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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125397, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479996

RESUMO

Branched polyethyleneimine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (BPEIGn) was prepared by a one-step reaction, catalyzed by NaOH, using branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) and graphene oxide (GO) without reductant hydrazine hydrate or sodium borohydride. The branched polyethylenimine acted as both a grafting agent and a reducing agent of GO. An competitive electrochemical immunosensor based on the Au/sodium mercaptopropanesulfonate/BPEIGn/gold nanoparticles/melamine (Au/MPS/BPEIGn/AuNPs/Mel) modified electrode was constructed for the determination of melamine. The double amplification of BPEIGn and AuNPs increased the sensitivity of the sensor. The melamine was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) containing K3(Fe(CN)6]/K4[Fe(CN)6]. Under optimized conditions, the proposed melamine immunosensor showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 1 × 10-6 to 1 µM, with a detection limit of 2.66 × 10-7 µM.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Triazinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Polietilenoimina/química
2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125378, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450176

RESUMO

This work introduces an inexpensive and user-friendly electrochemical platform for heavy metal determination in liquid food. Smart-phone connectivity, solid-state-microwave flow digestion and nano-Au-modified electrode are synchronously studied. A smart phone is adopted as the information terminal for universal purposes. A solid-state-microwave digestion device is developed to provide programmable digestion for liquid food in a digestion path. Microwave power curve and flow rate in digestion are studied and optimized. A nano-Au-modified electrode, as well as a homemade potentiostat and other electrodes, is used as a tool for electrochemical analyses. Behaviors of this method are evaluated with electrical measurement and stripping voltammetry. This method is used for sensing Cd2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ in cow milk, orange juice and apple juice. It provides a sensitive response to ≥2 µg L-1 target ion, and shows satisfying stability and good accuracy in a task up to 72 h.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Smartphone , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Bovinos , Eletrodos , Feminino , Ouro/química , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Micro-Ondas
3.
Food Chem ; 303: 125374, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473457

RESUMO

The application of a novel Pb2+ selective sensor based on the ionic imprinted polymer in determining trace levels of lead in natural water and in fruit juice was investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The new and selective magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@SiO2@IIP) was synthesized using 2-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole and 4-vinyl pyridine as a ligand and functional monomer, respectively. The new polymer was utilized for modifying a GCE to generate a new electrochemical sensor. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was utilized for optimizing the parameters influencing the peak current. Extremely suitable voltammetric performance was demonstrated for the electrochemical detection of lead with a low detection limit (0.05 ng mL-1), over a wide linear concentration range (0.1-80 ng mL-1). This modified electrode as a novel sensor was utilized for determining Pb(II) ions in natural water and in fruit juice with very reasonable outcomes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Chumbo/análise , Polímeros/química , Cátions Bivalentes , Eletrodos , Compostos de Ferro/química , Chumbo/química , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo , Dióxido de Silício/química
4.
Food Chem ; 303: 125375, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476527

RESUMO

Urea is well-known to offer tremendous scope for sensing/diagnosing such as adulteration in dairy products or diseases in human body. This study was organized to describe and validate a new mediator-free, unsophisticated, and direct current voltage (IV)-based sensor for facile detection of urea using nanocomposites made of urease-immobilized graphene nanoplatelets and graphitized nanodiamonds. This nanocomposite displayed sensitive and direct signal in the form of current at 0 V without the need of any complex chemical reaction. This platform was highly sensitive (limit of detection of 5 µg/mL) far superior to the comparable systems introduced recently. The incorporation of graphitized nanodiamonds within the graphene nanoplatelets layers helped improve the sensitivity by a factor of three (up to 806.3 µA (mg mL-1)-1 cm-2) with 20 s response time. As such, the use of this nanocomposite was helpful in improving sensing performances with enhanced enzyme loading capacity.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Ureia/análise , Grafite/química , Nanodiamantes/química
5.
J Chem Phys ; 151(14): 144712, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615232

RESUMO

Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is a promising technique for low concentration molecular detection. To improve the detection limit, plasmonic nanoparticles have been proposed as signal boosting antennas to amplify ECL. Previous ensemble studies have hinted that spectral overlap between the nanoparticle antenna and the ECL emitter may play a role in signal enhancement. Ensemble spectroscopy, however, cannot resolve heterogeneities arising from colloidal nanoparticle size and shape distributions, leading to an incomplete picture of the impact of spectral overlap. Here, we isolate the effect of nanoparticle-emitter spectral overlap for a model ECL system, coreaction of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(ii) hexahydrate and tripropylamine, at the single-particle level while minimizing other factors influencing ECL intensities. We found a 10-fold enhancement of ECL among 952 gold nanoparticles. This signal enhancement is attributed exclusively to spectral overlap between the nanoparticle and the emitter. Our study provides new mechanistic insight into plasmonic enhancement of ECL, creating opportunities for low concentration ECL sensing.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Propilaminas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Ouro/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Organometálicos/efeitos da radiação
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111655, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655456

RESUMO

Textile effluent is often difficult to manage as it contains a high concentration of toxic and recalcitrant synthetic dyes. In this study, congo Red and textile effluent were treated by electrochemical oxidation using RuO2-IrO2 coated titanium electrode as an anode followed by biodecolorization using Pseudomonas stutzeri MN1 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3. Effluent pre-treatment is often necessary to minimize the inhibitory effects of textile dyes on dye degrading bacterial during bio-treatment. The pre-treatment of Congo Red by electrochemical oxidation for 10 min resulted in a decolorization rate of 98% at a pH, NaCl concentration, and current density of 7, 2 g L-1, and 20 mA cm-2. Subsequent bio-treatment of the pretreated Congo Red enhanced the biodegradation to 93%. The COD removal efficiency in real textile effluent following electrochemical pretreatment and biological treatment using bacterial consortium were 3.8% and 93%, respectively. Therefore, integrating electrochemical oxidation and microbial consortia offers an effective and environmentally friendly approach for treating complex industrial effluents.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Vermelho Congo/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Têxteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acinetobacter/fisiologia , Compostos Azo/química , Vermelho Congo/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Irídio/química , Oxirredução , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Titânio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(83): 12479-12482, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566643

RESUMO

The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) from europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) was reported for the first time using K2S2O8 as an efficient cathodic co-reactant, and an ultrasensitive ECL aptasensor based on the system for the detection of thrombin has been formulated successfully.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Európio/química , Hidróxidos/química , Medições Luminescentes , Nanotubos/química , Trombina/análise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Trombina/metabolismo
8.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(6): 29, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605243

RESUMO

Sustainable and high performance energy devices such as solar cells, fuel cells, metal-air batteries, as well as alternative energy conversion and storage systems have been considered as promising technologies to meet the ever-growing demands for clean energy. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a crucial process for cost-effective hydrogen production; however, functional electrocatalysts are potentially desirable to expedite reaction kinetics and supply high energy density. Thus, the development of inexpensive and catalytically active electrocatalysts is one of the most significant and challenging issues in the field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Realizing that advanced nanomaterials could engender many advantageous chemical and physical properties over a wide scale, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the preparation of earth-abundant transition metals as electrocatalysts for HER in both acidic and alkaline environments because of their low processing costs, reasonable catalytic activities, and chemical stability. Among all transition metal-based catalysts, nickel compounds are the most widely investigated, and have exhibited pioneering performances in various electrochemical reactions. Heterostructured nickel phosphide (NixPy) based compounds were introduced as promising candidates of a new category, which often display chemical and electronic characteristics that are distinct from those of non-precious metals counterparts, hence providing an opportunity to construct new catalysts with an improved activity and stability. As a result, the library of NixPy catalysts has been enriched very rapidly, with the possibility of fine-tuning their surface adsorption properties through synergistic coupling with nearby elements or dopants as the basis of future practical implementation. The current review distils recent advancements in NixPy compounds/hybrids and their application for HER, with a robust emphasis on breakthroughs in composition refinement. Future perspectives for modulating the HER activity of NixPy compounds/hybrids, and the challenges that need to be overcome before their practical use in sustainable hydrogen production are also discussed.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Níquel/química , Água/química , Catálise , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Nanoestruturas/química , Elementos de Transição/química
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(83): 12463-12466, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576854

RESUMO

Herein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor is proposed for the quantification of the Flu A virus biomarker DNA (fDNA), and is based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification-generated hydrogen ions (LAMP-H+) which induce the formation of the dimer i-motif structure (DiMS) for signal transduction, coupled with exonuclease III (ExoIII)-assisted DNA walking for signal dual-amplification.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA Viral/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Vírus da Influenza A/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prótons , Biomarcadores/análise , Dimerização , Íons/química
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(86): 12980-12983, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603440

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-κB p50) induces various biological processes. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of NF-κB p50 has been developed, which combines the high selectivity of the proximity hybridization assay (PHA) with the high efficiency of the hybridization chain reaction (HCR).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/análise , DNA/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(87): 13082-13084, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608901

RESUMO

Herein, a photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully constructed on the basis of a sensitization strategy of doxorubicin sensitized graphitic carbon nitride for the ultrasensitive detection of microRNA-141 with the assistance of a target-activated enzyme-free DNA walker.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Grafite/química , MicroRNAs/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Processos Fotoquímicos
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(44): 24572-24583, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663551

RESUMO

In this work, poly(N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer films were polymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with a facile one-step method, and Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) and tetraphenylethene (TPE) were synchronously embedded in the films, designated as P(DMA-co-NIPA)/AuNCs/TPE. Ferrocene dicarboxylic acid (FDA), an electroactive probe in solution displayed inverse pH- and SO42--sensitive on-off cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors at the film electrodes. The electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) mediated by FDA in solution could substantially amplify the CV response difference between the on and off states. Moreover, the two fluorescence emission (FL) signals from the TPE constituent at 450 nm and AuNCs component at 660 nm in the films also demonstrated SO42-- and pH-sensitive behaviors. Based on the aforementioned results, a 4-input/9-output biomolecular logic circuit was constructed with pH, Na2SO4, FDA and NADH as the inputs, and the CV signals and the FL responses at 450 and 660 nm at different levels as the outputs. Additionally, some functional non-Boolean devices were elaborately designed on an identical platform, including a 1-to-2 decoder, a 2-to-1 encoder, a 1-to-2 demultiplexer and different types of keypad locks. This work combines copolymer films, bioelectrocatalysis, and fluorescence together so that more complicated biocomputing systems could be established. This work may pave a new way to develop advanced and sophisticated biocomputing logic circuits and functional devices in the future.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , NAD/química , Polímeros/química , Estilbenos/química , Benzoatos/química , Eletrodos , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Ouro/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Sulfatos/química
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(91): 13729-13732, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661085

RESUMO

A "signal-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was developed for ultrasensitive detection of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) based on a Ti3C2/BiVO4 Schottky junction, which was a novel sensitized structure with excellent photovoltaic performance, prominent film-forming ability and stability. The generation of a built-in electric field by the Ti3C2/BiVO4 Schottky junction efficiently suppressed the combination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhanced the photocurrent, providing a high initial photocurrent signal for the construction of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Bismuto/química , Titânio/química , Vanadatos/química , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Limite de Detecção , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565143

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a great scarcity of literature in Pakistan investigating the proportion of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) who meet the recommended kidney diseases outcome quality initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), calcium phosphorus product (Ca x P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Our study aimed to determine frequencies of patients who met the K/DOQI targets for these minerals at a tertiary care hospital's dialysis unit. Methods: 111 ESRD patients on maintenance HD were selected from a tertiary care hospital. Serum Ca and P were assayed on chemistry analyser. PTH was measured through electrochemiluminescence sandwich method. Data were compared with K/DOQI targets and analysed using SPSS-21. Results: The mean age of patients was 55.85 years (SD ± 13.95). Gender distribution was almost equal with 49.5% males and 50.5% females. The patients had mean corrected serum Calcium 9.12 ± 0.64 mg/dL, Phosphorus 4.57 ± 1.54 mg/dL and Parathyroid hormone 333.8 ± 278.4 pg/mL. The patients had achieved K/DOQI target ranges of Ca, P, PTH, Ca x P product and all 4 criteria in 63.1%, 47.6%, 38.7%, 84.7% and 10.8% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of patients on maintenance HD at our institution did not achieve the recommended K/DOQI target ranges. Further studies pertaining to the Asian subcontinent will prove resourceful for comparison of mineral metabolism and dialysis outcome of ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Feminino , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1189-1196, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561310

RESUMO

A high oxygen evolution potential (2.6V) and conductivity of Ti/TiO2 NTs/Ta2O5-PbO2 anode was fabricated by mixed metal oxide. A well-aligned TiO2 nanotubes was successfully prepared by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as the electrolyte. The surface structure of anodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the electrochemical degradation experiments, the effects of different anodes, current density, initial pH value and concentration were discussed. The results showed that co-doped Ta2O5 coating is an effective method to improve the surface morphology and the electrochemical characterization of Ti/TiO2 NTs/PbO2. At the initial pH value of 3 and current density of 12 mA cm-2, the removal rates of Acid Orange 7 and total organic carbon with Ti/TiO2 NTs/Ta2O5-PbO2 anode were almost 100% and 98.3%. Comparing with Ti/PbO2 anode at the same charge consumption (3 A h L-1), the instantaneous current efficiency of the Ti/TiO2 NTs/Ta2O5-PbO2 anode and Ti/TiO2 NTs/PbO2 anode increased by 40.0% and 27.1%, respectively. The highest rate of k.OH on Ti/TiO2 NTs/Ta2O5-PbO2 anode was 12.4 µmol (L min)-1. The organic dyes are oxidized into CO2 and H2O by .OH radical. The reaction process and mechanism during the electrochemical degradation were discussed.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Titânio/química , Compostos Azo , Benzenossulfonatos , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(39): 21875-21881, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553031

RESUMO

Controlled modification of the semiconductor surface work function is of fundamental importance for improvements in the efficiency of (opto-)electronic devices. Binding amino acids to a semiconductor surface through their common carboxylic group offers a versatile tool for modulation of surface properties by the choice of their side chain. This approach is demonstrated here by tailoring the surface work function of indium tin oxide, one of the most abundant transparent electrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. We find that the work function can be systematically tuned by the side chain of the amino acid, resulting in either an increase or a decrease of the work function, over a large range of ∼250 meV. This side chain effect is mostly due to alteration of the dipole component perpendicular to the surface, with a generally smaller contribution for changes in surface band bending. These findings also shed light on electronic interactions at the interface between proteins and semiconductors, which are of importance for future bio-electronic devices.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Compostos de Estanho/química , Adsorção , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Modelos Químicos , Conformação Molecular , Semicondutores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11551-11554, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490470

RESUMO

A novel ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-electrochemical (EC) hybrid biosensor with a high accuracy and reproducibility was fabricated for the ultrasensitive detection of miRNA-133a. With the help of a DNA tetrahedron nanostructure and hybridization chain reaction dual amplification strategy, the detection limit of 12.17 aM for miRNA-133a was obtained.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA/química , MicroRNAs/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , 2,2'-Dipiridil/análogos & derivados , 2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes , Azul de Metileno/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Compostos Organometálicos/química
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(80): 12040-12043, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531449

RESUMO

A visible light-induced self-powered sensor for the detection of tyrosinase activity was proposed. A tyrosinase-responsive photoelectrochemical-chemical redox cycling strategy was integrated with a photofuel cell for signal amplification.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Bismuto/química , Catálise , Catecóis/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Hemina/química , Luz , Nitrilos/química , Oxirredução , Fosfinas/química , Sulfetos/química
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 365-376, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537773

RESUMO

At different calcination conditions, titanium-based manganese oxides (MnOx) electrodes were fabricated by spraying method without adhesive. The MnOx/Ti electrodes were applied in electrochemical oxidation of wastewater treatment for the first time. The surface morphologies of electrodes were tested by scanning electron microscopy. The formation of different manganese oxidation states on electrodes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes have been performed by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The characterizations revealed that the MnOx/Ti-350(20) electrode, prepared at calcination temperature of 350 °C for 20 min, exhibited fewer cracks on the electrode surface, larger electrochemically effective surface area and lower charge transfer resistance than electrodes prepared at other calcination conditions. Moreover, Acid Red B was used as target pollutant to test the electrode activity via monitoring the concentration changes by UV spectrophotometer. The results showed that the MnOx/Ti-350(20) electrode presented the best performance on decolorization of Acid Red B with the lowest cell potential during the process of electrochemical oxidation, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion was 50.7%. Furthermore, the changes of Acid Red B during the electrochemical oxidation process were proposed by the UV-vis spectra.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Naftalenossulfonatos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Oxirredução , Titânio
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