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1.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(2): 33-41, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046629

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es comparar in vitro el grado de microfiltración marginal en incrustaciones de cerámica inyectada realizadas con dos cementos resinosos duales autoadhesivos seT PP (SDI) y RelyX U200 (3M ESPE). Se evaluaron 40 premolares superiores e inferiores extraídos por motivos ortodónticos y se dividieron en dos grupos según cemento asignado (n = 20). Luego, se realizó la preparación de cavidades tipo clase II, de aproximadamente 3 mm de ancho en la caja oclusal y proximal; y 2 mm de espesor en el piso gingival y la pared oclusal. Se restauraron de manera indirecta con restauraciones inyectadas de cerámica IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent), se cementaron con los cementos estudiados según las especificaciones del fabricante. Los especímenes fueron guardados en un frasco y llevados a termociclado; luego, se realizaron cortes transversales a las coronas y se evaluó el grado de microfiltración por medio de un estereoscopio. Al comparar la microfiltración entre el cemento seT PP y RelyX U200, se concluyó que no existe una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el grado de microfiltración y el tipo de cemento (prueba de Chi-cuadrado de Pearson; p > 0,05) y al observar el grado de microfiltración del seT PP y el RelyX U200 en la cementación de incrustaciones cerámicas inyectadas IPS e.max Press. En conclusión, no se hallaron diferencias significativas entre los dos cementos resinosos autoadhesivos. En ambos prevaleció la no microfiltración; sin embargo, para seT PP, la microfiltración fue del 17,5% en 1/3 de la pared cervical. (AU)


Objective: To compare in vitro the degree of marginal microleakage in injected embedded ceramics cemented with two self-adhesive dual resin cements: seT PP (SDI) and RelyX U200 (3M ESPE). Materials and methods: 40 upper and lower premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were evaluated and divided into two groups according to the cement assigned (n = 20). The preparation of class II cavities was approximately 3 mm wide in occlusal and proximal boxes and 2 mm thick on the gingival floor and the occlusal wall. They were indirectly restored with restorations injected with IPS e.max Press ceramic (Ivoclar Vivadent), cemented with one of the study cements following the manufacturer's specifications. The samples were stored in a bottle and thermocycled. Cross sections of the crowns were then made, and the degree of microleakage was evaluated by stereoscopy. Results: There was no statistically significant association between the degree of microleakage and the type of cement used (Pearson's Chisquare Test; p> 0.05) or the degree of microfiltration of seT PP and RelyX U200 in IPS e.max Press-injected ceramic cementation. No microleakage prevailed with both cements; however, seT PP showed 17.5% microleakage in 1/3 of the cervical wall. Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between the two self-adhesive resinous cements in relation to microleakage. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Micropeneiramento , Cerâmica , Cimentos de Resina , Técnicas In Vitro
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5933-5942, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a significant pathological feature in head and neck cancer. The molecular mechanisms of PNI are poorly understood. Contrary to the previous belief that cancer cells invade nerves, recent studies have shown that Schwann cells (SC) can dedifferentiate, intercalate between cancer cells, and promote cancer dispersion. Communication between cells through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activation of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TRKB) may contribute to these cellular events. We aimed to determine the effect of TRKB inhibitor ANA-12 on the direction of cell migration and degree of SC-induced oral cancer cell dispersion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell migration and dispersion assays were performed in vitro using murine SC and oral carcinoma cell lines. Assays were performed with and without ANA-12. RESULTS: Although SCs preferentially migrated towards cancer cells in control medium, there was minimal SC-associated cancer cell dispersion. In contrast, treatment with ANA-12 reduced migration of SCs and cancer cells towards each other and initiated more SC-associated cancer cell dispersion. CONCLUSION: This pilot study shows that BDNF-TRKB signaling may have a role in regulating interactions between SC and oral cancer cells that affect cell migration, intercalation, and cancer cell dispersion. Further research into these interactions may provide important clues about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of PNI.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Células de Schwann/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5973-5982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Lenvatinib is a potent inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1-3), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-4), KIT, and RET. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of lenvatinib in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and two combined hepatocellular/cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were treated with 0-30 µM lenvatinib. Cell growth, apoptosis and the expression of FGFR1-4, FGF19, fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate (FRS)2α and RET were examined. Two HCC cell lines were subcutaneously implanted on nude mice and mice were treated with 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day of lenvatinib or vehicle for 14 consecutive days. Tumor volume was measured every 3 days. Mice were sacrificed on day 15 and tumors were processed for histological examination. Blood vessels, microvessel density, necrosis, and apoptosis were also examined. RESULTS: Lenvatinib dose- and time-dependently inhibited growth of all cell lines; however, sensitivity to lenvatinib varied. Apoptosis was not observed in any cell line, and expression of FGFR1, -2, -3 and -4, FGF19, FRS2α, and RET were observed in these cell lines. Cell lines with high expression of these factors showed higher response to lenvatinib. In mice, lenvatinib dose-dependently suppressed tumor growth. Blood vessels and microvessel density were significantly reduced and the rate of necrosis was significantly increased by lenvatinib; apoptosis was not observed. CONCLUSION: Antiproliferative effects of lenvatinib on liver cancer cells were observed in vitro and in vivo. Lenvatinib may suppress tumor formation by inhibiting angiogenesis, and via an additional direct antiproliferative effect in some liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6041-6047, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously reported that alternate-day S-1 had comparable effects and milder adverse events than the respective consecutive-day regimen in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of both regimens and underlying mechanisms in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were treated with 5-FU given on an alternate-day or consecutive-day schedule. The relative inhibition (RI) of tumor growth was calculated. Cell cycle distributions and cyclin expression following 5-FU treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: The RI of both regimens was almost identical. The percentage of cells in S phase was significantly increased in the alternate-day group compared to the consecutive-day group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The cytotoxic effect of alternate-day was equivalent to that of consecutive-day. S-phase arrest was more prominently observed with the alternate-day regimen, which may help maintain 5-FU sensitivity in head and neck cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6049-6055, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: For patients undergoing cancer surgery, the risk for cancer progression is enhanced during the perioperative period. To what extent the type of anesthetic can affect the metastatic process and finally the outcome of patients with cancer is under debate. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and desflurane on colon cancer cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SW480 colon carcinoma cells were exposed for 3 or 6 h to sevoflurane (1 or 2.5 vol%) or desflurane (6 or 12 vol%). Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry after a 24-72 h recovery and apoptosis was detected by annexin V staining after a 0-48 h recovery. Viability was tested by measuring ATP content after 0 and 24 h recovery. RESULTS: Treatment with sevoflurane or desflurane caused no or only slight changes in cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis rate. Desflurane at 12vol% significantly reduced cell viability by 17±25% and 11±22% after 3 and 6 h incubation and 24 h recovery, respectively, while 2.5 vol% sevoflurane slightly increased viability. CONCLUSION: At clinically relevant concentrations, sevoflurane and desflurane had only slight effects on SW480 colon cancer cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Desflurano/farmacologia , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 865-876, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the effect of postoperative analgesics on oncological outcomes after cancer surgery. We investigated the impact of tramadol after breast cancer surgery on recurrence and mortality and explored the mechanism by which tramadol affects cultured breast cancer cells in vitro. METHODS: Electronic medical records of patients who underwent breast cancer surgery between November 2005 and December 2010 at Severance Hospital in Korea were reviewed. Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors related to postoperative recurrence and mortality. We performed the sensitivity test with propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias. In addition, we investigated the effects of tramadol on human breast adenocarcinoma (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 [MCF-7]) cells via assessment of cell viability, clonogenic assay, and cell cycle analysis in vitro. RESULTS: Of 2588 breast cancer patients, 36.4% had received tramadol. Those who received tramadol had a 0.71-fold decreased risk of recurrence and a 0.56-fold decrease in mortality. The MCF-7 cell viability assays showed that tramadol had an anti-proliferative effect by cell cycle arrest, suppressing colony formation, and regulation of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Tramadol induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinases by decreasing of 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2B receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: After breast cancer surgery, patients who received tramadol had a decreased risk of postoperative recurrence and mortality. The anti-tumour effect of tramadol appears to involve inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and effects on 5-HT2B receptor and TRPV-1.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tramadol/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/cirurgia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células MCF-7 , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(11): 2637-2647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Malignant ascites (MA) is a common manifestation in advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and usually indicates a poor prognosis. However, lack of in vitro models that can faithfully recapitulate the characteristics of tumour cells in ascites hinders related researches. Tumour organoids have emerged as a robust in vitro model for tumour research and drug screening. Hence, we aimed to generate a 3-D in vitro organoid cultures from malignant ascites of gastric cancer for disease modelling and drug screening. METHODS: Eleven MADOs were generated from the MA tumour cells of gastric cancer patients. We made comparisons between MADOs and original MA tumour cells in histopathology by immunohistochemistry and genomics by whole-exome sequencing. In order to evaluate MADOs as functional in vitro disease models, we tested whether MADOs could be used for drug sensitivity screens. RESULTS: Eleven MADO cultures from human gastric cancer were established. MADOs demonstrated divergent growth characteristics and morphologies. MADO cultures preserve the histological architecture, genomic landscape of the corresponding MA tumour cells. MADOs exhibited heterogeneous responses to standard-of-care chemotherapeutics. CONCLUSIONS: We generated MADOs modelling characteristics and mutated genes of MA tumour cells. A broad range of intrinsic MADO response to conventional chemotherapeutics suggests MADOs are amenable to drug screening.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ascite/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 257-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599542

RESUMO

Protozoa, such as Trichomonas tenax, Entamoeba gingivalis and Leishmania braziliensis, may be present in the mouth but their role in the pathophysiology of oral diseases is not clear yet. The use of various types of mouthrinses plays an important role in maintaining proper oral hygiene and in removing some of the microbial components from the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selected mouthrinses on the reference strains of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis which can be a part of the oral cavity microbiota. Two standard strains Trichomonas tenax (ATCC 30207) and Entamoeba gingivalis (ATCC 30927) were used and metronidazole as a drug used in the treatment of infections caused by protozoa as well as fourteen agents used as mouthwashes were tested, with two pure compounds acting as mouthrinse ingredients, i.e. 20% benzocaine and 0.2% chlorhexidine, as well as 12 commercially-available formulas: Azulan, Colgate Plax Complete Care Sensitive, Corsodyl 0.2%, Curasept ADS 205, Dentosept, Dentosept A, Eludril Classic, Listerine Total Care, Octenidol, Oral-B Pro-Expert Clinic Line, Sylveco and Tinctura salviae. The protozoonicidal activity of the preparations was evaluated on the basis of the ratio of dead to living ratios after incubation in an incubator (37°C) for 1, 10 and 30 min. Protozoa were counted in the Bürker chamber in each case up to 100 cells in an optical microscope (over 400×). The criterion for the death of protozoa was the lack of movement and changes in the shape and characteristics of cell disintegration. The curves of activity were obtained after experiments conducted for 5­7 different solutions of each preparation. On the basis of the curves, the solution killing 50% of the population (CL50) was calculated. All mouthrinses tested in this work in their undiluted form acted lethally on both protozoa. Benzocaine, used as a local anesthetic, has etiotropic properties which can be useful for supporting antiprotozoal treatment. Chlorhexidine confirmed its high efficiency in the eradication of potentially pathogenic protozoa. The use of mouthrinses is an important complement for other procedures intended to maintain correct oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Entamoeba , Antissépticos Bucais , Trichomonas , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Entamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Dose Letal Mediana , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Trichomonas/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 35-46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576538

RESUMO

We have characterized two highly tumorigenic and metastatic basal B TNBC cell lines, XtMCF and LmMCF, with the additional values of having the normal and early-stage counterparts of them. This model allows the study of the evolution of TNBC, and investigates molecular pathways at different stages of transformation and progression in a relatively constant genetic background. This constitutes an ideal model for developing targeted therapy in two important fields in cancer biology which are the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC).


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas
11.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(8): 682-688, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638564

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of cytokine induced killer (CIK) and natural killer (NK) cells derived from human peripheral blood on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer in vitro. Methods The MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were infected with lentivirus containing red fluorescent protein (RFP) and luciferase (Luc) genes. The expression of RFP and Luc genes were detected by florescence microscopy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the patients to induce the information of dendritic cells (DCs), CIK and NK cells. Then DCs and CIK cells were co-cultured to induce the formation of DC-CIK cells. The amplification effect and the immunophenotypes of immune cells were detected by flow cytometry. And then the cytotoxicity of immune cells DC-CIK, CIK and NK cells on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were analyzed at different effector-target ratios. Results he effects of DC-CIK, NK and CIK cells on MDA-MB-231 tumor cells increased with the increase of effector-target ratio and the extension of action time. After co-culture of 72 hours, the killing rate of immune cells on target cells reached more than 90%. Conclusion CIK, DC-CIK and NK cells amplified in vitro have apoptosis effects on breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas , Células Matadoras Naturais , Neoplasias da Mama , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1186: 33-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654385

RESUMO

The advent of stem cell technology, including the technology to induce pluripotency in somatic cells, and direct differentiation of stem cells into specific somatic cell types, has created an exciting new field of scientific research. Much of the work with pluripotent stem (PS) cells has been focused on the exploration and exploitation of their potential as cells/tissue replacement therapies for personalized medicine. However, PS and stem cell-derived somatic cells are also proving to be valuable tools to study disease pathology and tissue-specific responses to injury. High-throughput drug screening assays using tissue-specific injury models have the potential to identify specific and effective treatments that will promote wound healing. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE) are well characterized cells that exhibit the phenotype and functions of in vivo RPE. In addition to their role as a source of cells to replace damaged or diseased RPE, iPS-RPE provide a robust platform for in vitro drug screening to identify novel therapeutics to promote healing and repair of ocular tissues after injury. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is an abnormal wound healing process that occurs after retinal tears or detachments. In this chapter, the role of iPS-RPE in the development of an in vitro model of PVR is described. Comprehensive analyses of the iPS-RPE response to injury suggests that these cells provide a physiologically relevant tool to investigate the cellular mechanisms of the three phases of PVR pathology: migration, proliferation, and contraction. This in vitro model will provide valuable information regarding cellular wound healing responses specific to RPE and enable the identification of effective therapeutics.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa/patologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 203-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571166

RESUMO

Transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs. In recent years, various in vitro, in situ/ex vivo, and in vivo methods have been established for studying transporter function and drug-transporter interaction. In this chapter, the major types of in vitro models for drug transport studies comprise membrane-based assays, cell-based assays (such as primary cell cultures, immortalized cell lines), and transporter-transfected cell lines with single transporters or multiple transporters. In situ/ex vivo models comprise isolated and perfused organs or tissues. In vivo models comprise transporter gene knockout models, natural mutant animal models, and humanized animal models. This chapter would be focused on the methods for the study of drug transporters in vitro, in situ/ex vivo, and in vivo. The applications, advantages, or limitations of each model and emerging technologies are also mentioned in this chapter.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Projetos de Pesquisa , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
14.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(11): 975-984, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619082

RESUMO

Objectives: Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator licensed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a potentially fatal complication of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This study investigated the inhibitory potency of selected antiretroviral regimens on the metabolic clearance of riociguat.Methods: The inhibitory potential of the components of six antiretroviral combinations (ATRIPLA® (efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil), COMPLERA® (rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil), STRIBILD® (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil), TRIUMEQ® (abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine), and two ritonavir-boosted regimens) on riociguat metabolism were evaluated in recombinant human CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 as well as in human hepatocytes exhibiting both CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 activity. In vitro-in vivo correlation was performed between calculated and observed increases in riociguat exposure in vivo.Results: Using both in vitro systems, the predicted increase in exposure of riociguat was highest with components of TRIUMEQ® followed by COMPLERA®, ATRIPLA®, STRIBILD®, and the ritonavir-boosted regimens. Further experiments in human hepatocytes confirmed CYP1A1 to be the predominant enzyme in the metabolic clearance of riociguat.Conclusion: Antiretroviral treatment containing the potent CYP1A1 inhibitor abacavir had the greatest impact on riociguat metabolic clearance. The impact of comedications containing only strong CYP3A4 inhibitors e.g. ritonavir was less pronounced, suggesting a benefit of riociguat over PAH-targeting medications with contraindications for use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Ativadores de Enzimas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Ativadores de Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1433-1444, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038654

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Rolipram during the maturation of bovine oocytes and gene expression of embryos produced in vitro. Bovine ovaries were collected in slaughterhouse. The COCs were selected and divided into 5 groups: Control 0 time; Control: IVM for 24 hours; Rolipram treatments with IVM blocking for 24 hours in maturation medium containing (100, 150 and 200µM). After 24 hours all groups were reseated in IVM for another 24 hours. Subsequently COCs were subjected to the same IVM system and fertilized, being checked for cleavage post fertilization and for blastocyst. In addition, performed expression of the following genes: Mater, BMP15 and Bax. No difference was found in gene expression. Of oocytes evaluated shortly after follicular aspiration, 79.00% were in GV, GVBD, MI, while 13.40%, were in MII and 7.60%, D/NI. Significant difference was observed in different concentrations (T100, T200 and T150µM) in oocytes that have reached the MII phase compared to control treatments (P= 0.003). Differences were observed in cleavage rate (P< 0.05) between T150 and T200 when compared to the C/24 Group. A high difference was observed on blastocyst rate (P< 0.001) among treatments compared to the control group.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do rolipram durante a maturação de oócitos bovinos, expressão gênica e embriões produzidos in vitro. Os ovários bovinos foram coletados no matadouro. Os COCs foram selecionados e divididos em cinco grupos: controle 0 tempo; controle: MIV por 24 horas; tratamentos rolipram com bloqueio MIV por 24 horas em meio de maturação contendo 100, 150 e 200µM. Após 24 horas, todos os grupos foram recolocados em MIV por mais 24 horas. Subsequentemente COCs foram submetidos ao mesmo sistema MIV e fertilizados, sendo avaliada a taxa de clivagem e de blastocisto, além da expressão dos seguintes genes: Mater, BMP15 e Bax. Nenhuma diferença foi observada na expressão gênica. Dos oócitos avaliados logo após a aspiração folicular, 79,0% estavam em GV, GVBD, MI, enquanto 13,40% estavam em MII, e 7,60% em D/NI. A diferença significativa foi observada em diferentes concentrações (T100, T200 e T150µM) em oócitos que atingiram a fase MII em comparação aos tratamentos de controle (P=0,3). Diferenças foram observadas nas taxas de clivagem (P<0,5) entre T150 e T200 quando comparadas com as taxas do grupo C/24. Uma grande diferença foi observada na taxa de blastocisto (P<0,1) entre os tratamentos em relação ao grupo controle.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rolipram/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1445-1452, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038672

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on survival and diameter of bovine preantral ovarian follicles (PAOF) cultured in vitro. Ovaries were collected from adult cows and fragments of ovarian cortex were immediately fixed (non-cultured control) or cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ alone or containing 10, 50, 100 or 1,000ng/mL rbST. The fragments were processed for Classical Histology and Transmission Electron Microscopy. After one and seven days of culture, the percentage of normal follicles in the non-cultured control was superior (P< 0.05) to the follicles cultured in α-MEM+ alone or with different rbST concentrations. The oocyte and follicular mean diameter did not increase during the culture for one and seven days, both in media containing rbST and in the medium without this hormone. The only medium in which there was no reduction in follicular diameter with the time of culture was the medium without rbST. Ultrastructural damage in PAOF cultured in vitro was found. It is concluded that the use of rbST at different concentrations in in situ culture of bovine preantral follicles has no beneficial effects on survival and growth of bovine PAOF.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbST) sobre a sobrevivência e o diâmetro de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais (FOPA) bovinos cultivados in vitro. Ovários foram coletados de vacas adultas e fragmentos do córtex ovariano foram imediatamente fixados (controle não cultivado) ou cultivados in vitro em α-MEM + sozinho ou contendo 10, 50, 100 ou 1.000ng/mL de rbST. Os fragmentos foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Após um e sete dias de cultivo, o percentual de folículos normais no controle não cultivado foi superior (P<0,05) aos cultivados em α-MEM + sozinho ou acrescido de diferentes concentrações de rbST. Os diâmetros médios oocitário e folicular não aumentaram durante o cultivo por um e sete dias, tanto nos meios contendo rbST, como no meio sem esse hormônio (α-MEM + ). O único meio em que não houve redução no diâmetro folicular com o tempo de cultivo foi o sem rbST. Verificaram-se ainda danos ultraestruturais em FOPA cultivados in vitro. Conclui-se que o uso de rbST em diferentes concentrações no cultivo in situ de folículos pré-antrais bovinos não tem efeitos benéficos na sobrevivência e no crescimento de FOPA bovinos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/embriologia , Hormônio do Crescimento , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1745-1749, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038677

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a capacidade de estafilococos não aureus (NAS) isolados de diferentes nichos ecológicos (leite, ambiente e ápice do teto), associados a vacas leiteiras, de inibir os principais agentes etiológicos da mastite bovina (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis e Escherichia coli). Neste estudo, 38 isolados NAS de diferentes nichos ecológicos foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de inibir o crescimento in vitro de importantes patógenos causadores de mastite pelo método cross-streaking. No total, 19 (50%) isolados de NAS (oito isolados de S. chromogenes, 10 de S. fleurettii e um de S. haemolyticus) apresentaram inibição contra os principais patógenos causadores de mastite. No entanto, a inibição dos patógenos causadores da mastite bovina por isolados de NAS foi maior contra bactérias Gram-positivas. Além disso, o presente estudo não sugeriu que os nichos ecológicos influenciam a capacidade do NAS de inibir os principais patógenos causadores da mastite bovina. Com base nesses resultados, concluiu-se que certos isolados de NAS apresentam potencial efeito protetor contra os principais patógenos da mastite, pelo menos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Staphylococcus , Mastite Bovina/etiologia , Mastite Bovina/patologia , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos
18.
Life Sci ; 235: 116827, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effective of azoles and MTX for patients with invasive candidiasis. METHODS: We used the disk diffusion assay and the checkerboard assay to evaluate the in vitro interactions between MTX and antifungals. In addition, we used the transmission electron microscopy to observe the ultrastructure of the effect of MTX and fluconazole on Candida albicans. RESULTS: The rates of synergy for the combination of MTX with fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), and voriconazole (VRZ) were 91.3%, 65.2%, and 87% in checkerboard testing. No antagonism was found between methotrexate and azole antifungals in any of the strains. Furthermore, MTX treated C. albicans showed extensive cell wall vacuolations and the inhibition of blastospores growth, as observed using transmission electron microscopy. There was an apparent destruction of the cell membrane and cell wall resulting in the destruction of cytoplasm, a phenomenon observed when MTX was combined with azoles. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the combination of azoles and MTX is effective for patients with invasive candidiasis, which on the other hand, will reduce the side effects of the drugs.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gástrula/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
19.
Plant Dis ; 103(11): 2733-2741, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483183

RESUMO

Brown root rot (BRR), caused by the white rot fungus Phellinus noxius, is an epidemic disease of diverse broadleaved and coniferous tree species in many tropical and subtropical regions. Flooding and trenching control measures are difficult to implement, and chemical controls can have an adverse impact on ecosystems. Previous studies have provided in vitro evidence for the potential use of Trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of BRR. Here, we analyzed the in vitro antagonistic and mycoparasitic abilities of four Trichoderma spp. isolates against four P. noxius isolates in dual culture and Ficus microcarpa wood blocks. A convenient inoculation system based on root inoculation of a highly susceptible loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) with P. noxius-colonized wheat-oat grains was developed to examine the effect of Trichoderma treatment in planta. Preventive application of Trichoderma asperellum TA, the isolate showing high antagonistic activity in vitro, was effective in preventing and delaying the wilting of P. noxius-inoculated loquat cuttings in greenhouse trials. To understand the specific niche in which T. asperellum TA interacts with P. noxius, KOH-aniline blue fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the colonization of loquat roots by P. noxius and/or T. asperellum TA. Dilution plating assays were also conducted to quantify Trichoderma populations in the rhizosphere and potting mix. T. asperellum TA was able to robustly establish in the rhizosphere and potting mix but with scarce root penetration limited to the superficial layer. We discuss the timing and strategy for applying antagonistic Trichodema sp. on living trees or in BRR-infested areas for BRR management.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Basidiomycota , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Doenças das Plantas , Árvores , Trichoderma , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Técnicas In Vitro , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Árvores/microbiologia , Trichoderma/fisiologia
20.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 601-609, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noble gases may provide novel treatments for neurological injuries such as ischaemic and traumatic brain injury. Few studies have evaluated the complete series of noble gases under identical conditions in the same model. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of hypoxia-ischaemia to evaluate the neuroprotective properties of the series of noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Organotypic hippocampal brain slices from mice were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation, and injury was quantified using propidium iodide fluorescence. RESULTS: Both xenon and argon were equally effective neuroprotectants, with 0.5 atm of xenon or argon reducing injury by 96% (P<0.0001), whereas helium, neon, and krypton were devoid of any protective effect. Neuroprotection by xenon, but not argon, was reversed by elevated glycine. CONCLUSIONS: Xenon and argon are equally effective as neuroprotectants against hypoxia-ischaemia in vitro, with both gases preventing injury development. Although xenon's neuroprotective effect may be mediated by inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor at the glycine site, argon acts via a different mechanism. These findings may have important implications for their clinical use as neuroprotectants.


Assuntos
Argônio/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Xenônio/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos
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