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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689836

RESUMO

While stress is known to cause many diseases, there is no established method to determine individuals vulnerable to stress. Sasang typology categorizes humans into four Sasang types (So-Eum, Tae-Eum, So-Yang, and Tae-Yang), which have unique pathophysiologies because of their differential susceptibilities to specific stimuli, including stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if Sasang typology can be used identify individuals who are vulnerable to stress by evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV).This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 399 healthy men and women aged 30 to 49 years were recruited. Physical examinations for stress included HRV measurement and blood tests. The subjects also completed questionnaires about psychological stress, self-awareness, and lifestyle. HRV was analyzed using frequency-domain analysis. Subjects were divided into So-Eum (SE) and non-So-Eum (non-SE) groups according to their diagnosis.The weight and body mass index in the SE group were significantly lower than those in the non-SE group (both, P = .000). There were no significant between-group differences in any other demographic variables. In HRV analysis, the normalized high frequency (nHF) was higher (P = .008) while the normalized low frequency (nLF; P = .008) and LF:HF ratio (LF/HF; P = .002) were lower in the SE group than in the non-SE group.Although there was no difference in variables affecting HRV, HRV values were significantly different between groups. The LF/HF value for the SE group was at the lower limit of the normal range, although there were no associated clinical problems. These findings suggest that individuals with the SE type are more susceptible to stress than those with the other types. Thus, middle-aged individuals who are vulnerable to stress can be identified using Sasang typology.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Somatotipos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMJ ; 367: l5784, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether severe psychiatric reactions to trauma and other adversities are associated with subsequent risk of life threatening infections. DESIGN: Population and sibling matched cohort study. SETTING: Swedish population. PARTICIPANTS: 144 919 individuals with stress related disorders (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress reaction, adjustment disorder, and other stress reactions) identified from 1987 to 2013 compared with 184 612 full siblings of individuals with a diagnosed stress related disorder and 1 449 190 matched individuals without such a diagnosis from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A first inpatient or outpatient visit with a primary diagnosis of severe infections with high mortality rates (ie, sepsis, endocarditis, and meningitis or other central nervous system infections) from the Swedish National Patient Register, and deaths from these infections or infections of any origin from the Cause of Death Register. After controlling for multiple confounders, Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios of these life threatening infections. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis of a stress related disorder was 37 years (55 541, 38.3% men). During a mean follow-up of eight years, the incidence of life threatening infections per 1000 person years was 2.9 in individuals with a stress related disorder, 1.7 in siblings without a diagnosis, and 1.3 in matched individuals without a diagnosis. Compared with full siblings without a diagnosis of a stress related disorder, individuals with such a diagnosis were at increased risk of life threatening infections (hazard ratio for any stress related disorder was 1.47 (95% confidence intervals1.37 to 1.58) and for PTSD was 1.92 (1.46 to 2.52)). Corresponding estimates in the population based analysis were similar (1.58 (1.51 to 1.65) for any stress related disorder, P=0.09 for difference between sibling and population based comparison, and 1.95 (1.66 to 2.28) for PTSD, P=0.92 for difference). Stress related disorders were associated with all studied life threatening infections, with the highest relative risk observed for meningitis (sibling based analysis 1.63 (1.23 to 2.16)) and endocarditis (1.57 (1.08 to 2.30)). Younger age at diagnosis of a stress related disorder and the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, especially substance use disorders, were associated with higher hazard ratios, whereas use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the first year after diagnosis of a stress related disorder was associated with attenuated hazard ratios. CONCLUSION: In the Swedish population, stress related disorders were associated with a subsequent risk of life threatening infections, after controlling for familial background and physical or psychiatric comorbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Irmãos , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4911-4916, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The occurrence of somatic transformation in germ cell tumour (GCT) is rare, with increased incidence in teratomatous tumours. The aim of this study was to understand the clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic GCT with somatic transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in two tertiary cancer centres in London. Between 1998 and 2016, 30 cases of somatic transformation in GCT treated at the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and St. Bartholomew's Hospital were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range=18-56 years). The histological diagnosis at transformation was rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcomatoid yolk sac, sarcoma (non-specified), clear cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and primitive neuro ectodermal tumour (PNET). RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate of all patients was 47%, and that of patients with testicular primary (n=26 patients) was 37%. CONCLUSION: Somatic transformation component in testicular GCTs is generally considered to be an adverse prognostic factor, however, a reasonable 5-year overall survival rate (87.5%) was observed in patients who present with this at first diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/secundário , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/secundário , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5057-5064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Multiplex gene panel tests using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are clinically available for gastric cancer (GC). The NGS tests can reveal unexpected pathogenic variants to be associated with hereditary diseases, i.e., secondary genetic findings. We investigated whether GC patients at high risk of having hereditary gastric cancer (HGC) can be identified by their clinicopathological variables before they undergo NGS cancer gene panel tests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cases of 2,286 patients with GC treated at our hospital during the years 1999-2017 were retrospectively analyzed; of them, 143 patients were identified as being at high risk of having HGC (HR-HGC), and the remaining 2,143 patients were classified as having sporadic gastric cancer (SGC). RESULTS: Compared to the SGC group, the HR-HGC status was significantly associated with younger age, female gender, macroscopic type IV and a histologically diffuse type. In a multivariate analysis, being young (i.e., ≤50 years old) was an independent risk factor for HR-HGC. CONCLUSION: Female and young patients with diffuse-type GC are closely associated with a high risk of having HGC, and these factors might predict the detection of secondary genetic findings by NGS testing.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 465-472, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483037

RESUMO

To identify susceptible and resistant Haematobia irritans cows, horn flies were counted biweekly for 3 years in a herd of 25 Sindhi cows. Repeated measures linear mixed models were created including cow as a random factor. The results were analyzed by: 1) observing horn fly counts, considering fly-susceptible cows with infestations appearing in the upper quartile more than 50% of the weeks and in the lower quartile less than 20% of the weeks, and fly-resistant cows those that the number of flies was in the lower quartile more than 50% of the weeks and in the upper quartile less than 20%; 2) by the best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs), to evaluate the cow effect on fly counts. Fly-susceptible cows were those in which the infestation appeared in the 90th percentile of the BLUPs, whereas fly-resistant cows appeared in the 10th percentile. For the observational method the individuals identified as resistant varied between 8% and 20% and 8% to 12% were susceptible. For the BLUP method, the rates of susceptible and resistant cows were 12%. The agreement among methods suggests that susceptible cows can be identified by observations of fly counts, allowing for selective breeding, culling or treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Muscidae , Animais , Bovinos , Estações do Ano
6.
Orv Hetil ; 160(36): 1407-1416, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492083

RESUMO

The author briefly summarizes the relationship between oxidative stress and changes in metal ion metabolism in pathological processes. Essential metal ions such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se are essential in the living organisms, their metabolism and intracellular concentration are strictly regulated. Externally or intrinsically, altered metal ion metabolism can lead to metal ion accumulation or metal ion deficiency. Excess amounts of redox-active essential metals such as Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni can induce free radicals under certain circumstances that cause inflammation, cell damage, and cancerous changes, although the molecular mechanism is still unclear in every detail. Changes in the metabolism of non-essential and non-variable valence metal ions also affect redox homeostasis. Despite the fact that each metal can react in a unique way and with different mechanisms, similar processes occur, where both metal deficiency and excessive metal induce oxidative stress. Antioxidant defense system is damaged, free radicals produced alter the redox balance, and redox homeostasis changed induces the production of cytokines and other transcription factors that affect the intracellular signaling pathways and affect the development of various diseases, including metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological diseases and cancer. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(36): 1407-1416.


Assuntos
Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Homeostase , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Metais/metabolismo , Oxirredução
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525787

RESUMO

Testing for malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is usually performed either in relatives of MH susceptible persons or in patients with an MH suspicious clinical event. There are two diagnostic options: muscle biopsy with in-vitro contracture testing and molecular genetic diagnosis. Patients with familial MH mutations are usually tested genetically. A genetic screening can be performed in clinical events with a high pretest probability. MH susceptibility can be confirmed by presence of a diagnostic MH mutation. Absence of MH mutations cannot exclude MH. The only option to exclude MH susceptibility is contracture testing.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Maligna , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Hipertermia Maligna/diagnóstico
8.
Minerva Med ; 110(5): 464-470, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368293

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that is colonized in the stomach. H. pylori infection can lead to a series of stomach diseases. However, the relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer is currently controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to further understand the relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a comprehensive retrieval from electronic databases, included the PubMed, Medline, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and China Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform databases (Wanfang Databases) through May 1st, 2018. We used the search terms H. pylori and colorectal cancer or colorectal carcinoma and collected all relevant studies to explore the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven studies including 14357 cases were included. H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. A pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.27 with a 95% CI of 1.17-1.37 (P<0.001) was calculated by using a fixed-effects model (I2=45.5%, P=0.006). The subgroup analysis revealed that H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the subgroups of Western countries (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) (P<0.001), serological testing (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.34) (P=0.001), multiple methods of testing (OR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.09-6.31) (P=0.031), cross-sectional studies (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.17-3.16) (P=0.010) and case-control studies (OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.16-1.36) (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis provides evidence suggests that a positive association between H. pylori infection and the risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Gastrite/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(10): 1075-1085, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although some specific genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis (NF) have been identified as risk factor of childhood brain tumors (CBT), the potential role of inherited susceptibility in CBT has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: To further investigate this, we conducted a pooled analysis of two nationwide case-control studies ESCALE and ESTELLE. The mothers of 509 CBT cases and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years who resided in France at diagnosis/interview, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview conducted by trained interviewers. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: CBT was significantly associated with the family history of cancer in relatives (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). The OR was slightly higher for maternal relatives than for paternal relatives, and when at least two relatives had a history of cancer. CBT was significantly associated with a family history of brain tumor (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.7). This association seemed stronger for first-degree relatives (mother, father, and siblings), for whom, by contrast, no association was seen for cancers other than CBT. No specificity by CBT subtypes or by age of the children were found for any of these findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis of a familial susceptibility of CBT, not due to being a known NF carrier.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Família , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Anamnese , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2061-2069, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cervical cancer metastases to the ovary may occur with advanced tumor stage, deep cervical stromal involvement and corpus involvement. Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) with ovarian involvement is exceptionally rare with about twelve reported cases. METHODS: Here we present a case of endocervical AIS with ovarian and pulmonary involvement 39 months after the initial diagnosis. The characteristics of that case were compared and summarized with the eleven previously published cases. RESULTS: The patients' age ranged between 30 and 40 years (median 37.4 years). The time interval between the diagnosis of AIS and ovarian involvement was 26.7 months (range 2-84 months). Majority of the patients are alive without evidence of disease after a median time of 63.4 months (range 9-156 months). All reported cases were positive for high-risk HPV which was associated with strong p16 expression on immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The ovarian involvement by endocervical AIS suggests the concept of a transtubal spread of the neoplastic cervical cells with or without previous colonization within the endometrium without evidence of invasive growth, suggesting a seed and soil spread of the disease. In cases with ovarian involvement by the AIS and without additional extragenital spread, the prognosis may be favorable.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/secundário , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/virologia , Adulto , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/virologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3042, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316054

RESUMO

Stress resistance and longevity are positively correlated but emerging evidence indicates that they are physiologically distinct. Identifying factors with distinctive roles in these processes is challenging because pro-longevity genes often enhance stress resistance. We demonstrate that TCER-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human transcription elongation and splicing factor, TCERG1, has opposite effects on lifespan and stress resistance. We previously showed that tcer-1 promotes longevity in germline-less C. elegans and reproductive fitness in wild-type animals. Surprisingly, tcer-1 mutants exhibit exceptional resistance against multiple stressors, including infection by human opportunistic pathogens, whereas, TCER-1 overexpression confers immuno-susceptibility. TCER-1 inhibits immunity only during fertile stages of life. Elevating its levels ameliorates the fertility loss caused by infection, suggesting that TCER-1 represses immunity to augment fecundity. TCER-1 acts through repression of PMK-1 as well as PMK-1-independent factors critical for innate immunity. Our data establish key roles for TCER-1 in coordinating immunity, longevity and fertility, and reveal mechanisms that distinguish length of life from functional aspects of aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Longevidade/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Fertilidade/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1218-1224, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308506

RESUMO

Flaviviral infections result in a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. Although the correlates of severe disease have been explored1-4, the pathophysiology that differentiates symptomatic from asymptomatic infection remains undefined. To understand the molecular underpinnings of symptomatic infection, the blood transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of individuals were examined before and after inoculation with the live yellow fever viral vaccine (YF17D). It was found that individuals with adaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity at baseline showed increased susceptibility to symptomatic outcome. YF17D infection in these individuals induced maladaptive ER stress, triggering downstream proinflammatory responses that correlated with symptomatic outcome. The findings of the present study thus suggest that the ER stress response and immunometabolism underpin symptomatic yellow fever and possibly even other flaviviral infections. Modulating either ER stress or metabolism could be exploited for prophylaxis against symptomatic flaviviral infection outcome.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/metabolismo , Adulto , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Febre Amarela/etiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 582, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious herpesvirus with potential for nosocomial transmission. However, the importance of nosocomial chickenpox outbreak in China has often been ignored. With the increasing immunocompromised population in China, a thorough review of issues related to nosocomial transmission and the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers is necessary. METHODS: Retrospective case finding for nosocomial transmission of chickenpox was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Cases were identified based on clinical features compatible with chickenpox. A cross-sectional study on the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers (HCWs) was conducted between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2017. The serum VZV antibodies of 1804 HCWs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence rate of VZV antibodies, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of self-reported history of varicella were analyzed. The economic impact associated with nosocomial transmission of VZV was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 cases of chickenpox were identified in three nosocomial transmissions, including 4 HCWs who were infected nosocomially. The overall seroprevalence rate of VZV was 88.4%, which significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). The seroprevalence rates of HCWs with different genders and occupations showed no statistically significant differences. The positive and negative predictive values of a self-reported history of varicella were 80.8 and 10.6% respectively. An estimation of 163.3 person-days of work were lost in each nosocomial transmission and 86.7 infection control unit person-hours were required for each outbreak investigation. The cost of VZV IgG ELISA screening was estimated to be 83 USD per nosocomial transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Nosocomial transmission of VZV occurred repeatedly in the hospital setting. An alarming 11.6% of HCWs were seronegative for VZV, which might increase the risk of nosocomial infection and outbreak for other susceptible co-workers and patients. This is especially important in the setting of a teaching hospital where many immunocompromised patients were managed. Furthermore, the positive predictive value of self-reported varicella on seroprevalence rate in our study was lower than those reported in other countries, therefore serological testing of VZV antibodies with subsequent vaccination for all non-immune HCWs should be considered.


Assuntos
Varicela/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Varicela/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 87-97, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303211

RESUMO

The natural history of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been well described, particularly with respect to the parasite load in different tissues and immunopathological changes according to the progression of clinical forms. The biomarkers evaluated in these studies provide support for the improvement of the tools used in developing vaccines against CVL. Thus, we describe the major studies using the dog model that supplies the rationale for including different biomarkers (tissue parasitism, histopathology, hematological changes, leucocytes immunophenotyping, cytokines patterns, and in vitroco-culture systems using purified T-cells subsets and macrophages infected with L. infantum) for immunogenicity and protection evaluations in phases I and II applied to pre-clinical and clinical vaccine trials against CVL. The search for biomarkers related to resistance or susceptibility has revealed a mixed cytokine profile with a prominent proinflammatory immune response as relevant for Leishmania replication at low levels as observed in asymptomatic dogs (highlighted by high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and decreased levels in IL-4, TGF-ß and IL-10). Furthermore, increased levels in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, presenting intracytoplasmic proinflammatory cytokine balance, have been associated with a resistance profile against CVL. In contrast, a polyclonal B-cell expansion towards plasma cell differentiation contributes to high antibody production, which is the hallmark of symptomatic dogs associated with high susceptibility in CVL. Finally, the different studies used to analyze biomarkers have been incorporated into vaccine immunogenicity and protection evaluations. Those biomarkers identified as resistance or susceptibility markers in CVL have been used to evaluate the vaccine performance against L. infantum in a kennel trial conducted before the field trial in an area known to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This rationale has been a guiding force in the testing and selection of the best vaccine candidates against CVL and provides a way for the veterinary industry to register commercial immunobiological products.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia
15.
Immunol Med ; 42(1): 1-9, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204893

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease that develops in genetically susceptible individuals in response to environmental factors. SLE and primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) share some clinical manifestations in that certain PIDs present with autoimmune phenomena. Patients with SLE become susceptible to infection via three pathways. First, SLE and PID share some genetic factors, such as complement and mannose-binding lectin genes, which predispose patients to infection. Second, patients with SLE have an inherently high risk of infection because of their intrinsic immunological abnormalities induced by SLE. Third, patients with SLE receiving immunosuppressive treatment are at high risk of infection. Further studies delineating the abnormalities related to both autoimmunity and immunodeficiency would be warranted to identify a new potential drug target for SLE.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Risco
16.
Plant Sci ; 285: 132-140, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203877

RESUMO

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc)- responsive soluble and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids (HAs) and flavonoids accumulation in relation to hormonal changes in two Brassica napus cultivars contrasting disease susceptibility were interpreted with regard to the disease resistance. At 14-day post inoculation with Xcc, disease resistance in cv. Capitol was distinguished by an accumulation of specific (HAs) and flavonoids particularly in cell-wall bound form, and was characterized by higher endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) resulting in a decrease of JA-based balance with other hormones, as well as enhanced expression of JA signaling that was concurrently based on upregulation of PAP1 (production of anthocyanin pigment 1), MYB transcription factor, and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed higher amounts of esterified phenolic acids in cv. Capitol. These results indicate that enhanced JA levels and signaling in resistant cultivar was associated with a higher accumulation of HAs and flavonoids, particularly in the cell wall-bound form, and vice versa in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Mosa) with enhanced SA-, ABA-, and CK- levels and signaling. Thus the JA-mediated phenolic metabolites accumulation is an important feature for the management and breeding program to develop disease-resistant B. napus cultivar.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/imunologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Xanthomonas campestris , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1033-1035, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155112

RESUMO

This issue's of Views and Reviews considers the origins of lifetime health established around the time of conception in some prevalent conditions related to infertility. Reviews will look at the effects of advanced paternal and maternal age, the influence of the severe sperm factor, and the impact of some endocrinopathies commonly seen in infertile couples, especially women, like polycystic ovary syndrome, under- and overweight, diabetes, and thyroid disorders. The aim of this Views and Reviews section is to summarize current evidence on the consequences of these conditions on postnatal health to encourage research in this field and the need to develop strategies and preventative measures to reduce or prevent unfavorable outcomes in future generations.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Fertilidade , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Saúde Materna , Idade Paterna , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1036-1046, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155113

RESUMO

This review summarizes the impact of parental age on children's health outcomes beyond the perinatal period. In the last decades, delayed parenthood with both men and women has become a public health issue. For women, in particular, the size of this delay is substantial. For a few medical conditions, older parental age has a pronounced effect on child morbidity. For most other outcomes, a more modest effect is evident. Although these effects might be limited on an individual level, they have a substantial impact at the level of population health.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Idade Materna , Idade Paterna , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1076-1091, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155115

RESUMO

Fetal programming may influence childhood and adult life, determining the risk of specific diseases. During earlier stages of pregnancy, the transfer of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus is vital for adequate neurologic development. The presence of severe maternal thyroid dysfunction, particularly severe iodine deficiency, is devastating, leading to irreversible neurologic sequelae. Moreover, mild maternal thyroid conditions, such as a mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, may also lead to milder neurologic and behavioral conditions later during the life of the offspring. Maternal dysglycemia due to pregestational or gestational diabetes mellitus is another common situation in which fetal development encounters a hostile environment. Hyperglycemia in utero may trigger metabolic conditions in the offspring, including abnormalities of glucose tolerance and weight excess. Physicians assisting pregnant women have to be aware about these conditions, because they may go unnoticed if not properly screened. Because an early diagnosis and appropriate management may prevent most of the possible negative consequences for the progeny, the prevention, early diagnosis, and proper management of these endocrine conditions should be offered to all women undergoing pregnancy. Here, we comprehensively review the current evidence about the effects of maternal thyroid dysfunction and maternal dysglycemia on the cognitive function and carbohydrate metabolism in the offspring, two prevalent conditions of utmost importance for the child's health and development.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Gestacional , Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
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