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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 196-200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171543

RESUMO

We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) among stone martens (Martes foina) in Italy. After being rescued in Northern Italy between April and June 2018, six subjects were kept in a wildlife and exotic animal rescue center in Bologna province. Subjects have been monitored for 15 months in captivity. Within this time-lapse, two subjects died, while among the remaining four, only one showed clinical symptoms referable to distemper. Surviving subjects have been regularly tested for CDV by means of reverse transcriptase-PCR from conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs for eleven months. The identified viruses belonged to the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the end of the eleven months, when all subjects tested reverse transcriptase-PCR negative. Our findings confirm the circulation of the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup (Europe 1/South America 1 lineage) within the Italian wildlife, and improve knowledge on viral infection in stone martens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
2.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 732-735, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092143

RESUMO

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) causes an often-fatal disease of rabbits that has resulted in outbreaks in rabbitries in Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia. RHD has historically been characterized as a foreign animal disease in the United States. In July 2019, RHDV2 was detected in rabbits on Orcas Island along the northwestern coast of Washington (WA) State following reports of deaths in multiple feral and domestic rabbits. We document and highlight here the unique clinical presentation and gross and histologic lesions observed in this recent WA outbreak. Affected rabbits died without premonitory signs or displayed hyporexia and/or lethargy for ≤1 d prior to death. The most consistent pathologic finding was random, multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, often with concurrent multifocal-to-diffuse splenic necrosis. The lack of significant clinical signs in conjunction with the random distribution of hepatic necrosis in the WA outbreak contrasts with previous reports of RHDV2 disease progression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/classificação , Coelhos/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 774-778, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130425

RESUMO

A herd of seven captive-born Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) experienced an outbreak of nasal discharge and sneezing. Clinical signs, including lethargy and anorexia, were severe and acute in three animals, including a 16-mo-old male that died within 48 h. Treatment of two severely affected zebras included valacyclovir (40 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg IM/PO), and cefquinome (2.5 mg/kg IM q48h). An adult female improved rapidly, and clinical signs resolved within 48 h of treatment. Administration of valacyclovir pellets was very complicated in a 2-mo-old female, and death occurred within 48 h. Histologic examination of the two individuals that died revealed severe fibrinonecrotic interstitial pneumonia with prominent hyaline membranes and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. Additionally, the 16-mo-old male presented systemic endothelial activation with vascular thrombosis and necrosis and mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. Herpesviral DNA was detected in the lungs of both individuals by nested polymerase chain reaction. The nucleic acid sequence of the amplicons showed 100% similarity with previously published equid alphaherpesvirus 9 sequences. Three additional animals developed mild nasal discharge only and recovered spontaneously. The zebras shared housing facilities with other species, including white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata), and several antelope species. None of these animals showed clinical signs. Additionally, nasal swabs and whole blood samples were collected from cohoused white rhinoceroses (n = 3) and springboks (Antidorcas marsupialis, n = 3) as well as nasal swabs from cohoused reticulated giraffes (n = 4). Nucleic acid sequence from equid herpesviruses was not detected in any of these samples. The source of the infection in the zebras remains unclear.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Equidae , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Varicellovirus/classificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Masculino , Valaciclovir/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(1): 119-129, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140736

RESUMO

In this paper, the authors: (a) list methods used to diagnose zoonotic diseases in humans and animals; (b) identify between-species differences in diagnostic approaches, providing commentary on the benefits that might arise from simultaneous interpretation of data from human and animal health surveillance systems; and (c) reiterate the importance of using species-specific, validated diagnostic tests for surveillance and disease outbreak investigations. Emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases are likely to provide a continued threat to global health in the short- to medium-term future. A good deal of knowledge about the drivers of infectious disease emergence has been developed based on numerous examples from the recent past. Sharing of diagnostic resources across human and animal health sectors, sharing of human and animal health surveillance data, development of skills in the interpretation of that data and awareness of issues related to the validation and interpretation of diagnostic test data are necessary prerequisites for an effective endemic disease surveillance system. A good understanding of the epidemiological patterns of endemic disease will allow human and animal health professionals be able to more quickly detect the presence of emerging disease threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Saúde Global , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 806-809, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085872

RESUMO

Fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) species D and E are associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH); species C, serotype 4 (hereafter, FAdV4) is associated with hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) in young chickens. Outbreaks of HHS have led to significant losses in the poultry industry in several countries, predominantly in China. In April 2020, FAdV4 was detected in a remote backyard flock in California. In a mixed flock of chickens of various breeds and ages (6 mo to 2 y old), 7 of 30 were found dead within a week without premonitory signs. One additional bird died after the flock was relocated to fresh pasture, bringing the total mortality to 8 of 30 (27%). Postmortem examination of 3 birds revealed good body condition scores and active laying. One chicken had subtle hemorrhages throughout the liver, and the other 2 had diffusely dark mahogany livers. On histopathology, 2 chickens had hepatic necrosis with hepatocytes containing large, mostly basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies, identified by electron microscopy as 82.2-nm diameter adenoviral particles. Virus isolation and genomic sequencing performed on a liver sample revealed strains with 99.9% homology to FAdV4 isolates reported from China. To our knowledge, FAdV4 has not been reported in the United States to date. Furthermore, the chickens affected here were all adults and exhibited a variation of serotype 4 disease in which IBH was present but not hydropericardium.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/classificação , California/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sorogrupo
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 376, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181093

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary animal disease that has negative socioeconomic consequences including impacts on food security. In South Africa, FMD outbreaks in communal farming communities cause major livestock and human livelihood concerns; they raise apprehensions about the effectiveness of FMD control measures within the FMD protection areas. This study aimed to identify high-risk areas for FMD outbreaks at the human/domestic animal/wildlife interface of South Africa. Cuzick-Edwards tests and Kulldorff scan statistics were used to detect spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal clusters of FMD outbreaks for the years 2005-2016.Four high-risk clusters were identified and the spatial distribution of outbreaks in cattle were closer to game reserve fences and consistent with wildlife contacts as a main contributor of FMD occurrence. Strategic allocation of resources, focused control measures, and cooperation between the affected provinces are recommended to reduce future outbreaks. Further research is necessary to design cost-effective control strategies for FMD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101668, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004508

RESUMO

In 2020, an outbreak of equine coronavirus (ECoV) infection occurred among 41 horses at a riding stable in Tokyo, Japan. This stable had 16 Thoroughbreds and 25 horses of other breeds, including Andalusians, ponies and miniature horses. Fifteen horses (37 %) showed mild clinical signs such as fever, lethargy, anorexia and diarrhoea, and they recovered within 3 days of onset. A virus neutralization test showed that all 41 horses were infected with ECoV, signifying that 26 horses (63 %) were subclinical. The results suggest that subclinical horses played an important role as spreaders. A genome sequence analysis revealed that the lengths from genes p4.7 to p12.7 or NS2 in ECoV differed from those of ECoVs detected previously, suggesting that this outbreak was caused by a virus different from those that caused previous outbreaks among draughthorses in Japan. Among 30 horses that tested positive by real-time RT-PCR, ECoV shedding periods of non-Thoroughbreds were significantly longer than those of Thoroughbreds. The difference in shedding periods may indicate that some breeds excrete ECoV longer than other breeds and can contribute to the spread of ECoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus 1 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tóquio
9.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 303-312, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822144

RESUMO

Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are the bat species in North America most frequently found to be rabid because of their high rate of human contact and thus submissions for rabies testing, of which, 4-5% are positive. The social behavior of big brown bats during the summer months may drive space use and potential viral exposure to conspecifics and mesocarnivores. We collected 88 unique genetic samples via buccal swabs from big brown bats captured at four maternity roosts surrounding a golf course during the summer of 2013. We used seven microsatellite loci to estimate genetic relatedness among individuals and genetic structure within and among colonies to infer whether females selected roosts based on kinship and used genetics and radio telemetry to determine the frequency of roost switching. We found roost switching through genetics and telemetry, and no evidence of elevated genetic relatedness within colonies or genetic structure among colonies. Social cohesion based on relatedness may not act to constrain the pathogen to a particular roost area, and thus, geographic mobility may increase viral exposure of bats in neighboring areas.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Quirópteros/genética , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Arizona/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vírus da Raiva
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 439-442, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822163

RESUMO

Examination of carcasses of Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral) revealed nodular, pox-like eruptions in the skin. Similar disease was also seen in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in the same area. Goatpox virus was identified as the etiology of the disease in both cases, with probable transmission between the species.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus/genética , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Ruminantes/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Índia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 728-731, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797311

RESUMO

An outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2)-associated disease occurred in the southwestern United States following its first detection in New Mexico in March 2020. The disease spread throughout several states and was diagnosed for the first time in California on May 11, 2020, in a black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). The following day, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) issued an order banning the entrance into California of several lagomorph species and their products from any state in which the disease had been detected in the last 12 mo. RHDV2 is a threat to wild lagomorph species in California, including the endangered riparian brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). Therefore, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) started tracking any mortality event in wild lagomorph populations. As of August 9, 2020, RHDV2 had been detected in wild and domestic lagomorphs of several counties in southern California that were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory system by the CDFA or the CDFW. These positive cases included 2 additional black-tailed jackrabbits and 3 desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii). In addition, the infection spilled over to domestic populations, whereby it was confirmed on July 10, 2020, in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Coelhos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Lebres/virologia , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Environ Qual ; 50(4): 899-910, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872403

RESUMO

Composting has been used to dispose of animal mortalities and infected materials, such as manure and feed, during major animal disease outbreaks. In this study, we adapted the plastic-wrapped mortality composting system developed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency during the 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak to compost swine mortalities. The goals of the study were to evaluate the performance of the plastic-wrapped composting system to dispose of swine mortalities and to field test its ability to eliminate the spread of airborne pathogens through the aeration ducts. Two cover materials, ground cornstalks and woodchips, were tested using passively and actively aerated composting sheds. The mortalities were inoculated with Salmonella spp. and vaccine strains of Bovine herpesvirus-1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus. Air samples collected from the upper aeration duct (air outlet) during the first 10 d of composting were negative for Salmonella and the viruses tested, which indicated that aerosol transmission of the pathogens was limited. The aeration plenum placed under the mortalities helped to keep conditions aerobic, as O2 concentrations of both passively and actively aerated test units were above 11%. Actively aerated cornstalks had the highest degree-hours (1,462 °C h d-1 ), which was followed by passively aerated cornstalks (1,312 °C h d-1 ), actively aerated woodchips (1,303 °C h d-1 ), and passively aerated woodchips (1,062 °C h d-1 ). After a 7-wk composting period, all three pathogens were inactivated based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction test results. The mortalities were not inoculated with the African swine fever virus, but temperature data showed that if they were, the system had the potential to eliminate this virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Compostagem , Animais , Canadá , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Esterco , Plásticos , Solo , Suínos
17.
Arch Virol ; 166(7): 1859-1867, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876315

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that causes emaciation and watery diarrhea in pigs. First identified in Europe in 1977, it eventually spread to Asia and North America, causing deadly outbreaks in neonatal piglets. In the Philippines, PEDV has caused several recorded outbreaks since 2005. However, DNA sequencing studies of local PEDV strains remain few and are limited to gene and gene fragment sequencing. Therefore, to provide updated sequence information about recent PEDV strains in the country, we performed reverse transcription PCR and sequencing of PEDV from swab samples collected from swine farms in the Philippines in 2017. Here, we report the first published whole genome sequence of PEDV from the Philippines as well as CO-26K equivalent (COE) domain sequences of strains from three provinces in Luzon where PEDV was detected in 2017. Sequence analysis suggested that PEDV from both the classical (genotype 1) and pandemic (genotype 2) groups are present in the Philippines, with possible East Asian and North American origins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Ásia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas , Genoma Viral/genética , América do Norte , Filipinas , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Suínos
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 554-565, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739178

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan pathogen that infects many endothermic vertebrates, including humans; the domestic cat and other felids serve as the definitive host. Macropodids are considered highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Here, we describe the clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of an outbreak of systemic toxoplasmosis in a mob of 11 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), with high morbidity (73%) and mortality (100%) rates. Affected animals had either severe and rapidly deteriorating clinical conditions or sudden death, which was correlated with widespread necrotizing lesions in multiple organs and intralesional T. gondii organisms identified via MIC3-specific immunohistochemistry and confirmed by REP529-specific rtPCR. Quantification of parasites demonstrated the highest parasite density in pulmonary parenchyma compared with other tissues. Our study highlights the continued importance of this severe condition in Australian marsupials.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Macropodidae , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 55-59, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704092

RESUMO

We report hirudiniasis caused by the leech Hemiclepsis marginata asiatica Moore, 1924 in albino red-bellied pacu (pirapitinga) Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818), constituting the first documentation of a freshwater fish species being affected in India. The outbreak occurred in a tank of an aquarium-fish retailer; infested fish appeared asphyxiated, unable to swim or swimming upside down, with cloudy eyes and body with thick mucus secretion. The prevalence and mortality was 100%, with a mean intensity of 81 leeches per fish. The histopathology of the morbid fish revealed degenerative necrosis, eosinophilic infiltration in the muscle tissue and haemorrhages in the fin membrane. The leech mitochondrial 18S rDNA and 12S rDNA genes were characterised and submitted to GenBank under accession numbers MN380443 (18S) and MK733282 (12S). A maximum likelihood tree was constructed using 12S rDNA gene sequences to demonstrate the phylogenetic position of Hemiclepsis marginata asiatica among its congeners.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Sanguessugas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Índia , Filogenia
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