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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610013

RESUMO

It is well-known that pigs (Sus scrofa) were domesticated very early in Neolithic China, but far less is known about the processes by which pig husbandry intensified so that pork became the most important animal protein for humans are less clear. Here, we explore pig feeding practices using the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bone collagen, focusing on developments in pig husbandry during the Yangshao period (7000-5000 BP) in the middle Yellow River region of China, and at the site of Xipo (5800-5000 BP) in particular. The results show that the diets of domestic pigs at Xipo were dominated by millet foods. Comparisons with other Yangshao sites in the region show a trend of increasing millet foddering for pigs throughout the Yangshao period. These results, and comparisons of the isotopic data for pigs against those for humans from the Xipo cemetery (5300-5000 BP), suggest that pigs were closely managed by humans. The evidence points to an intensification of Neolithic pig husbandry in the middle Yellow River region from this period.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Sus scrofa , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Dieta , Domesticação , História Antiga , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502034

RESUMO

Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an essential role in the development and atresia of follicles. Emerging studies suggest that non-coding RNAs are involved in the regulation of GC apoptosis. Here, we aimed to analyze the function of ssc-circINHA-001, coded by the first exon of the inhibin subunit α gene (INHA), in resisting GC apoptosis and follicular atresia by enhancing the expression of the inhibin subunit ß A (INHBA) through a cluster of miRNAs. A higher expression of ssc-circINHA-001 in healthy follicles compared to early atretic follicles was detected by qRT-PCR. Its circular structure was confirmed by RNase R treatment and reversed PCR. The function of ssc-circINHA-001 in GC resistance to apoptosis was detected by in vitro transfection of its si-RNA. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested that ssc-circINHA-001 adsorbed three miRNAs, termed miR-214-5p, miR-7144-3p, and miR-9830-5p, which share the common target INHBA. A low expression of ssc-circINHA-001 increased the levels of the free miRNAs, inhibited INHBA expression, and thus raised GCs apoptosis through a shift from the secretion of activin to that of inhibin. Our study demonstrated the existence of a circRNA-microRNAs-INHBA regulatory axis in follicular GC apoptosis and provides insight into the relationship between circRNA function and its coding gene in inhibin/activin balance and ovarian physiological functions.


Assuntos
Ativinas/genética , Apoptose , Atresia Folicular/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Inibinas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Atresia Folicular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Inibinas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16381, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385546

RESUMO

Hunting can easily be linked to stress in wildlife. Drive hunts performed two to three times in one area during the respective hunting period, are thought to decrease the pressure hunting places on wildlife. Nevertheless, the expression of cortisol-one of the main mammalian stress hormones-is considered to have negative impacts on animals' well-being if expressed excessively, which may occur during some (especially repeated) hunting events. We explored the effect of drive hunts on cortisol levels in wild boar in Lower Saxony, Germany, compared these cortisol levels to reference values given by a similar study, and investigated the effect of age, sex, and pregnancy. Blood collected from wild boar shot on drive hunts was analysed using a radioimmunoassay. As expected, we observed elevated cortisol levels in all samples, however, we still found significant differences between age groups and sexes, as well as an influence of pregnancy on cortisol levels. The effect of drive hunts on cortisol levels appears to be weaker than predicted, while the effects of other variables, such as sex, are distinct. Only half of the evaluated samples showed explicitly increased cortisol levels and no significant differences were found between sampling months and locations. Group living animals and pregnant females showed significantly higher cortisol levels. The impact of hunting is measurable but is masked by natural effects such as pregnancy. Thus, we need more information on stress levels in game species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Alemanha , Masculino
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445449

RESUMO

The cardiac Mg2+-sensitive, TRPM6, and TRPM7-like channels remain undefined, especially with the uncertainty regarding TRPM6 expression in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, their contribution to the cardiac action potential (AP) profile is unclear. Immunofluorescence assays showed the expression of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 proteins in isolated pig atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, of which the expression was modulated by incubation in extracellular divalent cation-free conditions. In patch clamp studies of cells dialyzed with solutions containing zero intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) to activate the Mg2+-sensitive channels, raising extracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]o) from the 0.9-mM baseline to 7.2 mM prolonged the AP duration (APD). In contrast, no such effect was observed in cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i. Under voltage clamp, in cells dialyzed with zero [Mg2+]i, depolarizing ramps induced an outward-rectifying current, which was suppressed by raising [Mg2+]o and was absent in cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i. In cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i, raising [Mg2+]o decreased the L-type Ca2+ current and the total delayed-rectifier current but had no effect on the APD. These results suggest a co-expression of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 proteins in cardiomyocytes, which are therefore the molecular candidates for the native cardiac Mg2+-sensitive channels, and also suggest that the cardiac Mg2+-sensitive current shortens the APD, with potential implications in arrhythmogenesis.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Magnésio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Animais , Cátions Bivalentes , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/fisiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445450

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) has been shown to impair the intestinal barrier, inducing and maintaining inflammatory states of the intestine. The aim of the current study was to analyze functional, molecular and regulatory effects of TNFα in a newly established non-transformed jejunal enterocyte model, namely IPEC-J2 monolayers. Incubation with 1000 U/mL TNFα induced a marked decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and an increase in permeability for the paracellular flux marker [3H]-D-mannitol compared to controls. Immunoblots revealed a significant decrease in tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-3. Moreover, a dose-dependent increase in the TNF receptor (TNFR)-1 was detected, explaining the exponential nature of pro-inflammatory effects, while TNFR-2 remained unchanged. Recovery experiments revealed reversible effects after the removal of the cytokine, excluding apoptosis as a reason for the observed changes. Furthermore, TNFα signaling could be inhibited by the specific myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) blocker ML-7. Results of confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy were in accordance with all quantitative changes. This study explains the self-enhancing effects of TNFα mediated by MLCK, leading to a differential regulation of TJ proteins resulting in barrier impairment in the intestinal epithelium.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-3/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/fisiologia , Manitol/metabolismo , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Ocludina/genética , Permeabilidade , Transdução de Sinais , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
6.
Vet J ; 273: 105679, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148602

RESUMO

Salivary biomarkers were studied in 17 healthy Large White sows from early gestation to the end of lactation. Saliva samples were obtained at 34 ± 3 days from insemination (G30), 24 ± 4 days before farrowing (G90), within the first 24 h after farrowing (L1) and at the end of a lactation period of 21 days (L21). The measurements in saliva included stress-related biomarkers (cortisol, chromogranin A, α-amylase, butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] and lipase [Lip]), inflammatory biomarkers (adenosine deaminase isoenzymes 1 [ADA1] and 2 [ADA2], and haptoglobin [Hp]) and oxidative stress biomarkers (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability, uric acid, advanced oxidation protein products [AOPP] and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]), as well as routine biochemistry analytes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], γ-glutamine transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], creatine kinase [CK], urea, creatinine, triglycerides, lactate, calcium and phosphorus). The main changes were observed at farrowing, with increases in biomarkers of stress (cortisol and BChE), inflammation (ADA isoenzymes and Hp) and oxidative stress (AOPP and H2O2), as well as muscle and hepatic enzymes (CK, AST, ALP, GGT and LDH). Lactate and triglycerides increased at the end of gestation and remained at high concentrations until the end of lactation. Lip was higher in gestation than at lactation. Thus, changes in biomarkers of stress, immune function, oxidative stress, hepatic and muscle integrity, and energy mobilization occur in sow saliva during pregnancy, farrowing and lactation. These changes, caused by physiological conditions, should be taken into consideration when these biomarkers are used for the evaluation of sow health and welfare.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Parto/fisiologia , Saliva/enzimologia
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 137-147, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144281

RESUMO

Histologically, the cardiac conduction network is formed of electrically isolated subendocardial fibers that comprise specialized cells with fewer myofibrils and mitochondria than cardiomyocytes. Our aim is to uncover regional variations of cardiac conduction fibers through histological and morphometric study in a porcine and human model. We analyzed five male adult human hearts and five male pig hearts. The left ventricles were dissected and sectioned in the axial plane into three parts: basal, middle third and apex regions. Cardiac conduction fibers study was carried out using hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, and cardiac conduction cells and their junctions were identified using desmin, and a PAS method. Cardiac conduction fibers were difficult to pinpoint in humans, mostly showing a darker color or equal to cardiomyocytes. Cardiac conduction fibers in humans were in the subendocardium and in pigs in the myocardium and subendocardium. Cardiac conduction fibers were located mainly in the septal region in both humans and pigs. In our morphometric analysis, we were able to determine that cardiac conduction cells in humans (18.52 +/- 5.41 µm) and pigs (21.32 +/- 6.45 µm) were large, compared to cardiomyocytes. Conduction fiber-myocardial junctions were present in 10% in humans and 24.2% in pigs. The performance of immunohistochemical methods made it possible to improve the identification of cardiac conduction cells in the species studied. Study of cardiac conduction fibers and cells and their myocardial junctions is vital to gain insight into their normal distribution in the species analyzed, and thus advance the use of pigs in experimental models of the cardiac conduction system in humans.


Assuntos
Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Coração/fisiologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária
8.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 514-517, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955556

RESUMO

The pig breeding system provides a unique framework to study recessive defects and the consequence on the phenotype. We examined a commercial synthetic Duroc population for recessive defects and identified a haplotype on chromosome 9 significantly affecting pre-weaning mortality. To identify the causal variant underlying the mortality, we examined sequence data of four carrier animals and 21 non-carrier animals from the same population. The results yield a strong candidate causal stop-gained variant (NM_001099928.1:c.541C>T) affecting the MYO7A gene in complete linkage disequilibrium with the lethal haplotype. The variant leads to an impaired (p.Gln181*) MYO7A protein that truncates 2032 amino acids from the protein. We examined a litter from a carrier sow inseminated by a carrier boar. From the resulting piglets, two confirmed homozygous piglets suffered from severe balance difficulties and the inability to walk properly. The variant segregates at a carrier frequency of 8.2% in the evaluated population and will be gradually purged from the population, improving animal welfare. Finally, this 'natural knockout' will increase our understanding of the functioning of the MYO7A gene and provides a potential model for Usher syndrome in humans.


Assuntos
Longevidade/genética , Miosina VIIa/deficiência , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Sus scrofa/genética , Desmame
9.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108538, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975260

RESUMO

This study investigated reactions of pigs (N = 148) and sheep (N = 77) to group stunning where animals were present for the slaughter of others. Mock stunning with an isolated animal was used as the control. In both species, there was little evidence to suggest a difference in blood glucose and cortisol with stun order (P ≥ 0.21). In pigs, lactate differed by stun order (P < 0.001). Control pigs had lower lactate than pigs stunned first (P = 0.009) likely due to longer rest time after pre-slaughter handling. Conversely, the control sheep had greater average lactate than other groups. However, due to limited sample size and large variation there was not enough evidence to conclude an effect of stun order on sheep lactate (P = 0.28). Overall, there was limited evidence of an impact of stun order on behavior. The last pigs stunned exhibited a greater likelihood of grunting compared with other stun orders (P ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Matadouros , Imobilização/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108535, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000611

RESUMO

Despite raising animal welfare concerns, stunning of pigs with CO2 prior to slaughter remains the most widely applied method in commercial settings. The aim of this study was to assess the discomfort period and its influencing factors in fattening pigs and sows in a commercial slaughterhouse. The discomfort period was defined as the first reaction to the gas or the environment from the point the animal enters the gondola, until complete relaxation of its head. Results showed that the discomfort period lasted 11 s longer in sows than in pigs, and that certain behaviors occurred distinctly later in sows as compared to pigs. Furthermore, higher humidity and temperature in the pit could prolong the duration of the discomfort period. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying physiological processes for both the differences seen between sows and fattening pigs as well as the influence of ambient parameters.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Umidade , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Temperatura
11.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(3): 382-388, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838637

RESUMO

Diseases of the cornea are a frequent cause of blindness worldwide. Keratoplasty is an efficient method for treating severely damaged cornea. The functional competence of corneal endothelial cells is crucial for successful grafting, which requires improving the media for the hypothermic cornea preservation, as well as developing the methods for the evaluation of the corneal functional properties. The transport of water and ions by the corneal endothelium is important for the viability and optic properties of the cornea. We studied the impact of SkQ1 on the equilibrium sodium concentration in the endothelial cells after hypothermic preservation of pig cornea at 4°C for 1, 5, and 10 days in standard Eusol-C solution. The intracellular sodium concentration in the endothelial cells was assayed using the fluorescent dye Sodium Green; the images were analyzed with the custom-designed CytoDynamics computer program. The concentrations of sodium in the pig corneal endothelium significantly increased after 10 days of hypothermic preservation, while addition of 1.0 nM SkQ1 to the preservation medium decreased the equilibrium concentration of intracellular sodium (at 37°C). After 10 days of hypothermic preservation, the permeability of the plasma membrane for sodium decreased in the control cells, but not in the cells preserved in the presence of 1 nM SkQ1. Therefore, SkQ1 increased the ability of endothelial cells to restore the intracellular sodium concentration, which makes SkQ1 a promising agent for facilitating retention of the functional competence of endothelial cells during cold preservation.


Assuntos
Endotélio Corneano/metabolismo , Hipotermia Induzida , Plastoquinona/análogos & derivados , Sódio/análise , Preservação de Tecido/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Córnea/química , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/metabolismo , Endotélio Corneano/química , Endotélio Corneano/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastoquinona/farmacologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 56(6): 905-914, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759269

RESUMO

This work aimed to establish whether the temperature humidity index (THI) under different intertropical zones affects the retention of cytoplasmic droplets (CDs), sperm function and DNA integrity in boars. With this purpose, two separate studies were devised. In the first one, 49 boars from six farms were collected every 45 days (230 ejaculates). THI were measured daily, and sperm parameters were evaluated. Boars were classified into three groups based on the incidence of ejaculates having more than 25% spermatozoa with CDs: persistent (at least three consecutive ejaculates), moderate (less than three ejaculates) and absent (no ejaculate having ≥25% spermatozoa with CDs). Farms were classified based on THI through cluster analysis into two groups. In the second study, 32 liquid-stored semen samples were classified based on three cluster analysis: low and high incidence of proximal (PCDs), distal (DCDs) CDs and a combination of PCD and DCDs. high THI farms presented significantly (p < .05) higher proportions of boars with moderate and persistent incidence of CD than those with low THI. In study 2, the presence of PCDs was negatively correlated with sperm DNA integrity (r = -0.691; p < .01). However, differences between groups were more apparent when ejaculates were classified based on both PCDs and DCDs than when PCDs or DCDs were considered separately. In conclusion, classification of boars according to the severity and persistence of CDs in boars allows understanding more clearly the dynamics of CD retention and the effects of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Additionally, the joint analysis of both PCDs and DCDs is necessary in routine sperm quality analyses.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/citologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Colômbia , Citoplasma , Dano ao DNA , Umidade , Masculino , Temperatura
13.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21522, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734504

RESUMO

Intestinal development is compromised in low birth weight (LBW) pigs, negatively impacting their growth, health, and resilience. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of the altered intestinal maturation observed in neonatal and juvenile LBW female piglets by comparing the changes in intestinal morphology, gene expression, and methylation in LBW versus normal birth weight (NBW) female piglets. A total of 16 LBW/NBW sibling pairs were sacrificed at 0 hours, 8 hours, 10 days, and 8 weeks of age. The gastrointestinal tract was weighed, measured, and the small intestine was sampled for histomorphology, gene expression, and methylation analyses. Impaired intestinal development, with shorter villi and shallower crypts, was observed in LBW female piglets. The expression of intestinal development markers (ALPI and OLFM) rapidly peaked after birth in NBW but not in LBW female piglets. The lower expression of genes involved in nutrient digestion (ANPEP and SI) and barrier function (OCLN and CLDN4) in LBW, together with their delayed development of intestinal villi and crypts could help to explain the compromised health and growth potential of LBW female piglets. The changes in methylation observed in LBW in key regulators of intestinal development (OLFM4 and FZD5) suggest long-term effects of BW on intestinal gene expression, development, and function. Accordingly, experimental demethylation induced in IPEC-J2 cells led to increased expression of intestinal genes (MGA, DPP4, and GLUT2). Overall, we have identified the alterations in transcription or epigenetic marking at a number of genes critical to intestinal development, which may contribute to both the short- and long-term failure of LBW female piglets to thrive.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Suínos
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 127-137, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609970

RESUMO

Reproductive cycling in fattening gilts can be associated with undesirable effects, such as estrus-related aggressive behavior, reduced feed intake and, in production systems where gilts are co-housed with entire males, unwanted pregnancy. Immunization against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor (IM) can temporarily suppress ovarian activity, including related negative consequences on animal welfare and productivity. Feed intake has been shown to be higher after IM, resulting in both increased growth and increased carcass fat. A series of studies was conducted to confirm these effects on production and look at their dynamics over time. Three trials were performed to a similar design, each involving 240 gilts divided into 4 experimental groups at 12 weeks of age. One group remained untreated while the others had the two dose, IM course completed 8, 6 or 4 weeks before harvest, which was on a single day at 24, 25 or 26 weeks of age depending on the study. Feed intake was measured daily and bodyweight weekly, allowing growth parameters to be calculated on a weekly basis and for specific longer periods. Carcass weight, backfat depth and lean meat percentage were recorded at harvest. No effects were observed before the second application of the immunological product (V2) and completion of the IM course. Starting in the second week after V2 all IM groups showed a marked and consistent increase in Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), typically peaking at over 120% of the control group 3 to 4 weeks after V2 and then slowly declining, but still remaining elevated at 8 weeks. Weekly Average Daily Gain (ADG) showed a similar pattern but with a faster decline, resulting in the initially favorable impact on feed efficiency becoming less favorable as the V2 to harvest interval (V2H) progressed. Carcass weights were higher in IM gilts and backfat depths were greater, with the effects increasing with increasing V2H. Correspondingly, carcass lean meat percentage tended to decrease, although the higher carcass weights meant that the absolute weight of lean meat remained similar or higher. Carcass yield was generally unaffected by IM, but some between-group differences were statistically significant, and it is possible that different factors predominated at different times after V2, creating a complex relationship with V2H duration. The optimum IM protocol will depend on local conditions and production objectives but, as a generalization and assuming ad libitum feeding, a shorter V2H will favor efficient growth, while a longer duration will maximize carcass changes, such as increased fat coverage. It is suggested that the growth performance changes seen after IM in gilts might be viewed as a process of adjustment to a heavier and fatter target body type.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Imunização/veterinária , Carne/análise , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 143-150, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626440

RESUMO

The addition of antioxidants to the cryopreservation medium has been shown to exert a positive effect on the quality of frozen-thawed sperm in different species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the freezing medium with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and melatonin (MEL) in frozen-thawed pig spermatozoa. With this purpose, six ejaculates coming from six separate boars were cryopreserved in traditional freezing medium (i.e. lactose/egg-yolk/glycerol; Control) supplemented with 1.0 mM BHT (BHT-1), 2.0 mM BHT (BHT-2), 0.01 µM MEL (MEL-1) and 1.0 µM MEL (MEL-2). We evaluated sperm viability, membrane lipid disorder, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, lipid peroxidation, oxidation of thiol groups, and levels of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite and superoxide anion (·O2-). We also analysed total (TM) and progressive sperm motilities (PM), and kinetic parameters at post-thaw (T0, T30 and T60). The BHT-2 and MEL-2 groups presented higher viability and acrosome integrity, and lower levels of peroxynitrite, ·O2- and lipid peroxidation than the control (P < 0.05), whereas MEL-2 diminished the levels of total ROS (P < 0.05). TM and PM were not affected by the treatment, while, LIN and STR shows differences between experimental groups. In conclusion, the addition of BHT and MEL to cryopreservation medium diminishes oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, which has repercussions for the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes of frozen-thawed spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Nitrosativo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária
16.
Meat Sci ; 175: 108451, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556676

RESUMO

Performance (from 10 weeks until slaughter), carcass and meat quality, and effectiveness of immunocastration was compared in crossbred offspring of stress positive (BP+) and negative (BP-) Belgian Piétrain and Canadian Duroc (CD) given the second vaccination of Improvac® at different times (4, 6, 8 weeks before slaughter). CD offspring had a significantly higher daily gain (DG) and feed intake (DFI), and lower predicted lean meat percentage (LMP) and dressing yield compared to BP+ and BP-, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ. CD offspring had significantly lower drip loss and higher pHi, intramuscular fat content than BP+ and BP- (except for pHi). No significant effect of vaccination time on DG nor FCR was observed. Predicted LMP tended to increase as time-post injection decreased, while meat quality was minor affected. Earlier vaccination had no effect on the effectiveness of immunocastration based on testosterone and GnRH-binding.


Assuntos
Orquiectomia/veterinária , Carne de Porco/análise , Sus scrofa/genética , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/imunologia , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/veterinária
17.
Meat Sci ; 175: 108452, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588243

RESUMO

The present study used thirty-one pigs to investigate induction of unconsciousness and behavioural reactions in different gas mixtures: 80% CO2/air, 90 s; 40% CO2/30% O2/air, 180 s; 70% N2O/30% CO2, 90 s. All pigs lost consciousness. All presented respiratory difficulties and most pigs involuntary muscle contractions, often before loss of standing posture. Between mixtures, average latencies of certain behaviours and delays between behaviours differed. Following immersion, blood pH was lower than normal. The low pH induced by the CO2/O2/air mixture was physiologically associated with hyperoxemia. Relationships between blood gases, different behavioural and heart rate responses are discussed. In conclusion, all mixtures caused discomfort due to respiratory difficulties and the addition of O2 or N2O to the CO2 mixture did not present an advantage.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nitroso/farmacologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 78, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409648

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of different crossbreeds, viz., two-breed crosses including HN-50 (50% Hampshire × 50% Niang Megha) and HN-75 (75% Hampshire × 25% Niang Megha) and three-breed cross, HND (25% Hampshire × 25% Niang Megha × 50% Duroc) for suggesting suitable crossbred pigs with appropriate inheritance for subtropical Eastern Himalayan hilly climate. These crossbreed pigs were reared in standard management conditions in Nucleus Pig Breeding Farm of ICAR RC for NEH region. A total of 1995 records were collected which included data on production performance (n = 1466), reproductive performance (n = 428) and carcass traits (n = 101) from farm record book maintained over a period of 7 years. Productive performance included body weight, ADG and FCR at different stages of growth. The study revealed productive performance was highest in two-breed cross of pigs with 75% H inheritance (HN-75) and three-breed cross (HND) pigs. Reproductive performance included ages at puberty, first conception and first farrowing, along with inter-farrowing interval, pregnancy and farrowing rate as well as litter performance. The HN-75 was found to be having shorter inter-farrowing interval and higher pregnancy rate than other genetic groups. Regarding carcass traits, three-breed cross had a higher dressing percentage and less back-fat thickness than other crossbred pigs. Two breed crosses of pigs were found to be having a higher back-fat thickness than three-breed cross pig, and HN-75 had a better dressing percentage than HN-50. Thus, it was concluded that three-breed cross was recommended for lean meat production, and two-breed cross HN-75 was recommended for both breeding and fattening purposes for subtropical Eastern Himalayan hilly climate.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Reprodução , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Altitude , Animais , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Índia , Masculino , Sus scrofa/genética , Clima Tropical
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 77, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404863

RESUMO

In Kerala and other South Indian States, the ayurvedic by-products are widely available which can adequately be incorporated into pig diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary incorporation of cooked barley residue and spent grapes on feed intake, growth performance, and nutrient utilization in sows and their piglets. Using completely randomized design (CRD), fifteen (15) Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pregnant sows with an average body weight of 180.53 kg, 3 weeks before the estimated date of farrowing, were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups. The dietary treatment groups consisted of T1 (control), fed with a ration containing maize and soya bean meal of 18% CP and 3265 kcal/kg ME, T2 with a ration containing cooked barley residue replacing 25% maize in control, and T3 with a ration containing spent grapes replacing 25% maize in control ration. Data on average daily feed intake (ADFI), fortnightly bodyweight of sows and their piglets were recorded for 63 days. Also, the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and cost of feed per kg of weight gain of the piglets were calculated. The result showed no significant (P > 0.05) dietary treatment effects on average weekly dry matter intake and fortnightly average body weight gain among the sows in all the three groups. Piglets showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total dry matter intake (DMI), total body weight gain, ADG, and FCR among the three groups during the entire study period. No variations were observed for the apparent digestibility of nitrogen-free extract and the availability of magnesium in the three rations. The cost of feed per kg weight gain was lower in piglets belonging to T2 and T3 than the control (T1), though not significant statistically (P > 0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that cooked barley residue and spent grapes could be included up to 25% in the ration of sow and their piglets by partially replacing maize without affecting their overall performances.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hordeum/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Índia , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1851, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473157

RESUMO

Contrary to spontaneous yawning-an ancient phenomenon common to vertebrates-contagious yawning (elicited by others' yawns) has been found only in highly social species and may reflect an emotional inter-individual connection. We investigated yawn contagion in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa. Owing to the complex socio-emotional and cognitive abilities of Sus scrofa, we posited that yawn contagion could be present in this species (Prediction 1) and influenced by individual/social factors (Prediction 2). In June-November 2018, on 104 semi-free ranging adolescent/adult pigs, 224 videos were recorded for video analysis on yawning. Kinship information was refined via genetic analyses. Statistical elaboration was conducted via GLMMs and non-parametric/randomization/cross-tabulation tests. We found yawn contagion in Sus scrofa, as it was more likely that pigs yawned when perceiving rather than not perceiving (yawning/control condition) others' yawns (response peak in the first out of three minutes). Yawn contagion was more likely: (1) in response to males' yawns; (2) as the age increased; (3) within short distance (1 m); (4) between full siblings, with no significant association between kinship and distance. The influence of kinship suggests that-as also hypothesized for Homo sapiens-yawn contagion might be linked with emotional communication and possibly contagion.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Bocejo/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Imitativo , Masculino
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