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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4321-4331, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are key drugs in cancer treatment due to their minor adverse effects and outstanding anticancer effects. However, drugs for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance are not in clinical use so far. Therefore, to overcome resistance, we focused on lurasidone, a new antipsychotic drug, due to its mild adverse effect profile from the viewpoint of drug repositioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We explored the effects of lurasidone alone or in combination with EGFR-TKI on the growth of osimertinib-resistant cancer cells the anti-apoptotic marker expression such as survivin, and autophagy levels by LC-3B expression. RESULTS: Within a non-toxic concentration range in normal cells, lurasidone and osimertinib combination therapy showed a growth-inhibitory effect in osimertinib-resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, lurasidone decreased survivin expression and mildly induced autophagy. CONCLUSION: Lurasidone may increase the sensitivity to osimertinib in osimertinib-resistant cancer cells in drug repurposing.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Lurasidona/administração & dosagem , Survivina/metabolismo , Células A549 , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Lurasidona/farmacologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 4166-4175, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288272

RESUMO

Various molecular-targeting drugs have markedly improved the treatment of patients with breast cancer. As yet, therapies for triple-negative breast cancer are mainly cytotoxic agents. To investigate the novel therapy for triple-negative breast cancer, we herein examined the effects of a new combination therapy comprising a RAF/MEK inhibitor CH5126766, also known as VS-6766, which we originally discovered, and eribulin. The combination of CH5126766 and eribulin potently inhibited cell growth in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. The underlying mechanism in the efficacy of this combination treatment in vitro and in vivo was due to enhanced apoptosis through the suppression of survivin and Bcl-2 family proteins. We also showed the suppressed expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in combination therapy in vivo. We found that combination therapy with eribulin and CH5126766 for triple-negative breast cancer inhibited cell growth by apoptosis and raised a possibility that immune responses through suppression of PD-L1 might partially contribute to inhibition of tumor growth, indicating the potential of this combination as a novel strategy for triple-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Survivina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281156

RESUMO

Cardiotoxicity is associated with the long-term clinical application of doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer patients. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles (MSC-sEVs) including exosomes have been suggested for the treatment of various diseases, including ischemic diseases. However, the effects and functional mechanism of MSC-sEVs in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy have not been clarified. Here, MSC-sEVs were isolated from murine embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cell (C3H/10T1/2) culture media, using ultrafiltration. H9c2 cardiac myoblast cells were pretreated with MSC-sEVs and then exposed to DOX. For in vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice were administered MSC-sEVs intravenously, prior to a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). The mice were sacrificed 14 days after DOX treatment. The results showed that MSC-sEVs protected cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced cell death. H9c2 cells treated with DOX showed downregulation of both phosphorylated Akt and survivin, whereas the treatment of MSC-sEVs recovered expression, indicating their anti-apoptotic effects. Three microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR 199a-3p, miR 424-5p, and miR 21-5p) in MSC-sEVs regulated the Akt-Sp1/p53 signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes. Among them, miR 199a-3p was involved in regulating survivin expression, which correlated with the anti-apoptotic effects of MSC-sEVs. In in vivo studies, the echocardiographic results showed that the group treated with MSC-sEVs recovered from DOX-induced cardiomyopathy, showing improvement of both the left ventricle fraction and ejection fraction. MSC-sEVs treatment also increased both survivin and B-cell lymphoma 2 expression in heart tissue compared to the DOX group. Our results demonstrate that MSC-sEVs have protective effects against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy by upregulating survivin expression, which is mediated by the regulation of Akt activation by miRNAs in MSC-sEVs. Thus, MSC-sEVs may be a novel therapy for the prevention of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Survivina/genética , Survivina/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198613

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) therapy on the ßIII-tubulin, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and survivin expression in chemically-induced rat mammary tumors. Animals with induced mammary carcinogenesis were randomly divided into treatment groups and an untreated group. The total proportion of tumors, the proportion of carcinoma in situ (CIS), and invasive carcinoma (IC) were evaluated. Protein expression in tumor tissue was determined using IHC. Statistical analysis of the data, evaluated by Fisher-exact test and unpaired t-test. Significantly increased levels of proteins in the tumor cells were confirmed using the IHC method for all studied proteins. The expression of ßIII-tubulin, CA IX, and survivin increased significantly after treatment with both cytostatics (PTX and DOX). Depending on the type of tumor, a significant increase in all proteins was observed in IC samples after PTX treatment, and CA IX expression after DOX treatment. In CIS samples, a significant increase of ßIII-tubulin and survivin expression was observed after a DOX treatment. The results suggest that ßIII-tubulin, survivin, and CA IX may be significant drug resistance markers and the clinical regulation of their activity may be an effective means of reversing this resistance.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Survivina/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Animais , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 6873-6890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093859

RESUMO

Rationale: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. We sought to understand the underlying mechanism of PCa chemoresistance and discover new treatments to overcome docetaxel resistance. Methods: We developed a novel phenotypic screening platform for the discovery of specific inhibitors of chemoresistant PCa cells. The mechanism of action of the lead compound was investigated using computational, molecular and cellular approaches. The in vivo toxicity and efficacy of the lead compound were evaluated in clinically-relevant animal models. Results: We identified LG1980 as a lead compound that demonstrates high selectivity and potency against chemoresistant PCa cells. Mechanistically, LG1980 binds embryonic ectoderm development (EED), disrupts the interaction between EED and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), thereby inducing the protein degradation of EZH2 and inhibiting the phosphorylation and activity of EZH2. Consequently, LG1980 targets a survival signaling cascade consisting of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2), ATP binding cassette B 1 (ABCB1) and survivin. As a lead compound, LG1980 is well tolerated in mice and effectively suppresses the in vivo growth of chemoresistant PCa and synergistically enhances the efficacy of docetaxel in xenograft models. Conclusions: These results indicate that pharmacological inhibition of EED-EZH2 interaction is a novel strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant PCa. LG1980 and its analogues have the potential to be integrated into standard of care to improve clinical outcomes in PCa patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/química , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Survivina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 338: 176-184, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is crucial for heart development and for adult heart structural maintenance and function. Herein, we performed a study to explore the effect of lncRNA PART1 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by targeting BIRC5 through miR-503-5p pathway. METHODS: I/R model was created in vivo and vitro. The level of gene and protein was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. The apoptosis level was assessed by TUNEL and flow cytometry. Cell viability was determined by MTT. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by ATP content, ROS production, GSH level, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Cardiac function was confirmed by echocardiography, TTC staining, and H&E staining. RESULTS: Here, we found that the expression of lncRNA PART1 was down-regulated in the I/R hearts and H/R cardiomyocytes. Forced expression of PART1 remitted cardiac I/RI and H/R cardiomyocyte injury. Silencing of PART1 aggravated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes. We found that PART1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-503-5p, which decreased the expression of miR-503-5p. We further established BIRC5 as a target of miR-503-5p. Furthermore, PART1 prevented apoptosis and improved mitochondrial function in myocardial I/RI by targeting miR-503-5p/BIRC5. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PART1 protected mitochondrial function via miR-503-5p/BIRC5 pathway in MI/RI, which may provide the new theoretical basis for MI/RI treatment in the clinic.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , RNA Longo não Codificante , Apoptose/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Survivina/metabolismo
7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(14): 5587-5604, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100981

RESUMO

To clarify whether differential compartmentalization of Survivin impacts temozolomide (TMZ)-triggered end points, we established a well-defined glioblastoma cell model in vitro (LN229 and A172) and in vivo, distinguishing between its nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. Expression of nuclear export sequence (NES)-mutated Survivin (SurvNESmut-GFP) led to impaired colony formation upon TMZ. This was not due to enhanced cell death but rather due to increased senescence. Nuclear-trapped Survivin reduced homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair, as evaluated by γH2AX foci formation and qPCR-based HR assay leading to pronounced induction of chromosome aberrations. Opposite, clones, expressing free-shuttling cytoplasmic but not nuclear-trapped Survivin, could repair TMZ-induced DSBs and evaded senescence. Mass spectrometry-based interactomics revealed, however, no direct interaction of Survivin with any of the repair factors. The improved TMZ-triggered HR activity in Surv-GFP was associated with enhanced mRNA and stabilized RAD51 protein expression, opposite to diminished RAD51 expression in SurvNESmut cells. Notably, cytoplasmic Survivin could significantly compensate for the viability under RAD51 knockdown. Differential Survivin localization also resulted in distinctive TMZ-triggered transcriptional pathways, associated with senescence and chromosome instability as shown by global transcriptome analysis. Orthotopic LN229 xenografts, expressing SurvNESmut exhibited diminished growth and increased DNA damage upon TMZ, as manifested by PCNA and γH2AX foci expression, respectively, in brain tissue sections. Consequently, those mice lived longer. Although tumors of high-grade glioma patients expressed majorly nuclear Survivin, they exhibited rarely NES mutations which did not correlate with survival. Based on our in vitro and xenograft data, Survivin nuclear trapping would facilitate glioma response to TMZ.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recombinação Homóloga , Survivina/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Survivina/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2475, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931637

RESUMO

An innovative approach to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells emerging out of latency, the major hurdle to HIV-1 cure, is to pharmacologically reactivate viral expression and concomitantly trigger intracellular pro-apoptotic pathways in order to selectively induce cell death (ICD) of infected cells, without reliance on the extracellular immune system. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of DDX3 inhibitors on selectively inducing cell death in latent HIV-1-infected cell lines, primary CD4+ T cells and in CD4+ T cells from cART-suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLWHIV). We used single-cell FISH-Flow technology to characterise the contribution of viral RNA to inducing cell death. The pharmacological targeting of DDX3 induced HIV-1 RNA expression, resulting in phosphorylation of IRF3 and upregulation of IFNß. DDX3 inhibition also resulted in the downregulation of BIRC5, critical to cell survival during HIV-1 infection, and selectively induced apoptosis in viral RNA-expressing CD4+ T cells but not bystander cells. DDX3 inhibitor treatment of CD4+ T cells from PLWHIV resulted in an approximately 50% reduction of the inducible latent HIV-1 reservoir by quantitation of HIV-1 RNA, by FISH-Flow, RT-qPCR and TILDA. This study provides proof of concept for pharmacological reversal of latency coupled to induction of apoptosis towards the elimination of the inducible reservoir.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azepinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Azepinas/química , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Survivina/metabolismo , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(11)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836600

RESUMO

The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has long been pursued as a direct therapeutic target in human cancer, which is currently hindered by the lack of effective specific inhibitors of TERT. The FOS/GABPB/(mutant) TERT cascade plays a critical role in the regulation of mutant TERT, in which FOS acts as a transcriptional factor for GABPB to up-regulate the expression of GABPB, which in turn activates mutant but not wild-type TERT promoter, driving TERT-promoted oncogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that inhibiting this cascade by targeting FOS using FOS inhibitor T-5224 suppressed mutant TERT cancer cells and tumors by inducing robust cell apoptosis; these did not occur in wild-type TERT cells and tumors. Mechanistically, among 35 apoptotic cascade-related proteins tested, the apoptosis induced in this process specifically involved the transcriptional activation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) and inactivation of survivin, two key players in the apoptotic cascade, which normally initiate and suppress the apoptotic cascade, respectively. These findings with suppression of FOS were reproduced by direct knockdown of TERT and prevented by prior knockdown of TRAIL-R2. Further experiments demonstrated that TERT acted as a direct transcriptional factor of survivin, up-regulating its expression. Thus, this study identifies a therapeutic strategy for TERT promoter mutation-driven cancers by targeting FOS in the FOS/GABPB/(mutant) TERT cascade, circumventing the current challenge in pharmacologically directly targeting TERT itself. This study also uncovers a mechanism through which TERT controls cell apoptosis by transcriptionally regulating two key players in the apoptotic cascade.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Survivina/genética , Telomerase/genética , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Benzofenonas/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/genética , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Survivina/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805714

RESUMO

Trifluoperazine (TFP), an antipsychotic drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration, has been show to exhibit anti-cancer effects. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by a progressive obliteration of small pulmonary arteries (PAs) due to exaggerated proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). However, the therapeutic potential of TFP for correcting the cancer-like phenotype of PAH-PASMCs and improving PAH in animal models remains unknown. PASMCs isolated from PAH patients were exposed to different concentrations of TFP before assessments of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The in vivo therapeutic potential of TFP was tested in two preclinical models with established PAH, namely the monocrotaline and sugen/hypoxia-induced rat models. Assessments of hemodynamics by right heart catheterization and histopathology were conducted. TFP showed strong anti-survival and anti-proliferative effects on cultured PAH-PASMCs. Exposure to TFP was associated with downregulation of AKT activity and nuclear translocation of forkhead box protein O3 (FOXO3). In both preclinical models, TFP significantly lowered the right ventricular systolic pressure and total pulmonary resistance and improved cardiac function. Consistently, TFP reduced the medial wall thickness of distal PAs. Overall, our data indicate that TFP could have beneficial effects in PAH and support the view that seeking new uses for old drugs may represent a fruitful approach.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Monocrotalina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Survivina/genética , Survivina/metabolismo
11.
Genes Dev ; 35(7-8): 528-541, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737385

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and evolves often to lung metastasis. P53R175H (homologous to Trp53 R172H in mice) is a common hot spot mutation. How metastasis is regulated by p53R175H in ESCC remains to be investigated. To investigate p53R175H-mediated molecular mechanisms, we used a carcinogen-induced approach in Trp53R172H/- mice to model ESCC. In the primary Trp53R172H/- tumor cell lines, we depleted Trp53R172H (shTrp53) and observed a marked reduction in cell invasion in vitro and lung metastasis burden in a tail-vein injection model in comparing isogenic cells (shCtrl). Furthermore, we performed bulk RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles of metastatic and primary shCtrl and shTrp53 cells. We identified the YAP-BIRC5 axis as a potential mediator of Trp53 R172H -mediated metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of Survivin, an antiapoptotic protein encoded by BIRC5, increases in the presence of Trp53R172H Furthermore, depletion of Survivin specifically decreases Trp53R172H-driven lung metastasis. Mechanistically, Trp53R172H but not wild-type Trp53, binds with YAP in ESCC cells, suggesting their cooperation to induce Survivin expression. Furthermore, Survivin high expression level is associated with increased metastasis in several GI cancers. Taken together, this study unravels new insights into how mutant p53 mediates metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Survivina/genética , Survivina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Transcriptoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1805-1817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692623

RESUMO

Introduction: RNA interference is a promising therapy in glioma treatment. However, the application of RNA interference has been limited in glioma therapy by RNA instability and the lack of tumor targeting. Here, we report a novel DNA tetrahedron, which can effectively deliver small interfering RNA to glioma cells and induce apoptosis. Methods: siRNA, a small interfering RNA that can suppress the expression of survivin in glioma, was loaded into the DNA tetrahedron (TDN). To enhance the ability of active targeting of this nanoparticle, we modified one side of the DNA nanostructure with aptamer as1411 (As-TDN-R), which can selectively recognize the nucleolin in the cytomembrane of tumor cells. The modified nanoparticles were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The serum stability was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nucleolin was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence, and targeted cellular uptake was examined by flow cytometry. The TUNEL assay, flow cytometry, and Western Blot were used to detect apoptosis in U87 cells. The gene silencing of survivin was examined by qPCR, Western Blot, and immunofluorescence. Results: As-TDN-R alone showed better stability towards siRNA, indicating that TDN was a good siRNA protector. Compared with TDN alone, there was increased intercellular uptake of As-TDN-R by U87 cells, evidenced by overexpressed nucleolin in glioma cell lines. TUNEL assay, flow cytometry, and Western Blot revealed increased apoptosis in the As-TDN-R group. The downregulation of survivin protein and mRNA expression levels indicated that As-TDN-R effectively silenced the target gene. Conclusion: The novel nanoparticle can serve as a good carrier for targeting siRNA delivery in glioma. Further exploration of the DNA nanostructure can greatly promote the application of DNA-based drug systems in glioma.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Glioma/terapia , Nanoestruturas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Endocitose , Inativação Gênica , Glioma/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Survivina/metabolismo
13.
Theranostics ; 11(10): 4809-4824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754029

RESUMO

Purpose: Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) has limited treatment regimens and shows low response to chemotherapy and immunotherapy, leading to poor prognosis. Histone modification is a vital mechanism of gene expression and a promising therapy target. In this study, we characterized WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5), a regulator of histone modification, and explored its potential therapeutic value in PCa. Experimental Design: We characterized specific regulators of histone modification, based on TCGA data. The expression and clinical features of WDR5 were analyzed in two dependent cohorts. The functional role of WDR5 was further investigated with siRNA and OICR-9429, a small molecular antagonist of WDR5, in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of WDR5 was explored by RNA-sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Results: WDR5 was overexpressed in PCa and associated with advanced clinicopathological features, and predicted poor prognosis. Both inhibition of WDR5 by siRNA and OICR-9429 could reduce proliferation, and increase apoptosis and chemosensitivity to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, targeting WDR5 by siRNA and OICR-9429 could block IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression in PCa cells. Mechanistically, we clarified that some cell cycle, anti-apoptosis, DNA repair and immune related genes, including AURKA, CCNB1, E2F1, PLK1, BIRC5, XRCC2 and PD-L1, were directly regulated by WDR5 and OICR-9429 in H3K4me3 and c-Myc dependent manner. Conclusions: These data revealed that targeting WDR5 suppressed proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, chemosensitivity to cisplatin and immunotherapy in PCa. Therefore, our findings provide insight into OICR-9429 is a multi-potency and promising therapy drug, which improves the antitumor effect of cisplatin or immunotherapy in PCa.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aurora Quinase A/genética , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina B1/genética , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Survivina/genética , Survivina/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1505, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686072

RESUMO

Survivin's dual function as apoptosis inhibitor and regulator of cell proliferation is mediated via its interaction with the export receptor CRM1. This protein-protein interaction represents an attractive target in cancer research and therapy. Here, we report a sophisticated strategy addressing Survivin's nuclear export signal (NES), the binding site of CRM1, with advanced supramolecular tweezers for lysine and arginine. These were covalently connected to small peptides resembling the natural, self-complementary dimer interface which largely overlaps with the NES. Several biochemical methods demonstrated sequence-selective NES recognition and interference with the critical receptor interaction. These data were strongly supported by molecular dynamics simulations and multiscale computational studies. Rational design of lysine tweezers equipped with a peptidic recognition element thus allowed to address a previously unapproachable protein surface area. As an experimental proof-of-principle for specific transport signal interference, this concept should be transferable to any protein epitope with a flanking well-accessible lysine.


Assuntos
Carioferinas/química , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Survivina/química , Survivina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Sinais de Exportação Nuclear , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
15.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 4678087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532507

RESUMO

Background: Psoriasis (PA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the skin that adversely affects patients' quality of life. Yangxue Jiedu Fang (YXJD) has been used for decades to treat psoriasis in China. However, its antipsoriatic mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we explored the effects of YXJD on angiogenesis and apoptosis of microvessels in PA, the underlying mechanisms in HUVEC cells transfected by Survivin overexpression plasmid and in a mouse model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis and the relationship between VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and Survivin. Methods: A BALB/c mouse model of imiquimod- (IMQ-) induced PA was established, and the mice were treated with YXJD. Cell viability was assessed by CCK8 assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining and caspase-3 assays. The PI3K/Akt/ß-catenin pathway was analyzed by western blotting, ELISA, and immunochemical analysis. Results: YXJD ameliorated symptoms and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores and also reduced the number of microvessels, as determined by the microvessel density (MVD). The expression of apoptotic protein Survivin in endothelial cells, autophagy-related proteins p62, and angiogenic proteins VEGF was inhibited by YXJD, and the repressed expression of LC3II/I increased by YXJD. The proteins related to the PI3K/Akt pathway and ß-catenin expression and the nuclear entry of ß-catenin were reduced in IMQ-induced PA mice treated with YXJD. In HUVEC cells transfected by Survivin overexpression plasmid, we observed YXJD regulated the expression of Survivin, LC3II/I, and p62, VEGF, and PI3K/Akt pathway-relative proteins and the nuclear entry of ß-catenin. Conclusions: YXJD inhibited the expression of Survivin via PI3K/Akt pathway to adjust apoptosis, autophagy, and angiogenesis of microvessels and thus improve the vascular sustainability in psoriasis. YXJD may represent a new direction of drug research and development for immunomodulatory therapy for psoriasis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Psoríase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Survivina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 13, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for congenital heart defects. The article aimed to investigate the expression and roles of MST1, YAP1, Last1/2 and Survivin in modulating HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and maternal diabetes-induced heart abnormality. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats using streptozotocin. The protein expression and phosphorylation analysis in fetal heart tissue was assessed by western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Hoechst 33342 staining assay was performed to explore H9C2 apoptosis. The gene and protein expression in H9C2 cells was assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot. Knockdown of gene expression was assessed by RNA interference. RESULTS: Our results revealed that increased MST1 protein levels in the heart tissues of the offspring of diabetic rats in vivo and in H9C2 cardiomyocytes under HG treatment in vitro, respectively. Knockdown and overexpression experiments showed that MST1 played a key role in mediating HG-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Downregulation of YAP1 was associated with HG-induced, MST1-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Further study showed that MST1 downregulated the protein level of YAP1 through mediation of YAP1 phosphorylation on Ser127 and Ser397; this process also required LATS1/2 participation. MST1 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of LATS1/2, which were also shown to be increased in the heart tissues of diabetic offspring. We also found that YAP1 mediated the expression of Survivin during HG-induced apoptosis, and the Survivin-inhibitor YM155 partially inhibited the role of YAP1 in suppressing apoptosis induced by HG in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a regulatory mechanism of MST1/YAP1/Survivin signaling in modulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro and maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects in vivo.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Survivina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Ratos , Estreptozocina
17.
Cancer Res ; 81(9): 2304-2317, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408118

RESUMO

Substantial evidence has shown that overexpression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) survivin in human tumors correlates significantly with treatment resistance and poor patient prognosis. Survivin serves as a radiation resistance factor that impacts the DNA damage response by interacting with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). However, the complexity, molecular determinants, and functional consequences of this interrelationship remain largely unknown. By applying coimmunoprecipitation and flow cytometry-based Förster resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrated a direct involvement of the survivin baculovirus IAP repeat domain in the regulation of radiation survival and DNA repair. This survivin-mediated activity required an interaction of residues S20 and W67 with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) domain of DNA-PKcs. In silico molecular docking and dynamics simulation analyses, in vitro kinase assays, and large-scale mass spectrometry suggested a heterotetrameric survivin-DNA-PKcs complex that results in a conformational change within the DNA-PKcs PI3K domain. Overexpression of survivin resulted in enhanced PI3K enzymatic activity and detection of differentially abundant phosphopeptides and proteins implicated in the DNA damage response. The survivin-DNA-PKcs interaction altered the S/T-hydrophobic motif substrate specificity of DNA-PKcs with a predominant usage of S/T-P phosphorylation sites and an increase of DNA-PKcs substrates including Foxo3. These data demonstrate that survivin differentially regulates DNA-PKcs-dependent radiation survival and DNA double-strand break repair via formation of a survivin-DNA-PKcs heterotetrameric complex. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide insight into survivin-mediated regulation of DNA-PKcs kinase and broaden our knowledge of the impact of survivin in modulating the cellular radiation response.See related commentary by Iliakis, p. 2270 GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/81/9/2304/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Survivina/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , Survivina/genética , Transfecção
18.
Cancer Res ; 81(7): 1827-1839, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472892

RESUMO

RNA-binding motif 38 (RBM38) is a member of a protein family with a highly conserved RNA-binding motif and has been shown to regulate mRNA processing, stability, and translation. Survivin is an essential modulator of apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death as well as a stress responder. Survivin mRNA is the fourth most frequently overexpressed transcript in the human cancer transcriptome, and its aberrant expression is associated with chemo-/radioresistance and poor prognosis. In this study, we examined whether survivin expression is regulated by RBM38. RBM38 bound to survivin 3'-untranslated region and suppressed miRNA let-7b from binding to and degrading survivin mRNA, leading to increased survivin expression. RBM38 interacted with argonaute-2 (AGO2) and facilitated miR-203a-mediated degradation of survivin mRNA, leading to decreased survivin expression. Due to the abundance of let-7b over miR-203a, RBM38 ultimately increased survivin expression in HCT116 and MCF7 cells. In addition, Ser-195 in RBM38 interacted with Glu-73/-76 in AGO2, and Pep8, an eight-amino acid peptide spanning the region of Ser-195 in RBM38, blocked the RBM38-AGO2 interaction and inhibited miR-203a-mediated mRNA degradation, leading to enhanced survivin expression. Furthermore, Pep8 cooperated with YM155, an inhibitor of survivin, to suppress tumor spheroid growth and viability. Pep8 sensitized tumor cells to YM155-induced DNA damage in an RBM38-dependent manner. Together, our data indicate that RBM38 is a dual regulator of survivin and that Pep8/YM155 may be therapeutically explored for tumor suppression. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that RBM38 exerts opposing effects on survivin expression via two miRNAs, and disruption of the RBM38-AGO2 complex by an eight-amino acid peptide sensitizes tumor spheroids to survivin inhibitor YM155.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Survivina/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Cross-Talk/fisiologia , Survivina/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1482-1497, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502415

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. The prognosis of HCC is very poor due to the absence of symptoms and a lack of effective treatments. Studies have shown that various Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) extracts exhibit anti-cancer effects on malignant tumors such as skin cancer and prostate cancer. However, the anti-tumor activity of Foeniculum vulgare and its underlying molecular mechanisms towards HCC are unknown. Here, we provide fundamental evidence to show that the 75% ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds (FVE) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis, and effectively inhibited cell migration in HCC cells in vitro. HCC xenograft studies in nude mice showed that FVE significantly inhibited HCC growth in vivo. Mechanistic analyses showed that FVE reduced survivin protein levels and triggered mitochondrial toxicity, subsequently inducing caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Survivin inhibition effectively sensitized HCC cells to FVE-induced apoptosis. Moreover, FVE did not induce a decrease in survivin or apoptotic toxicity in normal liver cells. Collectively, in vivo and in vitro results suggest that FVE exerts inhibitory effects in HCC by targeting the oncoprotein survivin, suggesting FVE may be a potential anti-cancer agent that may benefit patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Foeniculum/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sementes/química , Survivina/metabolismo
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113437, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011370

RESUMO

ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A natural ursolic compound, 2ß,3ß,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-olic acid (TUA) was isolated from the root of Actinidiafulvicoma Hance. (A.fulvicoma Radix), which is used as a traditional hebal medicine to cure innominate inflammation of unknown origin of the digestive tract in the She nationality. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of TUA on gastric cancer and to clarify the potential mechanisms in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 cells in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, autophagy were all measured by MTS assay, flow cytometry following exposure to TUA. The mRNA expressions of PI3K, AKT, mTOR, P70S6K, Survivin and the protein expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, Survivin were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. In vivo antitumor activity of TUA was assessed in a xenograft model. RESULTS: In vitro studies showed that TUA significantly suppressed the viability of BGC823 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but not GES-1 non-tumorigenic human gastric epithelial cells. TUA also significantly increased the apoptosis rate and the sub G2 population by cell cycle analysis in a concentration dependent manner. Exposure to TUA decreased PI3K, AKT, mTOR, P70S6K, Survivin mRNA, inhibited the phosphorylation of major receptors involved in autophagy and apoptosis, such as PI3K, AKT, mTOR and P70S6K, while reduced the expression of Survivin in BGC cells. In vivo studies showed that TUA decreased tumor volume and tumor weight and also down regulated the autophagy-related proteins expression. CONCLUSIONS: TUA occupies underlying antitumor effects, the potential mechanisms may involve the suppression of mTOR/Survivin pathways connected to autophagy and the activation of apoptotic pathways in gastric cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Survivina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Survivina/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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