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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(2): 129-138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063674

RESUMO

Since its first report in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly emerged as a pandemic affecting nearly all countries worldwide. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, the need to identify genetic risk factors for susceptibility to this serious illness has emerged. Host genetic factors, along with other risk factors may help determine susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. It is hypothesized that the ACE2 gene, encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is a genetic risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and is required by the virus to enter cells. Together with ACE2, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) also play an important role in disease severity. Evaluating the role of genetic variants in determining the direction of respiratory infections will help identify potential drug target candidates for further study in COVID-19 patients. We have summarized the latest reports demonstrating that ACE2 variants, their expression, and epigenetic factors may influence an individual's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Variação Genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4225-4230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027359

RESUMO

There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isocianatos/toxicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desastres , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autocuidado , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current SARS-CoV-2 containment measures rely on controlling viral transmission. Effective prioritization can be determined by understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of the secondary attack rate (SAR) in household and healthcare settings. We also examined whether household transmission differed by symptom status of index case, adult and children, and relationship to index case. METHODS: We searched PubMed, medRxiv, and bioRxiv databases between January 1 and July 25, 2020. High-quality studies presenting original data for calculating point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were included. Random effects models were constructed to pool SAR in household and healthcare settings. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's meta-regression test. RESULTS: 43 studies met the inclusion criteria for household SAR, 18 for healthcare SAR, and 17 for other settings. The pooled household SAR was 18.1% (95% CI: 15.7%, 20.6%), with significant heterogeneity across studies ranging from 3.9% to 54.9%. SAR of symptomatic index cases was higher than asymptomatic cases (RR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.46, 7.14). Adults showed higher susceptibility to infection than children (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.17). Spouses of index cases were more likely to be infected compared to other household contacts (RR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.79, 3.19). In healthcare settings, SAR was estimated at 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4%, 1.0%). DISCUSSION: While aggressive contact tracing strategies may be appropriate early in an outbreak, as it progresses, measures should transition to account for setting-specific transmission risk. Quarantine may need to cover entire communities while tracing shifts to identifying transmission hotspots and vulnerable populations. Where possible, confirmed cases should be isolated away from the household.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Fatores de Risco
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9136157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062043

RESUMO

Since the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) on March 02, 2020, Saudi Arabia has not reported quite a rapid COVD-19 spread as seen in America and many European countries. Possible causes include the spread of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. To characterize the transmission of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, a susceptible, exposed, symptomatic, asymptomatic, hospitalized, and recovered dynamical model was formulated, and a basic analysis of the model is presented including model positivity, boundedness, and stability around the disease-free equilibrium. It is found that the model is locally and globally stable around the disease-free equilibrium when R 0 < 1. The model parameterized from COVID-19 confirmed cases reported by the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia (MOH) from March 02 till April 14, while some parameters are estimated from the literature. The numerical simulation showed that the model predicted infected curve is in good agreement with the real data of COVID-19-infected cases. An analytical expression of the basic reproduction number R 0 is obtained, and the numerical value is estimated as R 0 ≈ 2.7.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Bioestatística , Simulação por Computador , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Elife ; 92020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876563

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are two highly infectious and lethal viruses causing major economic losses to pig production. Here, we report generation of double-gene-knockout (DKO) pigs harboring edited knockout alleles for known receptor proteins CD163 and pAPN and show that DKO pigs are completely resistant to genotype 2 PRRSV and TGEV. We found no differences in meat-production or reproductive-performance traits between wild-type and DKO pigs, but detected increased iron in DKO muscle. Additional infection challenge experiments showed that DKO pigs exhibited decreased susceptibility to porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), thus offering unprecedented in vivo evidence of pAPN as one of PDCoV receptors. Beyond showing that multiple gene edits can be combined in a livestock animal to achieve simultaneous resistance to two major viruses, our study introduces a valuable model for investigating infection mechanisms of porcine pathogenic viruses that exploit pAPN or CD163 for entry.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD13/deficiência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/deficiência , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Composição Corporal , Antígenos CD13/genética , Antígenos CD13/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/genética , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Fenótipo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/imunologia , Ganho de Peso
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966315

RESUMO

Following its initial appearance in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly spread around the globe. Here, we evaluated the role of climate (temperature and precipitation), region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility (BCG vaccination factors, malaria incidence, and percentage of the population aged over 65 years), and human mobility (relative amounts of international visitors) in shaping the geographical patterns of COVID-19 case numbers across 1,020 countries/regions, and examined the sequential shift that occurred from December 2019 to June 30, 2020 in multiple drivers of the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases. Our regression model adequately explains the cumulative COVID-19 case numbers (per 1 million population). As the COVID-19 spread progressed, the explanatory power (R2) of the model increased, reaching > 70% in April 2020. Climate, host mobility, and host susceptibility to COVID-19 largely explained the variance among COVID-19 case numbers across locations; the relative importance of host mobility and that of host susceptibility to COVID-19 were both greater than that of climate. Notably, the relative importance of these factors changed over time; the number of days from outbreak onset drove COVID-19 spread in the early stage, then human mobility accelerated the pandemic, and lastly climate (temperature) propelled the phase following disease expansion. Our findings demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic is deterministically driven by climate suitability, cross-border human mobility, and region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility. The identification of these multiple drivers of the COVID-19 outbreak trajectory, based on mapping the spread of COVID-19, will contribute to a better understanding of the COVID-19 disease transmission risk and inform long-term preventative measures against this disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Regressão , Clima , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16007, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994418

RESUMO

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a pandemic event in the world, it has not only caused huge economic losses, but also a serious threat to global public health. Many scientific questions about SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were raised and urgently need to be answered, including the susceptibility of animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we tested whether tree shrew, an emerging experimental animal domesticated from wild animal, is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No clinical signs were observed in SARS-CoV-2 inoculated tree shrews during this experiment except the increasing body temperature particularly in female animals. Low levels of virus shedding and replication in tissues occurred in all three age groups. Notably, young tree shrews (6 months to 12 months) showed virus shedding at the earlier stage of infection than adult (2 years to 4 years) and old (5 years to 7 years) animals that had longer duration of virus shedding comparatively. Histopathological examine revealed that pulmonary abnormalities were the main changes but mild although slight lesions were also observed in other tissues. In summary, tree shrew is less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the reported animal models and may not be a suitable animal for COVID-19 related researches. However, tree shrew may be a potential intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 as an asymptomatic carrier.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Tupaiidae/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4566, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917903

RESUMO

Influenza virus exposures in childhood can establish long-lived memory B cell responses that can be recalled later in life. Here, we complete a large serological survey to elucidate the specificity of antibodies against contemporary H3N2 viruses in differently aged individuals who were likely primed with different H3N2 strains in childhood. We find that most humans who were first infected in childhood with H3N2 viral strains from the 1960s and 1970s possess non-neutralizing antibodies against contemporary 3c2.A H3N2 viruses. We find that 3c2.A H3N2 virus infections boost non-neutralizing H3N2 antibodies in middle-aged individuals, potentially leaving many of them in a perpetual state of 3c2.A H3N2 viral susceptibility.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Philadelphia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 353, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933536

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a serious health threat. The increasing number of COVID-19 cases around the world is overwhelming hospitals and pushing the global death toll to over 746,000, which has pushed the sprint to find new treatment options. In this article, we reviewed the SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology, transmission, and potential treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia
11.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 139-149, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910668

RESUMO

The crisis of COVID-19 leaves us a teaching in the form of reminiscence. We do not learn anything new from it, but it reminds us of something we knew and forgot. It shows us in a new light our vulnerability, the impossibility of protecting ourselves perfectly through prediction and control. The sciences do not predict with certainty and the technologies do not manage to have everything under control, although the former and the latter have many other and worthwhile functions. Ideologies do not see the future, no matter how much they pretend to do so. However, we are not without reliable guidance in deciding our actions. This orientation must be sought in being, not in the future. It is fidelity to our common human nature that must advise us. It is the full realization of our personal being, of our peculiar vocation, that guides us. So, the means for self-realization consists in the development of a virtuous character. The same character that has mitigated the ravages of the pandemic, given that, to some degree, it was already present in many of our fellow citizens. The same that would have alleviated the suffering even more if it had been available in more people and to a greater degree.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Previsões , Características Humanas , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Responsabilidade Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Virtudes , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
Phys Rev E ; 102(2-1): 022310, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942454

RESUMO

The frequent emergence of diseases with the potential to become threats at local and global scales, such as influenza A(H1N1), SARS, MERS, and recently COVID-19 disease, makes it crucial to keep designing models of disease propagation and strategies to prevent or mitigate their effects in populations. Since isolated systems are exceptionally rare to find in any context, especially in human contact networks, here we examine the susceptible-infected-recovered model of disease spreading in a multiplex network formed by two distinct networks or layers, interconnected through a fraction q of shared individuals (overlap). We model the interactions through weighted networks, because person-to-person interactions are diverse (or disordered); weights represent the contact times of the interactions. Using branching theory supported by simulations, we analyze a social distancing strategy that reduces the average contact time in both layers, where the intensity of the distancing is related to the topology of the layers. We find that the critical values of the distancing intensities, above which an epidemic can be prevented, increase with the overlap q. Also we study the effect of the social distancing on the mutual giant component of susceptible individuals, which is crucial to keep the functionality of the system. In addition, we find that for relatively small values of the overlap q, social distancing policies might not be needed at all to maintain the functionality of the system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Rede Social , Análise de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
13.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945643

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as "Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?" and "What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?" Emerging evidences have proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. At immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estrogênios/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Testosterona/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
14.
F1000Res ; 9: 334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934802

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is a worldwide medical and epidemiological catastrophe, and the number of psychological studies concerning COVID-19 is growing daily. Such studies need baseline data from before the COVID-19 outbreak for comparison, but such datasets have not yet been accumulated and shared. Here, we provide a dataset on the perceived vulnerability to disease scale for 1382 Japanese participants obtained through an online survey conducted in 2018 that will be useful for comparison with current or post-COVID-19 perceived vulnerability to disease data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias
15.
Mult Scler ; 26(10): 1137-1146, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924838

RESUMO

Concerns regarding infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 are particularly marked for pregnant women with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). There is currently a relative paucity of information to guide advice given to and the clinical management of these individuals. Much of the limited available data around COVID-19 and pregnancy derives from the obstetric literature, and as such, neurologists may not be familiar with the general principles underlying current advice. In this article, we discuss the impact of potential infection on the pregnant woman, the impact on her baby, the impact of the current pandemic on antenatal care, and the interaction between COVID-19, MS and pregnancy. This review provides a framework for neurologists to use to guide the individualised advice given to both pregnant women with MS, and those women with MS who are considering pregnancy. This includes evidence derived from previous novel coronavirus infections, and emerging evidence from the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Assistência à Saúde , Parto Obstétrico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Pandemias , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Recidiva
16.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882868

RESUMO

Over the years, coronaviruses (CoV) have posed a severe public health threat, causing an increase in mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that affected more than 215 countries with over 23 million cases and 800,000 deaths as of today. The situation is critical, especially with the absence of specific medicines or vaccines; hence, efforts toward the development of anti-COVID-19 medicines are being intensively undertaken. One of the potential therapeutic targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 was identified as a key functional receptor for CoV associated with COVID-19. ACE2, which is located on the surface of the host cells, binds effectively to the spike protein of CoV, thus enabling the virus to infect the epithelial cells of the host. Previous studies showed that certain flavonoids exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Thus, it is being postulated that these flavonoids might also interact with ACE2. This postulation might be of interest because these compounds also show antiviral activity in vitro. This article summarizes the natural flavonoids with potential efficacy against COVID-19 through ACE2 receptor inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Antivirais/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883007

RESUMO

When facing an acute viral infection, our immune systems need to function with finite precision to enable the elimination of the pathogen, whilst protecting our bodies from immune-related damage. In many instances however this "perfect balance" is not achieved, factors such as ageing, cancer, autoimmunity and cardiovascular disease all skew the immune response which is then further distorted by viral infection. In SARS-CoV-2, although the vast majority of COVID-19 cases are mild, as of 24 August 2020, over 800,000 people have died, many from the severe inflammatory cytokine release resulting in extreme clinical manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Severe complications are more common in elderly patients and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in modulating the immune response and in both of these patient groups, NK cell effector functions are blunted. Preliminary studies in COVID-19 patients with severe disease suggests a reduction in NK cell number and function, resulting in decreased clearance of infected and activated cells, and unchecked elevation of tissue-damaging inflammation markers. SARS-CoV-2 infection skews the immune response towards an overwhelmingly inflammatory phenotype. Restoration of NK cell effector functions has the potential to correct the delicate immune balance required to effectively overcome SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Autoimunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo
18.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 443-462, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886045

RESUMO

Supporting Children of Parents With a Mental Illness: State of Research and Two Practice Approaches and Claims for the Government Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at an increased risk to develop (severe) mental disorders (SMI) themselves. Estimates for Germany result in about 25 % of COPMI. This is thus a large and high risk group. On the other hand, prevention programs for COPMI are still scarce, especially in Germany, and central features of the transgenerational transmission of mental disorders have not been studied in conjunction to shed light on potential transmission mechanisms. The current article presents two current research projects on COPMI focusing on preventive approaches. The BMBF funded project "Children of Parents with a Mental Illness At Risk Evaluation" (COMPARE) targets parents of children aged 1.5 to 16 years of age. Parents need to fulfil a current DSM-5 based diagnosis of a mental disorder and then receive either 25-45 sessions gold standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or CBT plus 10 sessions Positive Parenting Program (PPP) to test the effects of parental therapy on the children and whether an additional parent training results in incremental effects above and beyond CBT alone. The project "The Village" is a model project in the region Tyrol, Austria, targeting the improved identification and collaborative care of COPMI.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Governo , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Poder Familiar/psicologia
19.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 463-480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886047

RESUMO

Mental Disorders and Parenting: Challenges and Opportunities for Adult Mental Health Services Parenting can be a key element in the psychiatric rehabilitation process, but it may come with many challenges for parents with mental health problems. Illness symptoms, together with social and sociocultural factors, can have adverse effects on family life or parenting behaviors and entail severe consequences for a child's psychosocial development. Bidirectional interactions can increase parental burden and thus worsen a parent's course of illness. This vicious circle can be broken by the provision of early and adequate support of mothers and fathers with mental health problems. Adult mental health services can make an important yet often underestimated contribution here. This article refers to parents' resources and needs and introduces both opportunities and challenges for adult mental health services when it comes to dealing with parenting needs. Mental health professionals are in a pivotal position for extending adequate support to clients on their parental needs. These professionals' skills and knowledge regarding parenting are essential for the successful implementation of family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Beyond the individual level, there is a need for policies and guidelines stipulating the integration of family and child perspectives in adult mental health services. In a broader view, a program from Finland shows how mental health professionals as well as peers can support parents and their families during the treatment process.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação
20.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 426-442, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886049

RESUMO

Assisting the Forgotten Ones - Interventions for Children of Parents with Psychological Disorders Mental diseases are associated with high levels of distress in various areas of life for those, who are affected. Taking a closer look at the social circumstances, not exclusively the people themselves but also their family members are affected, especially children. In adult treatment these children are often neglected, even if they have a higher risk of suffering a mental illness themselves. A huge amount of this risk is related to the special family environment children are often exposed to right after birth. We already find prevention programs helping these children and their parents to protect their mental health. These programs largely differ regarding parental psychopathology, setting or intensity. This article gives an overview of the special circumstances these children may be confronted with and hence derivates possible starting points to support affected families. A few existing programs will be described in detail. Empirical findings presented in the article give hope for the effectiveness of already existing programs and besides highlight the need for further research and changes in the care system.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação
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