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1.
Womens Health Issues ; 29(1): 38-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preventive measures have greatly decreased the national burden of cervical cancer, racial/ethnic and geographic disparities remain, including the disproportionate incidence and mortality among African American women in the Mississippi Delta. Along with structural barriers, health perceptions and cultural beliefs influence participation in cervical screening. This study examined perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer among African American women in the Delta across three groups: 1) women attending screening appointments (screened), 2) women attending colposcopy clinic following an abnormal Papanicolaou test (colposcopy), and 3) women with no screening in 3 years or longer (unscreened/underscreened). METHODS: Data were collected during a study assessing the feasibility/acceptability of self-collected sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a cervical screening modality. A questionnaire assessed demographics, health care access, and cervical cancer knowledge and beliefs (including perceived susceptibility). Participants were asked, "Do you think you are at risk for cervical cancer?", and responses included yes, no, and I don't know. Multinomial logistic regression models compared variables associated with answers among each group. RESULTS: Of 524 participants, one-half did not know if they were at risk of cervical cancer (50%) or HPV exposure (53%). Between the unscreened/underscreened (n = 160), screened (n = 198), and colposcopy (n = 166) groups, age (p < .001), education (p = .02), and perceived risk of HPV exposure (p < .01) differed. Older age and younger age at first intercourse (unscreened/underscreened), family history and screening recommendations (screened), and family history and perceived risk of HPV exposure (colposcopy) were associated with perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer exist between African American women in the Delta. Understanding these variations can help in developing strategies to promote screening among this population with a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/etnologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi/etnologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia
2.
J Diabetes Complications ; 31(12): 1658-1662, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919328

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the association of connecting peptide (C-peptide) and the risks of postpartum diabetes and pre-diabetes among women with prior gestational diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1263 women with prior gestational diabetes was carried out at 1-5years after delivery in Tianjin, China. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations of C-peptide and the risks of diabetes and pre-diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios based on different levels of C-peptide (0-33%, 34-66%, 67-90%, and >90% as C-peptide cutpoints) were 1.00, 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-4.39), 2.49 (95% CI 1.06-5.87), and 3.88 (95% CI 1.35-11.1) for diabetes (P for trend <0.0001), and 1.00, 1.66 (95% CI 1.18-2.36), 2.38 (95% CI 1.56-3.62) and 2.35 (95% CI 1.27-4.37) for pre-diabetes (P for trend <0.0001), respectively. Restricted cubic splines models showed a positive linear association of C-peptide as a continuous variable with the risks of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. The positive association was significant when stratified by healthy weight and overweight participants. CONCLUSIONS: We found a positive association between serum C-peptide levels and the risks of diabetes and pre-diabetes among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes. Our finding suggested that elevated C-peptide levels may be a predictor of diabetes and pre-diabetes.


Assuntos
Peptídeo C/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Risco
3.
Psychol Trauma ; 9(3): 317-324, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether racial disparities in depression were present after Hurricane Katrina. METHOD: Data were gathered from 932 New Orleans residents who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and who returned to New Orleans the following year. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated racial differences in screening positive for depression (a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and explored whether differential vulnerability (prehurricane physical and mental health functioning and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support moderated and/or reduced the association of race with depression. RESULTS: A univariate logistic regression analysis showed the odds for screening positive for depression were 86% higher for African Americans than for Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86 [1.28-2.71], p = .0012). However, after controlling simultaneously for sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors, race was no longer a significant correlate for screening positive for depression (OR = 1.54 [0.95-2.48], p = .0771). CONCLUSIONS: The racial disparity in postdisaster depression seems to be confounded by sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors. Nonetheless, even after adjusting for these factors, there was a nonsignificant trend effect for race, which could suggest race played an important role in depression outcomes following Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively, using stronger assessments for depression, and incorporate measures for discrimination and segregation, to further understand possible racial disparities in depression after Hurricane Katrina. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Desastres , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Orleans , Pobreza/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrition ; 33: 216-224, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. METHODS: We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. RESULTS: Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed.


Assuntos
Culinária , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Contaminação de Alimentos , Saúde da População Urbana , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Dieta/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Índia/etnologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Paquistão/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/etnologia , Ácidos Graxos Trans/análise , Ácidos Graxos Trans/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Trans/toxicidade , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia
5.
Pediatrics ; 138(5)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Examine racial/ethnic differences in smoking susceptibility among US youth nonsmokers over time and age. METHODS: We used nationally representative samples of youths who never tried cigarettes (N = 143 917; age, 9-21, mean, 14.01 years) from National Youth Tobacco Survey, 1999 to 2014. We used time-varying effect modeling to examine nonlinear trends in smoking susceptibility adjusted for demographics, living with smokers, and exposure to tobacco advertising. RESULTS: Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), Hispanics were more susceptible to smoking from 1999 to 2014 (highest adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67 in 2012). Non-Hispanic blacks were less susceptible to smoking than NHWs from 2000 to 2009 (lowest aOR, 0.80 in 2003-2005). Non-Hispanic Asian Americans were less susceptible to smoking from 2000 to 2009 (aOR, 0.83), after which they did not differ from NHWs. Other non-Hispanics were more susceptible to smoking than NHWs from 2012 to 2014 (highest aOR, 1.40 in 2014). Compared with NHWs, non-Hispanic blacks and other non-Hispanics were more susceptible to smoking at ages 11 to 13 (highest aOR, 1.22 at age 11.5 ) and 12 to 14 (highest aOR, 1.27 at age 12 ), respectively. Hispanics were more susceptible to smoking throughout adolescence peaking at age 12 (aOR, 1.60) and age 16.5 (aOR, 1.46). Non-Hispanic Asian Americans were less susceptible to smoking at ages 11 to 15 (lowest aOR, 0.76 at ages 11-13 ). CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic disparities in smoking susceptibility persisted over time among US youth nonsmokers, especially at ages 11 to 13 . Interventions to combat smoking susceptibility are needed.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fumar/etnologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 55(4): 390-401, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27399037

RESUMO

This study aimed to delineate the relationship between childhood traumas and adulthood obesity. A total of 314 individuals (157 obese and 157 nonobese) were recruited in the study. After obtaining anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was administered to the participants. Overall scores of CTQ were determined to be 42.6 ± 10.5 (higher trauma) in obese group and 37.2 ± 6.6 (lower trauma) in nonobese group (P < 0.001). Frequency rates of childhood traumatic experience were found to be 68.8% for obese people and 38.8% for nonobese people. In conclusion, an increased risk for adulthood obesity development was significantly associated with childhood traumatic experience.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Desastres , Obesidade/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Vítimas de Desastres/psicologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Divórcio/etnologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etnologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 5(1): 41, 2016 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large numbers of Latin American immigrants recently arrived in Western Europe. Curative and preventive programmes need to take account of their risk of suffering and transmitting imported chronic infections and of their susceptibility to cosmopolitan infections. We aimed to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of imported chronic infections among Latin American immigrants, and their susceptibility to highly prevalent cosmopolitan infections. METHODS: Adult participants were recruited in the community and in a primary health centre in Geneva in 2008. Serological tests were performed on stored sera for HIV, HBV, syphilis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trypanosoma cruzi, varicella and measles. We considered only chronic active infections in the analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The 1 012 participants, aged 37.2 (SD 11.3) years, were mostly female (82.5 %) and Bolivians (48 %). Overall, 209 (20.7 %) had at least one and 27 (2.7 %) two or more chronic infections. T. cruzi (12.8 %) and S. stercoralis (8.4 %) were the most prevalent chronic active infections compared to syphilis (0.4 %), HBV (0.4 %) and HIV (1.4 %). Concomitant infections affected 28.2 and 18.5 % of T. cruzi and S. stercoralis infected cases. Bolivian origin (aOR: 13.6; 95 % CI: 3.2-57.9) was associated with risk of multiple infections. Susceptibilities for VZV and measles were 0.7 and 1.4 %, respectively. Latin American immigrants are at risk of complications and possible reactivation of chronic parasitic infections but have overall low risks of chronic viral and syphilitic active infections. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic screening for chronic active parasitic infections is therefore necessary especially among Bolivians. The high protection rate against measles and VZV doesn't require specific preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/etnologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/patogenicidade , Sarampo/etnologia , Adulto , Animais , Bolívia/etnologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/etnologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 3065493, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27022606

RESUMO

Current understanding of cancer genomes is mainly "gene centric." However, GWAS have identified some nongenic breast cancer susceptibility loci. Validation studies showed inconsistent results among different populations. To further explore this inconsistency and to investigate associations by intrinsic subtype (Luminal-A, Luminal-B, ER-&PR-&HER2+, and triple negative) among Southern Han Chinese women, we genotyped five nongenic polymorphisms (2q35: rs13387042, 5p12: rs981782 and rs4415084, and 8q24: rs1562430 and rs13281615) using MassARRAY IPLEX platform in 609 patients and 882 controls. Significant associations with breast cancer were observed for rs13387042 and rs4415084 with OR (95% CI) per-allele 1.29 (1.00-1.66) and 0.83 (0.71-0.97), respectively. In subtype specific analysis, rs13387042 (per-allele adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.00-1.87) and rs4415084 (per-allele adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.00) showed slightly significant association with Luminal-A subtype; however, only rs13387042 was associated with ER-&PR-&HER2+ tumors (per-allele adjusted OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00-2.40), and none of them were linked to Luminal-B and triple negative subtype. Collectively, nongenic SNPs were heterogeneous according to the intrinsic subtype. Further studies with larger datasets along with intrinsic subtype categorization should explore and confirm the role of these variants in increasing breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo Genético , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , China/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Age Ageing ; 45(3): 360-5, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to examine the associations of two common CRP gene polymorphisms with CRP levels, frailty and co-morbidity in an elderly Chinese population. DESIGN: a population-based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: we obtained data on 1,723 elderly participants aged 70-84 from the ageing arm of the Rugao Longevity and Ageing study (RuLAS), a population-based observational cohort study conducted in Rugao, Jiangsu province, China. MEASUREMENTS: the genotyping of two common CRP gene polymorphisms (rs1205 and rs3093059) was performed. Items concerning the frailty index and co-morbidity were collected. RESULTS: the mean age of the study population was 75.3 ± 3.9 years, and 53.5% (n = 922) were women. The minor allele frequencies of rs1205 and rs3093059 were 42.4% (C allele) and 16.9% (C allele), respectively. The polymorphisms rs1205 and rs3093059 were significantly associated with CRP levels (ß = 0.113 and 0.222, all P < 0.001). Non-significant association between rs1205 and rs3093059 and frailty, as well as between rs3093059 and co-morbidity was observed. However, SNP rs1205 CC genotype had an increased odds of co-morbidity compared with the TT genotype (odds ratio (OR):1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.02). Each additional copy of the C allele of SNP rs1205 was associated with 1.23 times (95% CI: 1.07-1.41) odds of co-morbidity. The significance remained after controlling for covariates such as education level, etc. CONCLUSIONS: among elderly Chinese individuals, two CRP gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with CRP levels. However, none of them was associated with frailty. The preliminary findings warrant further validations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 40(2): 239-44, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: South Asians are a high-risk group for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. We sought to determine ethnic differences in newborn adiposity comparing South Asians (SA) to White Caucasians (Whites). METHODS: Seven hundred ninety pregnant women (401 SA, 389 Whites) and their full-term offspring from two birth cohorts in Canada were analyzed. Pregnant women completed a health assessment including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess for dysglycemia. Birthweight, length, waist and hip circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (a surrogate measure of body adiposity) were measured in all newborns. Multivariate regression was used to identify maternal factors associated with newborn skinfold measurements. RESULTS: South Asian women were younger (30.1 vs 31.8 years, P<0.001), their prepregnancy body mass index was lower (23.7 vs 26.2, P<0.0001) and gestational diabetes was substantially higher (21% vs 13%, P=0.005) compared with Whites. Among full-term newborns, South Asians had lower birthweight (3283 vs 3517 g, P=0.0001), had greater skinfold thickness (11.7 vs 10.6 mm; P=0.0001) and higher waist circumference (31.1 vs 29.9 cm, P=0.0001) compared with Whites. Risk factors for newborn skinfold thickness included South Asian ethnicity (standardized estimate (s.e.): 0.24; P<0.0001), maternal glucose (s.e.: 0.079; P=0.04) and maternal body fat (s.e.: 0.14; P=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: South Asian newborns are lower birthweight and have greater skinfold thickness, compared with White newborns, and this is influenced by maternal body fat and glucose. Interventions aimed at reducing body fat prior to pregnancy and gestational diabetes during pregnancy in South Asians may favorably alter newborn body composition and require evaluation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gestantes/etnologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Canadá/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etnologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
11.
J Headache Pain ; 16: 553, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26231841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of the genotype and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms rs4379368, rs10504861, rs10915437, rs12134493 and rs13208321 in She people of China with migraine headache susceptibility. The five alleles were previously identified as being associated with migraine in a Western population, but it was not known if this association would hold in a She population. rs4379368 is in the succinic HMG coenzyme A transferase (C7orf10) gene; rs10504861 is near the matrix metallopeptidase 16 (MMP16) gene; rs10915437 is near the adherens junctions associated protein 1 (AJAP1) gene; rs12134493 is upstream of the tetraspanin 2 (TSPAN2) gene; and rs13208321 is within the four and a half LIM domains protein 5 (FHL5) gene. METHODS: This was a case-controlled study conducted in She people of Fujian province in China. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of the different genotypes of each SNP with migraine. RESULTS: The rs4379368 T allele was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and was more common than the C allele in subjects with migraine (58.7 %; P = 0.049), possibly suggesting a selection bias for T allele in this population. In support of this, the CT and TT genotypes were more frequent in the migraine compared with the control groups (54.0 % and 31.7 % vs. 48.0 % and 28.7 %, respectively; P = 0.019). These genotypes were also more common in females with migraines than females without migraines (53.8 % and 30.9 % vs. 46.7 % and 27.6 %; P = 0.026). Univariate and multivariate analyses found the CC genotype of rs4379368 and AA or AG genotype of rs13208321 were associated with a reduced risk of migraine (P values ≤0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that rs4379368 and rs13208321 are potential genetic markers for migraine in this She population. The findings of this study and others indicate important differences between ethnic populations in regard to genetic markers of migraine susceptibility.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etnologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
12.
J Affect Disord ; 180: 170-8, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25913803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Learning more about how biological traits, like temperament and sensitivity in the behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS) systems, relate to mood pathology is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria initiative׳s goal of investigating mechanisms of risk. METHOD: Korean young adults (n=128) and American young adults (n=630, of whom 23 has recent treatment for bipolar disorder, and 21for depression) completed self-report questionnaires, including the TEMPS-A, the BIS/BAS scales, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hypomanic Checklist (HCL-32). Linear regression quantified relations between mood symptoms, sample characteristics, temperament, and BIS/BAS. RESULTS: Temperament styles explained 49% of the variance in BDI scores. BIS explained an additional 1% of the variance in BDI scores. BAS Fun and Reward (p<.01), in addition to cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments (p<.001) explained 21% of the variance in HCL-32 scores. Sample characteristics were not significant predictors in the full model. LIMITATIONS: Differences in sample size, the cross-sectional study design, and lack of collateral report or behavioral measures of constructs are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperament and BIS/BAS are complementary but distinct constructs. Affective temperament, particularly cyclothymic, may represent a stronger diathesis for mood pathology, and seems potent irrespective of culture or diagnosis. Assessing temperament may help overcome some challenges in diagnosing mood disorders.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/etnologia , Personalidade , Temperamento , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/classificação , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Diabetes Complications ; 29(4): 534-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784087

RESUMO

AIMS: Determine if parental diabetes (DM) is associated with unhealthier cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles in youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and whether associations differed by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Family history was available for 382 youth with T2D from 2001 prevalent and 2002-2005 incident SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohorts. Parental DM was evaluated in two ways: two-category-any parent vs. no parent DM (evaluated overall and stratified by race/ethnicity); and four-category-both parents, mother only, father only, or no parent DM (evaluated overall only). Associations with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) were examined using regression models. RESULTS: Overall, sample characteristics included: 35.9% male, 19.1% non-Hispanic white (NHW), mean T2D duration 26.6±22.2months, mean HbA1c 7.9%±2.5% (62.6±27.8mmol/mol). Unadjusted two-category comparisons showed that youth with parental DM had higher HbA1c, higher DBP, and higher frequency of elevated ACR. Adjusted two-category comparisons showed associations remaining in non-stratified analysis for ACR [OR (95% CI)=2.3 (1.1, 5.0)] and in NHW youth for HbA1c [6.8%±0.4 vs. 8.0±0.4 (51.1±4.8 vs. 63.9±4.2mmol/mol), p=.015], DBP (67.7%±4.5 vs. 76.9±4.4mm Hg, p=.014) and lnTG (4.7±0.3 vs. 5.3±0.3, p=.008). There were no significant findings in the adjusted four-category evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Parental history of diabetes may be associated with unhealthier CVD risk factors in youth with T2D.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Angiopatias Diabéticas , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
Acta Trop ; 146: 152-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25820030

RESUMO

There are many fundamental aspects of the immunobiology of Plasmodium falciparum infections that are not fully understood, therefore limiting our comprehension of how people become immune to malaria and why some ethnic groups living in malaria endemic areas are less susceptible than others. The complexity of parasite-host interactions and the genetic diversity of the parasites as well as the human host complicate our strategy to address this issue. In this mini-review we discuss and summarize what we have learned about African ethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria from immuno-epidemiological studies. Additionally, we suggest research topics that might be of great value for dissecting the mechanisms of protection by providing new insights into molecular interactions between the parasite and the host.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Malária Falciparum/etnologia , Malária Falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Variação Genética , Humanos
16.
Eur Respir Rev ; 23(134): 439-49, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25445942

RESUMO

Past epidemiological observations and recent molecular studies suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are closely related diseases, resulting from overlapping genetic susceptibility and exposure to aero-pollutants, primarily cigarette smoke. Statistics from the American Lung Association and American Cancer Society reveal that mortality from COPD and lung cancer are lowest in Hispanic subjects and generally highest in African American subjects, with mortality in non-Hispanic white subjects and Asian subjects in between. This observation, described as the "Hispanic paradox", persists after adjusting for confounding variables, notably smoking exposure and sociodemographic factors. While differences in genetic predisposition might underlie this observation, differences in diet remain a possible explanation. Such a hypothesis is supported by the observation that a diet high in fruit and vegetables has been shown to confer a protective effect on both COPD and lung cancer. In this article, we hypothesise that a diet rich in legumes may explain, in part, the Hispanic paradox, given the traditionally high consumption of legumes (beans and lentils) by Hispanic subjects. Legumes are very high in fibre and have recently been shown to attenuate systemic inflammation significantly, which has previously been linked to susceptibility to COPD and lung cancer in large prospective studies. A similar protective effect could be attributed to the consumption of soy products (from soybeans) in Asian subjects, for whom a lower incidence of COPD and lung cancer has also been reported. This hypothesis requires confirmation in cohort studies and randomised control trials, where the effects of diet on outcomes can be carefully examined in a prospective study design.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Fabaceae , Hispano-Americanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Americanos Asiáticos/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 12(2): 110-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24325736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of metabolic risk factors-i.e., elevated plasma triglyceride (TG), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated blood pressure, and raised plasma glucose-convey increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study was carried out to determine the association of waist girth, ethnicity, and gender with susceptibility for metabolic risk. Included were 1671 adult women (50.7% black) and 1339 men (46.5% black) enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study. Subjects were stratified into three categories by waist girth-low, intermediate, and high, corresponding to BMI ranges of <25 kg/m(2), 25-29.9 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2). RESULTS: Risk factor prevalence rose progressively through each waist-girth category. However, even among those with high waist-girth, prevalence of three or more risk factors was less than 50%. Several differences among the ethnic groups were noted; for example, Hispanic men had a higher prevalence of elevated TG compared to whites; black men, on the other hand, had a lower frequency of high TG. There were also fewer black men with low HDL-C than in the other groups. Black and Hispanic men had a higher prevalence of elevated glucose and updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) than whites. More black men had elevated blood pressure than other groups. These differences were less pronounced among ethnic groups of women. CONCLUSION: Although ethnic and gender differences in risk factor prevalence may exist, it is notable that the majority of subjects, even when obese, did not have elevated risk factors. This finding points to the need to focus largely on subjects with metabolic risk factors when implementing therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura/etnologia
18.
SADJ ; 69(6): 272-4, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548202

RESUMO

There is ongoing debate as to whether persons of different racial/ethnic groups are biologically significantly different, and, if such differences exist, whether they are relevant in relation to disease susceptibility and to treatment outcomes. There is also debate about the benefits of using race/ethnicity as a factor in clinical decision making, and as a variable in biomedical or public health research, because of the emotional sensitivities attached to race/ethnic categorisation. Such categorisation may also divert attention from underlying issues such as socioeconomic status and lack of access to modern health care. In this short article we will discuss these controversies, and will emphasize the importance of responsible and sensitive use of race/ethnicity as a variable in biomedical research and in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Doença/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Preconceito/etnologia , Classe Social , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Psychosom Med ; 75(8): 751-8, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23960161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of stress on effectors of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) system including the endogenous inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). METHODS: Black (n = 168) and white (n = 206) South African teachers were exposed to a mental and a physical stressor for 1 minute, respectively. Serum samples for determination of l-arginine, NO metabolites, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were obtained at rest and during stress exposure. Perception of task stressfulness was assessed on a 7-point Likert scale, and psychological distress was estimated by the General Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: Black South Africans exhibited higher resting levels of NO metabolites (adjusted mean [standard error of the mean] = 11.3 [1.3] versus 3.9 [1.1] µmol/l, p < .001) but lower circulating ADMA (0.62 [0.02] versus 0.70 [0.02] µmol/l, p = .004) and SDMA (0.41 [0.01] versus 0.53 [0.01] µmol/l, p < .001) than did white South Africans. Ethnicity-by-psychological distress interaction was observed for resting levels of ADMA (p = .002), SDMA (p = .038), and L-arginine (p = .048). Ethnic differences in responses to experimental stress were evident for NO metabolites (blacks versus whites: 5.94 [1.55] versus -0.74 [1.25] µmol/l, p = .004) and SDMA (blacks versus whites: -0.02 [0.01] versus 0.02 [0.01] µmol/l, p = .004). Ethnicity-by-psychological distress interaction for stress responses was found for l-arginine/ADMA ratio (p = .027). CONCLUSIONS: The l-arginine/NO system is affected by psychosocial distress with higher susceptibility in black South Africans. This interaction may contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease risk in black South Africans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Arginina/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Descanso/fisiologia , África do Sul , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Teste de Stroop
20.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 65(6): 928-35, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23281251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee and hip among African Americans and whites. METHODS: Using the joint as the unit of analysis, we analyzed data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, a population-based prospective cohort study in rural North Carolina. Baseline and followup assessments were 3-13 years apart. Assessments included standard knee and hip radiographs read for Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) radiographic grade. Weighted analyses controlled for age, sex, body mass index, level of education, and baseline K/L grade; bootstrap methods adjusted for lack of independence between left and right joints. Time-to-event analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: For radiographic knee OA, being African American had no association with incidence (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj ] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.53-1.22), but had a positive association with progression (HRadj 1.67, 95% CI 1.05-2.67). For radiographic hip OA, African Americans had a significantly lower incidence (HRadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71), whereas the association with progression was positive but nonsignificant (HRadj 1.46, 95% CI 0.53-4.01). In sensitivity analyses, the association with hip OA incidence was robust to a wide range of assumptions. CONCLUSION: African Americans are protected against incident hip OA, but may be more susceptible to progressive knee OA.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etnologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etnologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Fatores de Risco
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