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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 579-590, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046918

RESUMO

All-hazards preparedness and response planning requires ongoing individual, organisational and multi-jurisdictional learning. Disaster after-action reviews are an established emergency management practice to acquire knowledge through a process of analysing what happened and why, to improve the emergency response before the next crisis. After-action reviews help individuals and organisations learn, and are an essential step in the preparedness cycle. Human and animal health authorities have begun to employ after-action reviews for disaster preparedness and response among public health and Veterinary Services. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) encourages Members to establish after-action reviews and share best practice. The adoption of afteraction review is an essential step for all provincial, national and multinational emergency management authorities to mitigate the impact of disasters on human and animal health. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases with pandemic potential pose unique preparedness challenges, requiring high-level policy attention to close long-standing gaps. A review of after-action reports from the 2001 anthrax bioterror attacks and of naturally occurring infectious disease crises, from the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to the 2014 Ebola epidemic, reveal a similar pattern of repeated weakness and failures. These phenomena are described as 'lessons observed but not lessons learned'. Most infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential are zoonotic and require a One Health approach to prevent, prepare for and respond to global health security crises. After-action reviews in a One Health security context are essential to improve the pandemic preparedness of public health and Veterinary Services. After-action reviews can also provide the evidence-based 'feedback loop' needed to galvanise public policy and political will to translate lessons observed into sustained and applied lessons learned.


Assuntos
Desastres , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Saúde Global , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Humanos , Saúde Pública
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 471-480, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046928

RESUMO

Enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, can reside in the intestinal tract of many animals, including livestock, companion animals, small mammals and reptiles. Often, these animals can appear healthy; nonetheless, humans can become infected after direct or indirect contact, resulting in a substantial illness burden. An estimated 14% of the 3.2 million illnesses that occur in the United States of America (USA) each year from such enteric pathogens are attributable to animal contact. Surveillance for enteric pathogens in the USA includes the compilation and interpretation of both laboratory and epidemiologic data. However, the authors feel that a collaborative, multisectoral and transdisciplinary - or One Health - approach is needed for data collection and analysis, at every level. In addition, they suggest that the future of enteric illness surveillance lies in the development of improved technologies for pathogen detection and characterisation, such as genomic sequencing and metagenomics. In particular, using whole-genome sequencing to compare genetic sequences of enteric pathogens from humans, food, animals and the environment, can help to predict antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens, determine their genetic relatedness and identify outbreaks linked to a common source. In this paper, the authors describe three recent, multi-state human enteric illness outbreaks linked to animal contact in the USA and discuss how integrated disease surveillance was essential to outbreak detection and response. Additional datasharing between public health and animal health laboratories and epidemiologists at the local, national, regional and international level may help to improve surveillance for emerging animal and human health threats and lead to new opportunities for prevention.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Laboratórios , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 435-443, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046932

RESUMO

Complex emergencies, also known as major humanitarian emergencies, differ from emergencies related to natural disasters or major disease outbreaks, in that they are essentially political in nature and will, in most cases, erode the cultural, civil, political and economic stability of societies. They can be exacerbated by natural disasters and eventually require external interventions. National Veterinary Services are usually weakened or partially or totally disrupted. Interventions to support livestock-dependent communities should build on local capacity. Multisector, integrated disaster management plans should be in place and should include not only preparedness and response, but also mitigation, prevention and recovery strategies. National Veterinary Services and their partners should work in close collaboration and are encouraged to look beyond animal-health-related interventions, also addressing access to feed and water, and keeping marketing chains for livestock open. This paper also touches on the specific needs of displaced people, host communities, and pastoralists, as well as addressing disease eradication programmes in the context of complex emergencies.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Emergências/veterinária
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701990

RESUMO

CONTEXT: A disease can be a source of disturbance, causing population declines or extirpations, altering species interactions, and affecting habitat structure. This is particularly relevant for diseases that affect keystone species or ecosystem engineers, leading to potentially cascading effects on ecosystems. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the invasion of a non-native disease, plague, to a keystone species, prairie dogs, and documented the resulting extent of fragmentation and habitat loss in western grasslands. Specifically, we assessed how the arrival of plague in the Conata Basin, South Dakota, United States, affected the size, shape, and aggregation of prairie dog colonies, an animal species known to be highly susceptible to plague. METHODS: Colonies in the prairie dog complex were mapped every 1 to 3 years from 1993 to 2015. Plague was first confirmed in 2008 and we compared prairie dog complex and colony characteristics before and after the arrival of plague. RESULTS: As expected the colony complex and the patches in colonies became smaller and more fragmented after the arrival of plague; the total area of each colony and the mean area per patch within a colony decreased, the number of patches per colony increased, and mean contiguity of each patch decreased, leading to habitat fragmentation. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how an emerging infectious disease can act as a source of disturbance to natural systems and lead to potentially permanent alteration of habitat characteristics. While perhaps not traditionally thought of as a source of ecosystem disturbances, in recent years emerging infectious diseases have shown to be able to have large effects on ecosystems if they affect keystone species.


Assuntos
Peste/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ecossistema , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Sciuridae , South Dakota/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645097

RESUMO

Decisions surrounding the presence of infectious diseases are typically made in the face of considerable uncertainty. However, the development of models to guide these decisions has been substantially constrained by computational difficulty. This paper focuses on the case of finding the optimal level of surveillance against a highly infectious animal disease where time, space and randomness are fully considered. We apply the Sample Average Approximation approach to solve our problem, and to control model dimension, we propose the use of an infection tree model, in combination with sensible 'tree-pruning' and parallel processing techniques. Our proposed model and techniques are generally applicable to a number of disease types, but we demonstrate the approach by solving for optimal surveillance levels against foot-and-mouth disease using bulk milk testing as an active surveillance protocol, during an epidemic, among 42,279 farms, fully characterised by their location, livestock type and size, in the state of Victoria, Australia.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Gado/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/transmissão
6.
Vet Pathol ; 57(5): 653-657, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663073

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vison/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
7.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594583

RESUMO

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Vison , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Países Baixos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
8.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553059

RESUMO

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Vison , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Países Baixos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
9.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555613

RESUMO

Classical swine fever (CSF) is an infectious viral disease caused by an RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus. A total of 134 outbreaks of CSF have occurred in the last seven years in the North of Colombia. The objective of this study was the characterization of the herds affected by CSF from 2013 to 2018. Most of the outbreaks (95%) occured in backyard piggeries. The principal causes of transmission of CSF were the introduction of infected pigs (38%), movements of people (37%) and unknown origin (13%). The epidemiological relationships with 15 affected farms explained 31 outbreaks. The overall attack and mortality rates were 39% and 32%, respectively. The main clinical signs were high fever (67%), incoordination of movements (54%), and prostration (52%). Seventy-three percent of the herds had not been vaccinated against CSF and 17% had been only partially vaccinated. A spatio-temporal analysis, using a Poisson regression model, revealed two clusters with high risk; the first and largest one from 2014 to 2016 had a relative risk (RR) of 13.4 and included part of the departments of Atlántico, Bolívar, Cesar, La Guajira, Norte de Santander, Magdalena and Sucre; and the second cluster (RR = 9.6 in 2016) included municipalities in the north of the department of Cordoba.


Assuntos
Peste Suína Clássica/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Animais , Colômbia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suínos
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1749-1757, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435857

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the vaccine-matching and antigenic properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates collected from Ethiopia between 2011 and 2014. Samples (n = 51) were collected from cattle and pigs with clinical signs consistent with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) on farms in Debre-Berhan, Debre-Zeit/Bishoftu, Sidamo, Mekelle, and Addis Ababa. Infectious FMDV was isolated using BHK-21 cell cultures from 38 of the 51 field samples (74.5%). All of these FMDV-positive samples were characterized as serotype O, belonging to two East Africa topotypes (EA-3 and EA-4), and their VP1-encoding sequences demonstrated amino acid sequence variability encompassing 27 positions in comparison to the vaccine strain (O/ETH/38/2005) currently provided by the National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. One-dimensional virus neutralization test (1 dm VNT) results showed that O/ETH/38/2005 was antigenically matched to 10 of the 16 serotype O viruses. These findings indicate that the O/ETH/38/2005 vaccine strain can provide protection against outbreaks caused by the O/EA-3 topotype, although poorer vaccine-matching results for the O/EA-4 topotype reinforce the importance of using a good-quality vaccine with high coverage in the susceptible herds with supporting post-vaccination serosurveillance to ensure that sufficient antibody titers are generated in the vaccinated animals.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Etiópia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Variação Genética/imunologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Suínos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421747

RESUMO

Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever have devastating impacts on ruminants, humans, as well as on regional and national economies. Although numerous studies on the impact and outbreak of Rift Valley fever exist, relatively little is known about the role of environmental factors, especially soil, on the aestivation of the virus. This study thus selected 22 sites for study in central South Africa, known to be the recurrent epicenter of widespread Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Southern Africa. Soils were described, sampled and analyzed in detail at each site. Of all the soil variables analyzed for, only eight (cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable K+, exchangeable Mg2+, soluble Ca2+, medium sand, As, and Br) were statistically identified to be potential indicators of sites with reported Rift Valley fever mortalities, as reported for the 2009-2010 Rift Valley fever outbreak. Four soil characteristics (exchangeable K+, exchangeable Mg2+, medium sand, and Br) were subsequently included in a discriminant function that could potentially be used to predict sites that had reported Rift Valley fever-associated mortalities in livestock. This study therefore constitutes an initial attempt to predict sites prone to Rift Valley fever livestock mortality from soil properties and thus serves as a basis for broader research on the interaction between soil, mosquitoes and Rift Valley fever virus. Future research should include other environmental components such as vegetation, climate, and water properties as well as correlating soil properties with floodwater Aedes spp. abundance and Rift Valley fever virus prevalence.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre do Vale de Rift/mortalidade , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Gado , Metais/análise , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/patogenicidade , Fatores de Risco , Solo/química , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Zoonoses/mortalidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Expiração , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Gado , Análise Multinível , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
14.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 71: 101494, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434101

RESUMO

The etiological agents involved in a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreak were investigated in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit from southern Brazil. A battery of PCR assays was performed to detect the most common viruses and bacteria associated with BRD, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from 21 heifer calves (symptomatic n = 15; asymptomatic n = 6) that, during the occurrence of the BDR outbreak, were aged between 6 and 90 days. At least one microorganism was detected in 85.7 % (18/21) of the BALF samples. Mixed infections were more frequent (72.2 %) than single infections (27.7 %). The interactions between viruses and bacteria were the most common in coinfections (55.5 %). The frequencies of BRD agents were 38.1 % for BRSV, 28.6 % for BVDV, 33.3 % for BCoV, 42.85 % for P. multocida, 33.3 % for M. bovis, and 19 % for H. somni. BoHV-1, BPIV-3, and M. haemolytica were not identified in any of the 21 BALF samples. Considering that BALF and not nasal swabs were analyzed, these results demonstrate the etiological multiplicity that may be involved in BRD outbreaks in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469923

RESUMO

African Swine Fever (ASF) is one of the most complex and significant diseases from a sanitary-economic perspective currently affecting the world's swine-farming industry. ASF has been endemic in Sardinia (Italy) since 1978, and several control and eradication programmes have met with limited success. In this traditional ASF endemic area, there are three susceptible host populations for this virus sharing the same habitat: wild boar, farmed domestic pigs and non-registered free-ranging pigs (known as "brado" animals). The main goal of this study was to determine and predict fine-scale spatial interactions of this multi-host system in relation to the epidemiology of ASF in the main endemic area of Sardinia, Montes-Orgosolo. To this end, simultaneous monitoring of GPS-GSM collared wild boar and free-ranging pigs sightings were performed to predict interaction indexes through latent selection difference functions with environmental, human and farming factors. Regarding epidemiological assessment, the spatial inter-specific interaction indexes obtained here were used to correlate ASF notifications in wild boar and domestic pig farms. Daily movement patterns, home ranges (between 120.7 and 2,622.8 ha) and resource selection of wild boar were obtained for the first time on the island. Overall, our prediction model showed the highest spatial interactions between wild boar and free-ranging pigs in areas close to pig farms. A spatially explicit model was obtained to map inter-specific interaction over the complete ASF-endemic area of the island. Our approach to monitoring interaction indexes may help explain the occurrence of ASF notifications in wild boar and domestic pigs on a fine-spatial scale. These results support the recent and effective eradication measures taken in Sardinia. In addition, this methodology could be extrapolated to apply in the current epidemiological scenarios of ASF in Eurasia, where exist multi-host systems involving free-ranging pigs and wild boar.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/patogenicidade , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Migração Animal , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Telemetria/veterinária
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1343-1356, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279139

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the resurgence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, in 2018. The majority of the outbreaks were silent with no mortality and congregated within an area with a radius of about 30 km located 1-50 km away from the national border with Kazakhstan. Following primary molecular diagnosis, LSD virus (LSDV) isolates were analyzed using a panel of PCR assays targeting different genetic loci, namely, LSD008 (vaccine), LSDV126 (field), and GPCR (vaccine and field), for differentiation and genotype assignment. All isolates were positive for the vaccine genotype of GPCR and negative for the other field targets tested. A PCR assay with melt curve analysis utilizing LSD008, developed in this work, indicated that the strains melted with a profile similar to those of field strains. Surprisingly, sequence analysis of the RPO30 and GPCR genes aligned the Kurgan/2018 isolate with KSGP O-240 at the GPCR locus, but with Saratov/2017 at the RPO30 locus. The latter cluster forms an association with a sub-cluster of the field strains comprising the South African KSGP O-240 strain and NI-2490 strain. Due to these incongruent phylogenetic patterns, the sequences of three additional loci ORF19 (Kelch-like protein), ORF52 (putative transcriptional elongation factor), and ORF87 (mutT motif protein) were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of these additional loci placed the strain Kurgan/2018 in either vaccine or field groups, strongly suggesting a novel recombinant profile. This is another piece of evidence exposing the potential for recombination in capripoxviruses and the ignored danger of using live homologous vaccines against LSD. The necessity to revise the PCR-based strategy differentiating infected from vaccinated animals is discussed. The potential scenarios of incursion and the contribution of the KSGP/NI-2490-like strain to the emergence of the recently identified vaccine-like recombinant are discussed.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/classificação , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/imunologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330151

RESUMO

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and 5 (BoHV5) are genetically and antigenically related alphaherpesviruses. Infection with one virus induces protective immunity against the other. However, disease associated with BoHV1 and BoHV5 varies significantly; whereas BoHV1 infection is usually associated with rhinotracheitis and abortion, BoHV5 causes encephalitis in cattle. BoHV5 outbreaks are sporadic and mainly restricted to the South American countries. We report BoHV5 infection for the first time from aborted cattle in India. Based on the characteristic cytopathic effects in MDBK cells, amplification of the viral genome by PCR, differential PCR for BoHV1/BoHV5, nucleotide sequencing and restriction endonuclease patterns, identity of the virus was confirmed as BoHV5 subtype A. Serum samples from the aborted cattle strongly neutralized both BoHV1 and BoHV5 suggesting an active viral infection in the herd. Upon UL27, UL44 and UL54 gene-based sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the isolated virus clustered with BoHV5 strains and showed highest similarity with the Brazilian BoHV5 strains.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Bovino 5/genética , Herpesvirus Bovino 5/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Bovino 5/metabolismo , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/metabolismo , Índia , Filogenia
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1367-1375, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285201

RESUMO

Sequencing of the VP2 region was carried out to identify amino acid mismatches between vaccine strains and field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Viruses were isolated in chicken embryo fibroblast (DF-1) cells using pooled samples of bursa collected from nine outbreaks, which affected 30,250 chickens in five localities, with an overall mortality of 47.87%. Virus strains were identified by comparing the deduced amino acid sequence between positions 232 and 446 of the immunodominant VP2 epitope. All of the pooled samples were positive for IBDV. RT-PCR yielded a 645-bp DNA fragment of the VP2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of this fragment revealed clustering of these isolates with very virulent IBDV strains. The amino acid sequences of these isolates were identical to those of the European very virulent strains UK 661 and DV 86, except at position 222, but differed from the vaccine strains used in Ethiopia, suggesting the possible introduction of virulent virus strains to Ethiopia from Europe. Our study demonstrates the widespread presence of very virulent strains of IBDV on poultry farms in Ethiopia and demonstrates the need to evaluate the protective level of existing vaccines against circulating field viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Primers do DNA , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Etiópia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Virulência
19.
J Vet Sci ; 21(2): e38, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233141

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF), caused by the ASF virus, a member of the Asfarviridae family, is one of the most important diseases in the swine industry due to its clinical and economic impacts. Since the first report of ASF a century ago, ample information has become available, but prevention and treatment measures are still inadequate. Two waves of epizootic outbreaks have occurred worldwide. While the first wave of the epizootic outbreak was controlled in most of the infected areas, the second wave is currently active in the European and Asian continents, causing severe economic losses to the pig industry. There are different patterns of spreading in the outbreaks between those in European and Asian countries. Prevention and control of ASF are very difficult due to the lack of available vaccines and effective therapeutic measures. However, recent outbreaks in South Korea have been successfully controlled on swine farms, although feral pigs are periodically being found to be positive for the ASF virus. Therefore, we would like to share our story regarding the preparation and application of control measures. The success in controlling ASF on farms in South Korea is largely due to the awareness and education of swine farmers and practitioners, the early detection of infected animals, the implementation of strict control policies by the government, and widespread sharing of information among stakeholders. Based on the experience gained from the outbreaks in South Korea, this review describes the current understanding of the ASF virus and its pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiology, and control.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/educação , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Suínos
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