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2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(44): 1877-1883, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130604

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés és célkituzés: A peritonsillaris tályog a leggyakoribb mély nyaki infekció. Olyan fül-orr-gégészeti kórkép, amely megfelelo kezelés nélkül életveszélyes szövodményekkel járhat. Dönto jelentoségu az empirikus antibiotikumválasztás, melyhez ismerni kell a leggyakoribb kórokozókat és a várható rezisztenciát. Módszerek: A 2012 és 2017 között peritonsillaris tályog miatt kezelt esetek retrospektív feldolgozását végeztük. Összesítettük a sebészi beavatkozás során vett minták aerob és anaerob irányú tenyésztési eredményeit, valamint az empirikusan választott antibiotikumokat. A rutinszeru mikrobiológiai tenyésztés alapján meghatároztuk a leggyakoribb kórokozókat. Az adatokat nemzetközi felmérések eredményeivel hasonlítottuk össze. Eredmények: A vizsgált 6 év során 217 esetben kezeltünk peritonsillaris tályogos beteget. A tenyésztési eredményeket csak 146 esetben tudtuk elemezni. Ebbol 47 esetben került sor Fusobacterium species (ebbol 25 esetben Fusobacterium necrophorum), 31 esetben Actinomyces species és 29 esetben Streptococcus pyogenes izolálására. Az esetek kétharmadában vegyes aerob/anaerob baktériumflórát izolált a laboratórium. Következtetés: A tályogok kezelésében önmagában a sebészi beavatkozás - az anaerob környezet megszüntetésével - jelentos klinikai javulást eredményez. A jól választott antibiotikum meggyorsíthatja a lefolyást, és csökkentheti az esetleges szövodményeket. Nagy jelentosége van a megfelelo mikrobiológiai mintavételnek, nem vagy nehezen gyógyuló esetekben ez teremtheti meg a célzott antibiotikumterápiára történo váltás lehetoségét. Felmérésünk alapján a peritonsillaris tályogok jelentos részét vegyes baktériumflóra okozza, így a szájüregi anaerob baktériumokra is ható amoxicillin-klavulánsav vagy antibiotikum kombinációjának (2. vagy 3. generációs cefalosporinok kombinálva klindamicinnel vagy metronidazollal) alkalmazása javasolt mint empirikus antibiotikumterápia. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1877-1883. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep neck infection. Without adequate treatment, this otolaryngological disease pattern can cause life-threatening complications. The empirical choice of antibiotics is crucial which requires knowledge of the most common pathogens and the potential resistance. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of cases treated for peritonsillar abscess was performed between 2012 and 2017. We summarized the aerobic and anaerobic culture results of the surgical samples and the empirically selected antibiotics. The most common pathogens were determined via routine microbiological culture tests. We compared our data with the results of international studies. RESULTS: During the 6-year study at our Clinic, 217 patients with peritonsillar abscess were treated. The microbiological tests were available for analysis in only 146 cases. In 47 cases, Fusobacterium species (including 25 cases with Fusobacterium necrophorum), in 31 cases Actinomyces species and in 29 cases Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated. In 2/3 of the patients, polymicrobial infection was detected. CONCLUSION: In the treatment of peritonsillar abscesses, surgical intervention can result in clinical improvement because of the elimination of the anaerobic milieu. A well-chosen antibiotic can accelerate the healing process and reduce the complication rate. Proper microbiological sampling is of great importance, and in cases of non-recovery or poor recovery, this may create the opportunity to switch for targeted antibiotic therapy. The results of this study show that polymicrobial flora is very important for the development of the peritonsillar abscess, thus the recommended antibiotic therapy is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or 2nd/3rd generation cefalosporin combined with metronidazol or clindamycin. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1877-1883.


Assuntos
Abscesso Peritonsilar/microbiologia , Abscesso Peritonsilar/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Clin Lab Med ; 40(4): 459-472, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121615

RESUMO

Endemic species of coronavirus (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract infections. Three highly pathogenic coronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks and epidemics and have challenged clinical microbiology laboratories to quickly develop assays for diagnosis. Their initial characterization was achieved by molecular methods. With the great advance in metagenomic whole-genome sequencing directly from clinical specimens, diagnosis of novel coronaviruses could be quickly implemented into the workflow of managing cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, which will markedly affect the time of the initial characterization and accelerate the initiation of outbreak control measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(11): 1273-1284, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064069

RESUMO

Introduction. Totally implanted venous access ports (TIVAPs) are widely used in patients receiving long-term chemotherapy but may lead to serious complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Diagnosis of CRBSI requires catheter culture, but there is no consensus on microbiological culture methods to be adopted.Aim. To compare three different procedures to recover bacterial cells from colonized catheters and to determine which section of the TIVAP (i.e. tip, septum, reservoir) is the probable source of infection. To investigate the correlation between blood culture results and TIVAP culture in order to get further evidence about the utility of differential time to positivity (DTP) as a diagnostic tool before TIVAP removal.Hypothesis/Gap statement. Comparisons of different diagnostic procedures for catheter culture have been rarely reported for TIVAPs. We hypothesized that the optimization of methods to recover micro-organisms from different parts of TIVAPs may help to decrease the number of false-negative results in the diagnosis of TIVAP-related bloodstream infections.Methodology. A total of 53 TIVAPs removed because of suspected infection (n=36) or end of use (n=17) were evaluated. The reservoir, the septum and the catheter tip were separated and subjected to different treatments for the recovery of adherent micro-organisms: (a) flushing of the catheter lumen, (b) sonication and flushing, (c) treatment with dithiothreitol and flushing. The three methods were also evaluated in an in vitro catheter infection model with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Culture results were compared to those obtained from paired blood cultures drawn from TIVAP and peripheral vein and to the relative DTP.Results. The results obtained demonstrated that vigorous flushing/vortexing of the catheter lumen/septum, allows the recovery of a number of micro-organisms comparable to that of more complex procedures such as sonication or chemical treatment. Among 24 positive TIVAP-cultures, nine were tip-culture negative, whereas the corresponding reservoirs and septa were culture positive. A good correlation was observed between DTP and TIVAP cultures (P<0.001).Conclusions. The results support the evidence that sending the port reservoir in addition to the catheter tip to the microbiology laboratory may increase the sensitivity and the accuracy of CRBSI diagnosis. Moreover, when a TIVAP-related infection is suspected, DTP is a useful diagnostic tool to decide between device removal or a more conservative approach.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Adv Ther ; 37(11): 4538-4548, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944885

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the importance of reducing occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The reprocessing procedure for reusable flexible bronchoscopes (RFBs) involves multiple episodes of handling of equipment that has been used during an aerosol-generating procedure and thus is a potential source of transmission. Single-use flexible bronchoscopes (SUFBs) eliminate this source. Additionally, RFBs pose a risk of nosocomial infection transmission between patients with the identification of human proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and pathogenic organisms on fully reprocessed bronchoscopes despite full adherence to the guidelines. Bronchoscopy units have been hugely impacted by the pandemic with restructuring of pre- and post-operative areas, altered patient protocols and the reassessment of air exchange and cleaning procedures. SUFBs can be incorporated into these protocols as a means of improving occupational safety. Most studies on the efficacy of SUFBs have occurred in an anaesthetic setting so it remains to be seen whether they will perform to an acceptable standard in complex respiratory procedures such as transbronchial biopsies and cryotherapy. Here, we outline their potential uses in a respiratory setting, both during and after the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios/tendências , Broncoscopia/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/tendências , Pandemias
7.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 127-138, jul.-sept. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192314

RESUMO

En este artículo se revisan los aspectos microbiológicos de la infección COVID-19 y se presentan las recomendaciones sobre los análisis que deben realizarse en casos forenses. En primer lugar se analizan las características taxonómicas del virus, su relación con la familia Coronaviridae y su estructura genética. Se presentan brevemente las características clínicas y patológicas de la infección COVID-19, así como las coinfecciones que pueden asociarse a este virus. En el diagnóstico de laboratorio se describen la PCR -técnica de elección en la fase aguda de la infección-, los estudios antigénicos y los estudios serológicos. Finalmente se detallan los principales objetivos para los estudios microbiológicos en fallecidos en relación con la pandemia COVID-19 y se describen los principales análisis microbiológicos post mortem a realizar en fallecidos en el ámbito forense. Los estudios microbiológicos deben estar dirigidos tanto a la detección del SARS-CoV-2 como a la de las coinfecciones, que también podrían contribuir a la causa de muerte


We review the microbiological aspects of COVID-19 infection and present the microbiological studies that should be performed in forensic cases. We describe the taxonomic characteristics of the virus, its relationship with the Coronaviridae family and its genetic structure. We briefly present the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 infection, as well as the co-infections that could be associated with this virus. In the laboratory, PCR is a first-choice technique in the acute phase of the infection, together with antigen and serological studies. Finally, we describe the main objectives of microbiological studies in the deceased in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the main post-mortem microbiological analysis to be carried out in the medico-legal context. The microbiological analysis should aim to detect both SARS-CoV-2 and coinfections, which may also contribute to the cause of death


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Atestado de Óbito/legislação & jurisprudência , Causas de Morte , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866195

RESUMO

Soil microbiota are considered a source of undiscovered bioactive compounds, yet cultivation of most bacteria within a sample remains generally unsuccessful. Two main reasons behind the unculturability of bacteria are the presence of cells in a viable but not culturable state (such as dormant cells) and the failure to provide the necessary growth requirements in vitro (leading to the classification of some bacterial taxa as yet-to-be-cultured). The present work focuses on the development of a single procedure that helps distinguish between both phenomena of unculturability based on viability staining coupled with flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In the selected soil sample, the success rate of cultured bacteria was doubled by selecting viable and metabolically active bacteria. It was determined that most of the uncultured fraction was not dormant or dead but likely required different growth conditions. It was also determined that the staining process introduced changes in the taxonomic composition of the outgrown bacterial biomass, which should be considered for further developments. This research shows the potential of flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting applied to soil samples to improve the success rate of bacterial cultivation by estimating the proportion of dormant and yet-to-be-cultured bacteria and by directly excluding dormant cells from being inoculated into growth media.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Separação Celular/métodos , Meios de Cultura , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008590, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis. A facultative intracellular pathogen, B. pseudomallei can induce multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) leading to plaque formation in vitro. B. pseudomallei can switch colony morphotypes under stress conditions. In addition, different isolates have been reported to have varying virulence in vivo, but genomic evolution and the relationship with plaque formation is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: To gain insights into genetic underpinnings of virulence of B. pseudomallei, we screened plaque formation of 52 clinical isolates and 11 environmental isolates as well as 4 isogenic morphotype isolates of B. pseudomallei strains K96243 (types II and III) and 153 (types II and III) from Thailand in A549 and HeLa cells. All isolates except one environmental strain (A4) and K96243 morphotype II were able to induce plaque formation in both cell lines. Intracellular growth assay and confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated that the two plaque-forming-defective isolates were also impaired in intracellular replication, actin polymerization and MNGC formation in infected cells. Whole genome sequencing analysis and PCR revealed that both isolates had a large genomic loss on the same region in chromosome 2, which included Bim cluster, T3SS-3 and T6SS-5 genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our plaque screening and genomic studies revealed evidence of impairment in plaque formation in environmental isolates of B. pseudomallei that is associated with large genomic loss of genes important for intracellular multiplication and MNGC formation. These findings suggest that the genomic and phenotypic differences of environmental isolates may be associated with clinical infection.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei/genética , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Células Gigantes/microbiologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Células A549 , Adulto , Idoso , Burkholderia pseudomallei/patogenicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Melioidose/microbiologia , Melioidose/patologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13794, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839467

RESUMO

Microalgae possess high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, their open pond cultures are often contaminated by other undesirable organisms, including their predators. In addition, the cost of using freshwater is relatively high, which limits the location and scale of cultivation compared with using seawater. It was previously shown that Cyanidium caldarium and Galdieria sulphuraria, but not Cyanidioschyzon merolae grew in media containing NaCl at a concentration equivalent to seawater. We found that the preculture of C. merolae in the presence of a moderate NaCl concentration enabled the cells to grow in the seawater-based medium. The cultivation of cyanidialean red algae in the seawater-based medium did not require additional pH buffering chemicals. In addition, the combination of seawater and acidic conditions reduced the risk of contamination by other organisms in the nonsterile open culture of C. merolae more efficiently than the acidic condition alone.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rodófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rodófitas/classificação , Rodófitas/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849989

RESUMO

Introduction: the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) relies mainly on conventional techniques. However, it either lacks sensitivity or it is time-consuming. This study aims to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting IS6110 for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Complex (MTBC) in the routine diagnosis of TB in our laboratory. Methods: clinical samples were collected from the laboratory of bacteriology at Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca Morocco. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were compared to AFB smear and culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid media. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using GraphPad Prism. Results: on 171 clinical samples, the study showed positivity of microscopy, culture and real-time PCR for M. TB complex as 19%, 31%, and 32% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for real-time PCR in pulmonary samples were 95.2%, 95.4%, 90.91% and 97.65% respectively. For extra-pulmonary samples, they were: 72.7%, 90.32%, 72.7%, and 90.3%. Conclusion: our study shows the effectiveness of using real-time PCR IS6110 in pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples. Future multicentric studies could seek to evaluate the place of this technique on routine diagnosis for better management of TB in Morocco.


Assuntos
Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Humanos , Marrocos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
12.
APMIS ; 128(10): 552-557, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794590

RESUMO

Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II (BSK-II) and BSK-H media were used for cultivation and isolation of fastidious Borrelia species - the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis. Culture media have a limited shelf life and require adequate storage. Our goal was to assess how the growth of Borrelia would be affected by prolonged storage of media and inadequate storage conditions (BSK-H stored at +4 °C for 2.5 years and BSK-II stored at -20 °C for 11 years). Growth of different Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia valaisiana strains was assessed during 2 weeks of incubation at 33 °C. Monitored parameters included cell count per mL, morphology and motility. The results of this study have shown weaker growth of borrelia strains in BSK-H at +4 °C (median final cell number of 1.5 × 106 /mL) than in BSK-II at -20 °C (median final cell number of 7.75 × 106 /mL) and in fresh BSK-H media (median final cell number of 8.95 × 106 /mL). Duration of storage of media had no impact on Borrelia morphology and motility. Our results indicate that temperature of -20 °C is optimal for long-term storage of medium, BSK-II stored for 11 years provided effective support to growth of Borrelia and may be employed for cultivation.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e207750, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697323

RESUMO

Importance: Administrative databases may offer efficient clinical data collection for studying epidemiology, outcomes, and temporal trends in health care delivery. However, such data have seldom been validated against microbiological laboratory results. Objective: To assess the validity of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) organism-specific administrative codes for pneumonia using microbiological data (test results for blood or respiratory culture, urinary antigen, or polymerase chain reaction) as the criterion standard. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study conducted between February 2017 and June 2019 using data from 178 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database. Patients were aged 18 years or older admitted with pneumonia and discharged between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015. Data were analyzed from February 14, 2017, to June 27, 2019. Exposures: Organism-specific pneumonia identified from ICD-9 codes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ICD-9 codes using microbiological data as the criterion standard. Results: Of 161 529 patients meeting inclusion criteria (mean [SD] age, 69.5 [16.2] years; 51.2% women), 35 759 (22.1%) had an identified pathogen. ICD-9-coded organisms and laboratory findings differed notably: for example, ICD-9 codes identified only 14.2% and 17.3% of patients with laboratory-detected methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Although specificities and negative predictive values exceeded 95% for all codes, sensitivities ranged downward from 95.9% (95% CI, 95.3%-96.5%) for influenza virus to 14.0% (95% CI, 8.8%-20.8%) for parainfluenza virus, and positive predictive values ranged downward from 91.1% (95% CI, 89.5%-92.6%) for Staphylococcus aureus to 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4%-73.7%) for parainfluenza virus. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ICD-9 codes did not reliably capture pneumonia etiology identified by laboratory testing; because of the high specificities of ICD-9 codes, however, administrative data may be useful in identifying risk factors for resistant organisms. The low sensitivities of the diagnosis codes may limit the validity of organism-specific pneumonia prevalence estimates derived from administrative data.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pneumonia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(7): 561-571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Common major pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa are identified in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis. However, other opportunistic bacterial pathogens like Achromobacter xylosoxidans complex, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and non-tuberculous mycobacteria are currently emerging in CF and are also reported in non-CF bronchiectasis. BACKGROUND: The emergence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens has been recognized in CF through annual national reports of sputum microbiology data. Despite common factors driving the emergence of bacteria identified in CF and non-CF bronchiectasis patients, bronchiectasis registries have been created more recently and no longitudinal analysis of recorded microbiological data is currently available in the literature, thereby preventing the recognition of emerging bacteria in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. OUTLOOK: A longitudinal follow-up of microbiological data is still needed in non-CF bronchiectasis to identify emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Homogeneity in practice of sputum microbiological examination is also required to allow comparative analysis of data in CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial pathogens recognized as emerging in CF have to be more carefully monitored in non-CF bronchiectasis in view of their association with deterioration of the lung disease.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/microbiologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Microbiologia/tendências , Fibrose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Bronquiectasia/complicações , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/tendências , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/tendências , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Escarro/microbiologia
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1671-1681, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623963

RESUMO

Infectious diseases still remain one of the biggest challenges for human health. Accurate and early detection of infectious pathogens are crucial for transmission control, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. For a traditional reason, most immunological and microbiological laboratories are equipped with instruments designated for antibody-based assays in detection of infectious pathogens or clinical diagnosis. Emerging aptamer-based technologies have pushed a shift from antibody-based to aptamer-based assays due to equal specificity, even better sensitivity, lower manufacturing cost and more flexibility in amending for chemiluminescent, electrochemical or fluorescent detection in a multifaceted and high throughput fashion in comparison of aptamer-based to antibody-based assays. The nature of aptamer-based technologies is particularly suitable for point-of-care testing in remote areas at warm or hot atmosphere, and mass screening for potential infection in pandemic of emerging infectious agents, such as SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in an epicentre or other regions. This review intends to summarize currently available aptamer-based technologies in detection of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens for research and clinical application. It is anticipated that potential technologies will be further optimized and validated for clinical translation in meeting increasing demands for prompt, precise, and reliable detection of specific pathogens in various atmospheric conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 944-948, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490795

RESUMO

Introduction. Polymicrobial infections including yeasts and bacteria are not rare and patients with polymicrobial bloodstream infection have higher early and overall case fatality rates. The diagnosis of invasive fungal and bacterial infections is mainly based on blood culture.Aim. The aim was to reveal the effect of concomitant bacteraemia on the detection of fungi from blood cultures in the presence of polymicrobial bloodstream infections involving Candida and non-Candida fungi and to show the superiority of blood culture bottles including selective fungal media in such situations.Methodology. Twenty-four polymicrobial bloodstream infection models - involving one fungus and one bacterium - were constituted by using clinical blood culture isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Fusarium solani and Trichosporon asahii). The Plus Aerobic/F (PAF) and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) culture bottles were used with the BACTEC 9240 device. After a bottle signalled positive, direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates were performed.Results. All of fungi that were inoculated alone and in combination were detected by both direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates from MICF bottles, whereas direct microscopic examination only revealed the bacterial agents from PAF bottles including combinations. Furthermore, fungal growth was hidden by bacterial growth on blood agar subcultures from PAF bottles including combinations of F. solani, C. glabrata or T. asahii with bacteria.Conclusion. Blood culture bottles including selective fungal media that can allow selective growth of fungi and earlier detection of some species should be preferred in addition to non-selective blood culture bottles, especially in specific patient populations. Further, the use of selective agar plates such as inhibitory mould agar may contribute to the solution of this problem in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Hemocultura/métodos , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/sangue , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Micoses/sangue , Micoses/diagnóstico
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 35, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499851

RESUMO

Introduction: The sterilization of surgical drapes plays an important role in preventing infections associated with treatments. At the CNHU-HKM, sterilization procedure for drapes encounters problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with the quality of sterilization of surgical drapes at the CNHU-HKM. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study focusing on 20 sterile surgical drapes, 41 agents were involved in the management of drapes and 55 members of the surgical team. The probabilistic method was used for sterile surgical drapes, the non-probabilistic method for the others. Pearson's Chi-square Test and logistic regression were used to find the association, with a significant threshold and a p<0.05. Results: Eighty six point forty six percent of subjects were males with an average age of 42 years. The quality of the process of sterilization of the operative drapes was not good in the two departments responsible for processing the drapes. Bacteriological analysis showed that, out of 20 sterile surgical drapes, 9 had Acinetobacter spp. a multidrug-resistant germ causing nosocomial infections. Multivariate analysis showed that professional experience (p=0.015) and quality control of the procedure (p=0.034) were statistically associated with the quality of sterilization. Conclusion: The presence of Acinetobacter spp. on the sterilized drapes demonstrates that sterilization of drapes at the CNHU-HKM is of poor quality. Measures strengthening the skills of providers are necessary to improve the quality of sterilization procedures.


Assuntos
Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Esterilização/normas , Campos Cirúrgicos/microbiologia , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Esterilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos Cirúrgicos/normas , Campos Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
19.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 330-336, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506499

RESUMO

The deferred antagonism technique has been utilized for several decades for detecting antibiosis activity. Most protocols require the elimination of antibiotic-producing cells by exposing them to chloroform vapour, UV radiation or filter sterilizing the filtrate steps that require additional time and expense to complete. We provide a modified approach to current soft agar overlay practices, which involves addition of antibiotics to the soft agar overlay to inhibit growth of the producer but not the indicator strain. This technique can be used to reproducibly and efficiently screen for antibiotic production with ease. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique with three bacterial systems: inhibition of the bacterial spot of tomato pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, by its pathogenic competitor Xanthomonas perforans; and inhibition of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, by Pantoea vagans C9-1 or Pseudomonas fluorescens A506. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Deferred antagonism assays are used commonly to observe antibiotic production by micro-organisms. Killing or removing the producer cells prior to introduction of the indicator strain is a standard practice but requires additional time and special handling procedures. We evaluated a modification of the assay, where the overlay medium is amended with an antibiotic to which the indicator strain is resistant and the producer strain is sensitive. This modification obviates extra steps to kill the producer strain prior to overlaying with the indicator strain and provides a rapid, consistent and cost-effective method to detect antibiosis.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Erwinia amylovora/fisiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Pantoea/fisiologia , Pseudomonas fluorescens/fisiologia , Xanthomonas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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