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1.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 481, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a globally distributed parasitic disease caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. This mite has a certain degree of host specificity, although interspecific transmission can occur among phylogenetically related species or through prey-predator mediated exposure. In 2018, a wild boar (Sus scrofa) with lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange was hunted in Ports de Tortosa i Beseit Natural Park (PTB, north-eastern Spain), where an active epizootic outbreak of sarcoptic mange is affecting Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) since 2014. METHODS: A complete necropsy, skin scrapings and skin digestions with hydroxide potassium were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Routine histopathological analysis, toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the lesions and the inflammatory infiltrate. Finally, 10 specific S. scabiei microsatellites were molecularly genotyped through polymerase chain reactions in mites obtained from the affected wild boar. For phylogenetic comparison, mites obtained from sympatric Iberian ibexes and allopatric wild boars and Iberian ibexes from southern Spain were analysed. RESULTS: Sarcoptes scabiei was visually and molecularly identified in the infested wild boar from PTB, causing skin lesions with dermal inflammatory infiltrate rich in T and B cells, which indicate an adaptive immune response. Three S. scabiei genetic clusters were identified: one included mites from southern Iberian ibexes, another included mites from southern wild boars, and a third one distinctively grouped the wild boar from PTB with the sympatric ibexes. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcoptic mange in wild boar in Spain and the first documented case of S. scabiei cross-transmission from a wild ruminant host to a wild boar. The wild boar presented an ordinary scabies type reaction, which is typical of the self-limiting infestations reported in other cases of interspecific transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Sarcoptes scabiei/patogenicidade , Escabiose/transmissão , Escabiose/veterinária , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Sarcoptes scabiei/imunologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17207, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446779

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a globally wide-spread parasite that infects almost all species of mammals and birds, including humans. We studied the spatial distribution of individual T. gondii-seropositive wild boar in Gifu Prefecture (10,621 km2), Japan. Altogether, 744 wild boars were captured at 663 points around human settlements in Gifu Prefecture. Serum samples were collected after recording the exact capture locations, along with each wild boar's body length and sex. We then used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for swine to measure anti-T. gondii antibodies in these animals. Among the 744 wild boars, 169 tested positive for T. gondii (22.7%). No significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence was observed between the mountainous northern region with high winter snow cover and the mild-wintered geographical plain of the southern part of the prefecture. In contrast, 8 of the 11 wild boars that were captured in a public park surrounded by residential areas showed T. gondii seropositivity (72.7%), a value significantly higher than those of the wild boar populations in the other prefecture areas. This in-depth analysis, which spans the big city suburbs and rural areas of a whole prefecture, explains the seroprevalence of zoonotic T. gondii in wild boar and has public health implications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Geografia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/classificação , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445445

RESUMO

Ascariasis is a global health problem for humans and animals. Adult Ascaris nematodes are long-lived in the host intestine where they interact with host cells as well as members of the microbiota resulting in chronic infections. Nematode interactions with host cells and the microbial environment are prominently mediated by parasite-secreted proteins and peptides possessing immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. Previously, we discovered the C-type lectin protein AsCTL-42 in the secreted products of adult Ascaris worms. Here we tested recombinant AsCTL-42 for its ability to interact with bacterial and host cells. We found that AsCTL-42 lacks bactericidal activity but neutralized bacterial cells without killing them. Treatment of bacterial cells with AsCTL-42 reduced invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella. Furthermore, AsCTL-42 interacted with host myeloid C-type lectin receptors. Thus, AsCTL-42 is a parasite protein involved in the triad relationship between Ascaris, host cells, and the microbiota.


Assuntos
Ascaris suum/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Salmonella , Animais , Ascaríase/metabolismo , Ascaríase/microbiologia , Ascaris suum/microbiologia , Ascaris suum/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Lectinas/fisiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2897-2903, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313806

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in pigs in the largest pork-producing region in Cuba. Serum samples from 420 pigs, including 210 sows and 210 post-weaning pigs, were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 56 animals (13.3%, 95% CI: 10.1-16.6). A generalized estimating equations model revealed that the risk factors associated with higher seropositivity in pigs were altitude (higher in farm's location < 250 m above sea level (masl) versus ≥ 250 masl) and age (higher in sows compared to post-weaning pigs). The results indicated that this protozoan parasite is widely distributed on pig farms in the study area, which is a public health concern since the consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat products containing tissue cysts is considered one of the main routes of T. gondii transmission worldwide. Control measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of exposure to T. gondii in pigs in Cuba.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos Transversais , Cuba/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 359, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis ranks seventh in the risk posed by foodborne parasites. It causes most human cases of trichinellosis and is the most frequent cause of Trichinella outbreaks on pig farms and in wild boar, worldwide. Veterinary inspectors seek the source of outbreaks in hopes of limiting the spread. Established molecular tools are inadequate for distinguishing among potential T. spiralis infection sources because genetic variability in these zoonotic pathogens is limited in Europe. Microsatellite markers proved successful in tracing an outbreak of T. britovi, a related parasite harboring much more genetic variation. Here, we successfully employed microsatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of T. spiralis isolates from two pig outbreaks, discovering notable uniformity among parasites within each farm and discovering an epidemiological link between these two outbreaks. METHODS: The individual larvae from five isolates of T. spiralis from two pig farms and from ten wild boars were genotyped using nine microsatellite markers to examine their genetic structure. RESULTS: Notably uniform parasite populations constituted each farm outbreak, and the parasites from the first and second outbreaks resembled each other to a notable degree, indicating an epidemiological link between them. Wild boar harbored more genetically variable larval cohorts, distinguishing them from parasites isolated from domestic pigs. CONCLUSIONS: Microsatellite markers succeeded in distinguishing isolates of the highly homogeneous T. spiralis, aiding efforts to track transmission. Each outbreak was composed of a homogenous group of parasites, suggesting a point source of contamination.


Assuntos
Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Triquinelose/transmissão , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polônia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella spiralis/classificação , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2103-2108, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963900

RESUMO

Since 2002, Alaria (A.) alata mesocercariae (AM) have been found during routine Trichinella inspection of wild boars in many European countries. To date, human infection with AM through consumption of undercooked or raw AM infested wild boar meat cannot be excluded. In Germany, data on the parasite's prevalence in wild boars are scarce. To better understand temporal and spatial fluctuations of this parasite, this study investigated the prevalence of AM in wild boars in the German federal state of Brandenburg during three hunting seasons from 2017 to 2020. In total, 28.3% (100/354, 95% CI: 23.3-33.3%) of all wild boars sampled in eight counties of Brandenburg were tested positive for AM by Alaria alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT). AM were detected in wild boars from seven different counties. Samples from one county (Havelland) tested completely negative for AM (0/16). Prevalences of the seven AM positive counties of Brandenburg ranged from 11.5 (3/26, 95% CI: 2.5-30.1%) in Märkisch-Oderland to 64.1% (25/39, 95% CI: 47.2-78.8%) in Uckermark. An association between sex and A. alata positivity could not be determined. A statistically significant increase in frequency of older AM positive wild boars was observed (p = 0.001). For a nationwide assessment of the prevalence of A. alata in wild boars and the risk for consumers of ingesting viable AM by consumption of raw or undercooked AM infested wild boar meat, further long-term studies in different regions of Germany are needed.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Prevalência
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 293: 109429, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895467

RESUMO

Assessing the genetic diversity of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis provides key information about the temporal and spatial strain flow in a given area. Previous studies indicated that a historical endemic area conventionally presents a relatively high genetic diversity, whereas peripheral or newly endemic areas exhibit a more restricted variability of the parasite. The Swiss plateau region is part of the European historically endemic area, and the genetic diversity has already been investigated by assessing either human metacestode isolates or adult worms from foxes. To date, there have been no studies covering the whole geographical area affected by the parasite. The aim of the present study was to make use of the domestic pig to investigate the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis in relation to spatial distribution. A total of 55 E. multilocularis-induced hepatic lesions from slaughtered pigs from Switzerland were studied using EmsB microsatellite analyzes, and findings were compared to already published data (originating from human, primate, foxes, and rodent samples). A total of 12 EmsB profiles were described among the domestic pigs, some of them presenting a clear spatial organization in the Swiss plateau, with three of the main profiles geographically separated. One of the 12 EmsB profiles has been newly identified for Switzerland in this study, while the other 11 profiles had been previously described in other Swiss E. multilocularis isolates from other hosts. Overall, a total of 18 EmsB profiles have so far been described within the Swiss endemic area. Six profiles appeared only among human, primate, rodent, and fox samples. Based on a richness and diversity accumulation analysis, the sampling efficiency for the whole studied area has now been improved considerably by compilation of 178 E. multilocularis specimens obtained from four different intermediate and one definitive host species in Switzerland.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Variação Genética , Sus scrofa , Animais , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Primatas/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
9.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 28-33, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685065

RESUMO

Objective: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection that affects humans, livestock and wild animals through the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Molecular and taxonomic studies carried out in the recent years accept that Echinococcus granulosus s.l., a complex of 5 cryptic species, causes CE. In this study, we performed morphological and molecular characterisation of cyst isolates obtained from a wild boar and mule naturally infected with hydatid cyst. Methods: After gDNA isolation, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. The amplified mt-CO1 PCR products were purified and one-way DNA sequence analysis was performed. Results: Comparison of the partial sequences of mt-CO1 gene from the hydatid cyst isolates with that of reference sequences in GenBank revealed 100% similarity with E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) sequences. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the molecular characterisation of Echinococcus species in a wild boar in Turkey.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Equidae/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 23: 100534, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678387

RESUMO

The consumption of wild boar meat, common in many countries, became popular in Brazil after the hunting of these animals was authorized in 2013. The meat of these animals is often consumed by hunters and their social groups, and their offal is occasionally used as supplemental food in the diet of hunting dogs. Given the high frequency of foodborne diseases related to wild boar meat consumption in other countries, including toxoplasmosis, knowledge on these diseases is essential for risk assessment and elaboration of education campaigns for the exposed public. Thus, this study aimed diagnosing, isolating, and genotyping Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars. For that, we obtained samples of serum and tissues (brain, tongue, diaphragm, and heart) from 26 wild boar hunted in three areas in São Paulo State, Brazil, based on convenience sampling strategy. The serum samples were submitted to the indirect immunofluorescence reaction test (IFAT) test while the tissue samples (n = 22) were used to perform a bioassay in mice to isolate the parasite. The isolated samples were genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP with SAG1, 5' and 3' SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico markers. Questionnaires were also formulated and applied to wildlife hunters to assess knowledge about toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 76.9% (20/26), with titers ranging from 16 to 1024. Viable parasites accounted for 4.5% (1/22) of the samples. The ToxoDB #6 genotype of TgJava1 alone was detected. Most interviewed hunters, 84.2% (16/19) consume game meat and a few of them (15.7%; 3/19) prefer undercooked meat. Also, 15.7% (3/19) of the hunters reported supplementing their hunting dogs' diet with wild boar meat and/or offal. As antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 76.9% (20/26) of the studied wild boars, we concluded that infection by T. gondii is frequent in wild boars used for human and animal consumption in the studied areas. Although genotype #6 is commonly found in Brazil in domestic animals, wild animals, and humans, causing everything from mild clinical symptoms to death, this study found, for the first time, the detection of this genotype in wild boars. These results also reaffirm the importance of these animals as a possible source of T. gondii infection for humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Camundongos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 23: 100536, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678389

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE; Echinococcus spp.) is widespread in many domestic animal species in Italy, with the G1-G3 genotype predominating. The G7 genotype ("pig strain"), which is much less common, has only been reported in pigs and wild boar from the island of Sardinia and in wild boars from southern mainland Italy. Ten pig livers with hydatid cysts were identified in a slaughterhouse in northwestern Italy. Multiplex PCR for Echinococcus granulosus gave positive results for two of these and subsequent sequencing confirmed the species as Echinococcus granulosusu s.l. G6/G7. Affected pigs came from an intensive farm in northeastern Italy. This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of CE by Echinococcus granulosusu s.l. G6/G7 in the domestic pig in mainland Italy. E. granulosus s.l. G6/G7 is zoonotic and its circulation in Italy should be of concern for public health.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Itália/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1781-1788, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788023

RESUMO

Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are well known external parasites of game animals that cause serious veterinary and medical problems. The occurrence and geographical distribution of different species of ticks in Western Poland have changed over the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to determine the species spectrum and prevalence of ticks parasitizing three species of game animals, the Eurasian wild boar Sus scrofa L., red deer Cervus elaphus L., and roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L.) in two hunting districts in Lubuskie Province. In addition, the distribution of ticks on the host's body and the intensity of infestation were determined. Ticks were collected from dead animals during the hunting seasons in 2013 and 2014, over the periods from May to June and from August to December. In total, 286 specimens were examined: 138 Eurasian wild boars, 8 red deers, and 140 roe deers. Altogether, 1891 ticks were collected. Three species of ticks were determined: Ixodes ricinus (L.), Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), and Haemaphysalis concinna (C.L. Koch, 1844). H. concinna was recorded for the first time in Lubuskie Province.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodidae , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Dermacentor , Feminino , Ixodes , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(3): 263-270, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619865

RESUMO

The possibility of Toxoplasma gondii transmitted from game meat to humans is of public health concern. Here we determined seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii in large game ungulates that cohabit in Sierras de Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park (SCSV-NP) (Southern Spain), a natural park with high human-animal interaction. Antibodies against T. gondii in 328 wild ungulates were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 1:25). Antibodies were found in 39 (11.9%, 95% CI: 8.4-15.4) wild ungulates, with seroprevalence levels of 20.8% in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (5/24), 19.0% in fallow deer (Dama dama) (12/63), 13.9% in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) (14/101), 7.9% in red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6/76), and 3.1% in mouflons (Ovis aries musimon) (2/64). Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in fallow deer and wild boars compared to mouflons. Animals living close to urban areas (<2 km) had 4.6-times higher risk compared to those living at >5 km of urban areas. The results indicate high circulation of T. gondii in wild ungulates in SCSV-NP, which is of animal and public health concern. The increased seroprevalence of T. gondii detected in wildlife ungulates living close to urban areas may increase human infection in those areas if meat from infected animals is consumed raw or undercooked.


Assuntos
Ruminantes/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Ecossistema , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1505-1509, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615409

RESUMO

The increase in some wildlife species is of global concern. The utilization of wildlife meat as food and feed represents a potential source of food-borne pathogens; this is particularly a potential concern for the use of wild board as a food source in Japan. Regarding food safety and an animal infectious disease control, however, little is known about the infection level of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild boar populations in their natural habitats in Japan. A total of 1279 blood samples from 41 prefectures were collected from apparently healthy wild boars during the three hunting periods (September to February) of 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2017-2018. Out of these sera, 461 samples tested positive by a commercial indirect ELISA for T. gondii, and the total apparent and adjusted true seroprevalence were estimated to 36.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.4-38.7) and 31.3% (95% CI, 33.1-38.9), respectively. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in yearlings and adults than in piglets (P < 0.05); however, no significant difference according to gender was noted. These results indicate the importance of adequate heating of wild boar meat before consumption to prevent transmission of T. gondii to humans. Furthermore, freezing meat for several days before cooking is recommended to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, although the incidence of toxoplasmosis in pig farms is relatively low in Japan, biosecurity measures against the felids and the varied intermediate hosts should be strengthened, especially, at the farms located in the wild boar habitats to prevent livestock infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic parasitic nematode of the family Thelaziidae, with Phortica okadai as its intermediate host and only confirmed vector in China. China has the largest number of human cases of thelaziosis in the world. It is generally believed that infected domestic animals (dogs and cats) are the most important reservoir hosts of T. callipaeda, and thus pose a direct threat to humans. At present, there is little research or attention focused on the role of wildlife in the transmission cycle of thelaziosis in nature reserves. METHODS: We selected locations in four national nature reserves across China to monitor P. okadai and wildlife. We used a fly-trap method to monitor P. okadai density. Morphological analysis of the parasites collected from the conjunctival sac of the infected wildlife was undertaken as the first step in species identification, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for species confirmation. RESULTS: In 2019, the density of P. okadai in Foping National Nature Reserve in China increased sharply, and infected P. okadai were newly found in the reserve. Giant panda, wild boar, leopard cat, and black bear were found to be newly infected with T. callipaeda (one individual of each species). A total of four worms were collected, one from each species of wildlife. The four worms were identified as T. callipaeda by their morphological characteristics; species identification was confirmed by PCR amplification. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. callipaeda infection in P. okadai as well as in a variety of wildlife, including giant panda, in nature reserves in China. These results indicate that there is a transmission cycle of T. callipaeda among wildlife in these nature reserves. The increasing number of case reports of thelaziosis in wildlife suggest a likely risk of T. callipaeda infection for the inhabitants of villages situated around nature reserves.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Drosophilidae/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/transmissão , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/transmissão , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 919-927, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506331

RESUMO

Prevalence and temporal evolution of the infection by the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus is studied in the Valencian Community (Eastern Spain), a region only recently fully colonized by the expanding native Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). For 8 years, a total of 1486 wild boars were sampled in order to look for the parasite. The mean prevalence was 20.7% (95% CI, 18.6-22.8; 307/1486). We observed an increasing trend through time, both in the number of wild boars and affected districts. The prevalence of M. hirudinaceus rose in parallel to the annual capture of wild boars, and its presence has been expanding towards the East. A hotspot of M. hirudinaceus is located to the west of the study area, in Muela de Cortes Game Reserve, where 89.6% of the wild boars were positive for the infection, constituting one of the world's highest known prevalence areas.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Hotspot de Doença , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 103-109, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455082

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. infection occurs when a host ingests muscle tissue containing infective larvae (L1 stage). Wild boar meat and its products represent the second largest source of human trichinellosis worldwide. For this reason, and since that in Portugal wild boar is the most hunted large game specie, the laboratory of Technology, Quality and Food Safety (TQFS) from the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro created a free service to test wild boar meat for Trichinella spp. From December 2015 to February 2020, and 857 samples were analysed. From those, the majority (719/857, 83.9%) were tested after October 2018 when a specific national legislation came into force, demanding that meat from wild boar hunted in a defined risk area should be tested for Trichinella spp. Under TQFS laboratory activity, in January 2020, a positive case was identified, being the first molecular confirmation of Trichinella britovi infection in wild boar in Portugal. Additionally to this activity, in 2019, a questionnaire was submitted to 100 hunters to acquire information about wild boar meat usage and consumption behaviours. From the total respondents, 86% declared they intended to use meat for private consumption. Of those, 93% also stated that have sold part of the meat and/or homemade sausages, the majority (80%) without prior testing for Trichinella spp., as required by EU Regulation. These results alert the hunters to a risk for human infection, which could be extended to outside the hunter's household. Given the actual epidemiological situation, it should be emphasized that testing for Trichinella spp. in wild boar meat should be maintained and reinforced, particularly in the risk area. The results presented in this report strongly support the importance of specific national legislation to mitigate the risk of trichinellosis due to consumption of non-tested wild boar meat.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Carne/normas , Portugal/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(1): 83-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103216

RESUMO

Alaria alata is a trematode included among several emerging zoonotic parasites. The mesocercarial larval stage of A. alata named Distomum musculorum suis (DMS) may potentially be infective for humans. In the past, DMS was often observed in wild boar meat during the official Trichinella inspection by artificial digestion before a more specific and effective detection method, the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT), was introduced. In the present study, the AMT method was used to screen 3589 tissue samples collected from wild boars hunted in Poland during the 2015-2019 period. The survey mainly focused on the southern part of Poland with the majority of samples coming from Malopolskie, Swietokrzyskie, and Dolnoslaskie provinces; samples from ten additional provinces were also included. The total prevalence was 4.2% with mean abundance of 4.7 DMS. Occurrence was dependent upon environmental conditions (i.e., wetland habitats and water reservoirs) rather than on sex of the host or season in which they were hunted. The recovered trematodes were identified as Alaria spp. according to their morphological features. Molecular analysis of 18S rDNA and COI genes confirmed the species identification to be A. alata and documented genetic variability among the isolates.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Larva/patogenicidade , Carne/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 22: 100485, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308734

RESUMO

Alaria alata trematode is widely distributed throughout Europe and has a complex life cycle in which wild boar serve as a reservoir host. The primary aims of the present study are to establish the occurrence of A. alata mesocercariae in naturally infected wild boar in Latvia and to assess the risk for humans to acquire A. alata infection via consumption of wild boar meat. By summarizing long-term data using the Trichinella inspection method from 2014 to 2019, the overall A. alata prevalence was 8.3%, of which significantly higher A. alata prevalence was observed during the summer seasons. Additionally, 43.9% (n = 485) of wild boar were found to be infected with A. alata using Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. The present study indicates that the probability for humans to acquire A. alata mesocercariae is possible, yet improbable and varies from 0.2% to 2.2%. Most likely, it depends on both frequency of A. alata presence in wild boar population and of a method of preparing wild boar meat for consumption that will allow for the parasite inactivation.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência
20.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 22: 100492, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308736

RESUMO

Wildlife is essential to the biodiversity of the Meihua mountain, southwestern Fujian province, China. However, there have been few surveys of the distribution of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens affecting wild animals at these locations. In this study, 1197 adult ixodid ticks infesting wild boars were collected from 10 sampling sites during 2019. Ticks were identified to species based on morphology, and the identification was confirmed based on mitochondrial 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 rRNA sequences. Eight tick species belonging to 2 genera were identified, including H. longicornis (n = 373, 31.1%), H. flava (n = 265, 22.1%), D. auratus (n = 153, 12.8%), H. hystricis (n = 119, 9.9%), D. silvarum (n = 116, 9.7%), H. bispinosa (n = 114, 9.5%), D. atrosignatus (n = 33, 2.8%), and D. taiwanensis (n = 24, 2.0%). DNA sequences of Rickettsia spp. (spotted fever group) and Babesia spp. were detected in these ticks. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the possible existence of Candidatus Rickettsia laoensis and Rickettsia raoultii. This study illustrates the potential threat to wild animals and humans from tick-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
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