countries previously exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome and Ebola and recipients of US Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) investment were compared with matched control countries. Possible content omissions in light of the progressing COVID-19 pandemic were assessed. RESULTS: GHSI scores for countries had strong criterion validity against the Joint External Evaluation ReadyScore (rho=0.82, p<0.0001), and moderate external validity against deaths from communicable diseases (-0.56, p<0.0001). GHSI scores were associated with reduced deaths from communicable diseases (F(3, 172)=22.75, p<0.0001). The proportion of deaths from communicable diseases decreased 4.8% per 10-point rise in GHSI. Recipient countries of the GHSA (n=31) and SARS-affected countries (n=26), had GHSI scores 6.0 (p=0.0011) and 8.2 (p=0.0010) points higher than matched controls, respectively. Biosecurity and biosafety appear weak globally including in high-income countries, and health systems, particularly in Africa, are not prepared. Notably, the GHSI does not account for all factors important for health security. CONCLUSION: The GHSI shows promise as a valid tool to guide action on biosafety, biosecurity and systems preparedness. However, countries need to look beyond existing metrics to other factors moderating the impact of future pandemics and other biothreats. Consideration of anthropogenic and large catastrophic scenarios is also needed.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública
9.
Clin Lab Med ; 40(4): 459-472, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121615

RESUMO

Endemic species of coronavirus (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract infections. Three highly pathogenic coronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks and epidemics and have challenged clinical microbiology laboratories to quickly develop assays for diagnosis. Their initial characterization was achieved by molecular methods. With the great advance in metagenomic whole-genome sequencing directly from clinical specimens, diagnosis of novel coronaviruses could be quickly implemented into the workflow of managing cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, which will markedly affect the time of the initial characterization and accelerate the initiation of outbreak control measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until a vaccine is developed, a test, trace and isolate strategy is the most effective method of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. Contact tracing and case isolation are common methods for controlling infectious disease outbreaks. However, the effectiveness of any contact tracing system rests on public engagement. Numerous factors may influence an individual's willingness to engage with a contact tracing system. Understanding these factors has become urgent during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify facilitators and barriers to uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. METHOD: A rapid systematic review was conducted to identify papers based on primary research, written in English, and that assessed facilitators, barriers, and other factors associated with the uptake of, and engagement with, a contact tracing system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four themes were identified as facilitators to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: collective responsibility; personal benefit; co-production of contact tracing systems; and the perception of the system as efficient, rigorous and reliable. Five themes were identified as barriers to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: privacy concerns; mistrust and/or apprehension; unmet need for more information and support; fear of stigmatization; and mode-specific challenges. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the factors that have been identified, contact tracing services are more likely to get people to engage with them, identify more potentially ill contacts, and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Participação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Privacidade , Responsabilidade Social , Estereotipagem , Confiança
11.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(10): 599-601, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is thought to be transmitted via droplets and aerosols, and was detected in saliva of infected individuals. These droplets from the upper airway may infect the inhalation sedation mask and tubing. The authors determined the adequate measures needed to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 by nitrous-oxide (N2O) system during inhalation sedation in dentistry and provided evidence on mask and tubing sterilization. Additional measures to protect patients and healthcare workers from COVID-19 that may be transmitted by the inhalation sedation system are discussed. The authors recommend minimal use of a N2O system during inhalation sedation in dentistry. In case of need, the practitioners should have more than one scavenger kit and nasal masks for each N2O/O2 mixer. Biologic barriers should be mounted between the scavenger's tubing and the central evacuation system. Strict cleansing and sterilization should be performed for all parts of the N2O system. The use a disposable scavenger system and nasal mask should be considered as a viable option.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Óxido Nitroso/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração por Inalação , Anestesia Dentária/efeitos adversos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prova Pericial , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062129

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a rapidly growing pandemic that has grown from a few cases in Wuhan, China to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide within a few months. Sub-Saharan Africa is not spared. Radiology has a key role to play in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 as literature from Wuhan and Italy demonstrates. We therefore share some critical knowledge and practice areas for radiological suspicion and diagnosis. In addition, emphasis on how guarding against healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) by applying "red" and "green" principle is addressed. Given that pandemics such as COVID-19 can worsen the strain on the scantily available radiological resources in this region, we share some practical points that can be applied to manage these precious resources also needed for other essential services. We have noted that radiology does not feature in many main COVID-19 guidelines, regionally and internationally. This paper therefore suggests areas of collaboration for radiology with other clinical and management teams. We note from our local experience that radiology can play a role in COVID-19 surveillance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Atuação Profissional/tendências , Radiologia/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/ética , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 266, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An effective approach to containing epidemic outbreaks (e.g., COVID-19) is targeted immunization, which involves identifying "super spreaders" who play a key role in spreading disease over human contact networks. The ultimate goal of targeted immunization and other disease control strategies is to minimize the impact of outbreaks. It shares similarity with the famous influence maximization problem studied in the field of social network analysis, whose objective is to identify a group of influential individuals to maximize the influence spread over social networks. This study aims to establish the equivalence of the two problems and develop an effective methodology for targeted immunization through the use of influence maximization. METHODS: We present a concise formulation of the targeted immunization problem and show its equivalence to the influence maximization problem under the framework of the Linear Threshold diffusion model. Thus the influence maximization problem, as well as the targeted immunization problem, can be solved by an optimization approach. A Benders' decomposition algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem for effective solutions. RESULTS: A comprehensive computational study is conducted to evaluate the performance and scalability of the optimization approach on real-world large-scale networks. Computational results show that our proposed approaches achieve more effective solutions compared to existing methods. CONCLUSIONS: We show the equivalence of the outbreak minimization and influence maximization problems and present a concise formulation for the influence maximization problem under the Linear Threshold diffusion model. A tradeoff between computational effectiveness and computational efficiency is illustrated. Our results suggest that the capability of determining the optimal group of individuals for immunization is particularly crucial for the containment of infectious disease outbreaks within a small network. Finally, our proposed methodology not only determines the optimal solutions for target immunization, but can also aid policymakers in determining the right level of immunization coverage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1483, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural science can play a critical role in combatting the effects of an infectious disease outbreak or public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The current paper presents a synthesis of review literature discussing the application of behaviour change theories within an infectious disease and emergency response context, with a view to informing infectious disease modelling, research and public health practice. METHODS: A scoping review procedure was adopted for the searches. Searches were run on PubMed, PsychInfo and Medline with search terms covering four major categories: behaviour, emergency response (e.g., infectious disease, preparedness, mass emergency), theoretical models, and reviews. Three further top-up reviews was also conducted using Google Scholar. Papers were included if they presented a review of theoretical models as applied to understanding preventative health behaviours in the context of emergency preparedness and response, and/or infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: Thirteen papers were included in the final synthesis. Across the reviews, several theories of behaviour change were identified as more commonly cited within this context, specifically, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and Protection Motivation Theory, with support (although not universal) for their effectiveness in this context. Furthermore, the application of these theories in previous primary research within this context was found to be patchy, and so further work is required to systematically incorporate and test behaviour change models within public health emergency research and interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, this review identifies a range of more commonly applied theories with broad support for their use within an infectious disease and emergency response context. The Discussion section details several key recommendations to help researchers, practitioners, and infectious disease modellers to incorporate these theories into their work. Specifically, researchers and practitioners should base future research and practice on a systematic application of theories, beginning with those reported herein. Furthermore, infectious disease modellers should consult the theories reported herein to ensure that the full range of relevant constructs (cognitive, emotional and social) are incorporated into their models. In all cases, consultation with behavioural scientists throughout these processes is strongly recommended to ensure the appropriate application of theory.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1938-1940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058581

RESUMO

In recent years, several cases of measles have appeared on the campuses of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). In response to this, several medical students have mobilized in collaboration with various cantonal authorities in order to set up a free measles, mumps and rubella vaccination campaign on the UNIL/EPFL campuses, in 2019. This first edition was a success and will be repeated in the future. Such an approach having shown its feasibility, it could be applied to other public health issues. The involvement of medical students could thus be extremely valuable if a generalized vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were to take place.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
17.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 54, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses dramatic challenges to public health authorities worldwide. One measure put in place to contain the spread of the disease is self-quarantine of individuals who may have been exposed to the disease. While officials expect the public to comply with such regulation, studies suggest that a major obstacle to compliance for self-quarantine is concern over loss of income or employment due to the prolonged absence from work. METHODS: A cohort study of the adult population of Israel was conducted in two time points during the COVID-19 outbreak, the last week of February and the third week of March 2020, in order to assess public attitudes. In particular, public compliance rates to self-quarantine with and without State-sponsored compensation for lost wages were assessed. RESULTS: The results suggest that public attitudes changed as the threat increased, making people more compliant with regulations. In February 2020, compliance rate for self-quarantine dropped from 94% to less than 57% when monetary compensation for lost wages was removed; however, in March 2020 this drop became more moderate (from 96 to 71%). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that older, non-Jewish, worried over COVID-19, and trusting the Ministry of Health were more likely than their counterparts to comply with self-isolation, even when monetary compensation was not assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effects of threat on people's obedience with regulations, this study demonstrates that providing people with assurances about their livelihood during absence from work remains an important component in compliance with public health regulations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1542-1546, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090983

RESUMO

Mass gatherings have been implicated in higher rates of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and many sporting events have been restricted or canceled to limit disease spread (1). Based on current CDC COVID-19 mitigation recommendations related to events and gatherings (2), Major League Baseball (MLB) developed new health and safety protocols before the July 24 start of the 2020 season. In addition, MLB made the decision that games would be played without spectators. Before a three-game series between teams A and B, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health was notified of a team A player with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19; the player was isolated as recommended (2). During the series and the week after, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was diagnosed among 19 additional team A players and staff members and one team B staff member. Throughout their potentially infectious periods, some asymptomatic team A players and coaches, who subsequently received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, engaged in on-field play with teams B and C. No on-field team B or team C players or staff members subsequently received a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Certain MLB health and safety protocols, which include frequent diagnostic testing for rapid case identification, isolation of persons with positive test results, quarantine for close contacts, mask wearing, and social distancing, might have limited COVID-19 transmission between teams.


Assuntos
Beisebol , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998303

RESUMO

Some years inspire more hindsight reflection and future-gazing than others. This is even more so in 2020 with its evocation of perfect vision and the landmark ring to it. However, no futurist can reliably predict what the world will look like the next time that a year's first two digits will match the second two digits-a numerical pattern that only occurs once in a century. As we leap into a new decade, amid uncertainties triggered by unforeseen global events-such as the outbreak of a worldwide pandemic, the accompanying economic hardship, and intensifying geopolitical tensions-it is important to note the blistering pace of 21st century technological developments indicate that while hindsight might be 20/20, foresight is 50/50. The history of science shows us that imaginative ideas, research excellence, and collaborative innovation can, for example, significantly contribute to the economic, cultural, social, and environmental recovery of a post-COVID-19 world. This article reflects on a history of yeast research to indicate the potential that arises from advances in science, and how this can contribute to the ongoing recovery and development of human society. Future breakthroughs in synthetic genomics are likely to unlock new avenues of impactful discoveries and solutions to some of the world's greatest challenges.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Genoma Fúngico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 987-993, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the first reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, the disease has spread worldwide. Different social isolation strategies have been adopted to reduce community transmission, but few studies have evaluated the pattern of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in a family cluster during periods of isolation. We report an outbreak in 24 members of a family cluster during a period of social distancing. METHODOLOGY: We carried out an observational descriptive study of a family cluster infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Laboratory confirmation included RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal samples or IgM or IgG serology. RESULTS: The attack rates were 75% (19/24) based on laboratory-confirmed cases and 87.5% (21/24) including probable cases. The time of spread was 17 days from the first case. All patients had mild symptoms, requiring no hospitalization, and none of them died. The frequency of symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed patients was higher among adults (94%) than among children (50%); the paediatric age group also had a higher frequency of exposed individuals who remained negative for infection. Ground-glass opacities on chest computed tomography were present in all patients with reported dyspnoea. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a high risk of intrahousehold transmission from an index case, suggesting the need for (I) specific guidelines during periods of social distancing, (II) minimization of external exposures and, above all, (III) adoption of strict quarantine measures for suspected cases and family members to prevent outbreaks from spreading.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Família , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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