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1.
N Z Med J ; 132(1503): 66-74, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581183

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate Maori (Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand) understandings of dementia, its causes, and ways to manage a whanau (extended family) member with dementia. METHOD: We undertook kaupapa Maori research (Maori informed research) with 223 kaumatua (Maori elders) who participated in 17 focus groups across seven study regions throughout Aotearoa New Zealand and eight whanau from the Waikato region. We audio recorded all interviews, transcribed them and then coded and categorised the data into themes. RESULTS: Mate wareware (becoming forgetful and unwell) ('dementia') affects the wairua (spiritual dimension) of Maori. The findings elucidate Maori understandings of the causes of mate wareware, and the role of aroha (love, compassion) and manaakitanga (hospitality, kindness, generosity, support, caring) involved in caregiving for whanau living with mate wareware. Participants perceived cultural activities acted as protective factors that optimised a person's functioning within their whanau and community. CONCLUSION: Whanau are crucial for the care of a kaumatua with mate wareware, along with promoting healthy wairua for all. Whanau urgently need information to assist with their knowledge building and empowerment to meet the needs of a member affected by mate wareware. This requires collaborative healthcare practice and practitioners accessing the necessary matauranga Maori (Maori knowledge) to provide culturally appropriate and comprehensive care for whanau.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Demência , Etnopsicologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Adulto , Idoso , Cultura , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/etnologia , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Incidência , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Psicológicas
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574859

RESUMO

To investigate the cognitive and psychological outcomes of pediatric allogeneic HSCT survivors in China.A total of 135 3 to 18 years old children and adolescents who underwent allo-HSCT and survived at least 3 months post-HSCT were recruited and completed the assessments. Cognitive and psychological functions were assessed via age-appropriate standardized measures. Clinical information was extracted from the medical records.Forty one 3 to 6 years old children completed Psychological Questionnaires for 3 to 6 years Children. The scores of 21(51.2%) children in cognitive development dimension, 18(43.9%) in motor development dimension, 16(39.0%) in language development and social development dimension, 15(36.6%) in emotion and will dimension and 14(34.1%) in living habits dimension were less than the standard. Fifty six 8 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children and 9 (16.1%) of these met the criteria of depression. Sixty nine 7 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the screening for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and 7 (10.1%) of these met the criteria of anxiety, especially social phobia and school phobia. Eighty nine 6 to 18 years old children and adolescents completed the Symptom Checklist-90 and 43.8% to 77.5% of these experienced mild symptoms like obsession-compulsion (77.5%), hostility (64%), and interpersonal sensitivity (60.7%). Children treated with total body irradiation (TBI) showed more cognitive impairments like motor deficits than those without TBI. Also older children and adolescents had more symptoms like psychoticism.These findings demonstrated cognitive and psychological late effects of pediatric allo-HSCT survivors in a single center in China and highlighted that the survivors conditioned with TBI had more cognitive impairments and older children and adolescents had more symptoms. Early intervention in these children and adolescents might minimize the cognitive losses and psychological effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Psicológicas , Sobreviventes/psicologia
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression, the most common pregnancy complication, is associated with negative maternal-offspring outcomes. Despite existence of effective treatments, it is under-recognized and under-treated. Professional organizations recommend universal screening, yet multi-level barriers exist to ensuring effective diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Integrating mental health and obstetric care holds significant promise for addressing perinatal depression. The overall study goal is to compare the effectiveness of two active interventions: (1) the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Program (MCPAP) for Moms, a state-wide, population-based program, and (2) the PRogram In Support of Moms (PRISM) which includes MCPAP for Moms plus a proactive, multifaceted, practice-level intervention with intensive implementation support. METHODS: This study is conducted in two phases: (1) a run-in phase which has been completed and involved practice and patient participant recruitment to demonstrate feasibility for the second phase, and (2) a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), which is ongoing, and will compare two active interventions 1:1 with ten Ob/Gyn practices as the unit of randomization. In phase 1, rates of depressive symptoms and other demographic and clinical features among patients were examined to inform practice randomization. Patient participants to be recruited in phase 2 will be followed longitudinally until 13 months postpartum; they will have 3-5 total study visits depending on whether their initial recruitment and interview was at 4-24 or 32-40 weeks gestation, or 1-3 months postpartum. Sampling throughout pregnancy and postpartum will ensure participants with different depressive symptom onset times. Differences in depression symptomatology and treatment participation will be compared between patient participants by intervention arm. DISCUSSION: This manuscript describes the full two-phase study protocol. The study design is innovative because it combines effectiveness with implementation research designs and integrates critical components of participatory action research. Our approach assesses the feasibility, acceptance, efficacy, and sustainability of integrating a stepped-care approach to perinatal depression care into ambulatory obstetric settings; an approach that is flexible and can be tailored and adapted to fit unique workflows of real-world practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02760004, registered prospectively on May 3, 2016.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez , Técnicas Psicológicas , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Res Dev Disabil ; 92: 103451, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although clinicians have hypothesized that siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may exhibit more empathy and understanding of others, no studies have yet examined empathy among siblings of individuals with ASD. AIMS: The current study examined self- reported empathy and feelings about adolescents' brothers or sisters with and without ASD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Adolescent siblings (age 12-18) of individuals with (n=26) or without ASD (n=48) completed an online survey with measures of empathy and their feelings about their brother or sister, as well as an open ended task asking them for three "magic wishes." OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Siblings of individuals with ASD (ASD- Sibs) reported significantly more perspective-taking than did siblings of typically-developing individuals (TD-Sibs). Perspective-taking was significantly related to feelings of positive affect toward the brother/sister for both groups. ASD-Sibs also were significantly more likely to report wishes related to their family, while TD-Sibs reported more wishes for themselves. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Findings suggest that potentially higher levels of perspective-taking ability among ASD-Sibs may contribute to better understanding of and therefore more positive affect toward their brother or sister with ASD. More research is needed to understand patterns of empathy among ASD-Sibs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia , Irmãos/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Psicológicas , Relações entre Irmãos
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2019-07-12. (PAHO/NMH/19-015).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51354

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization and the Caribbean Development Bank developed this booklet as a tool to help you take care of yourself and your community during crisis situations. This is achieved through psychological first aid, also known as PFA, a humane, supportive and practical response to a fellow human being who is suffering and may need support. In this booklet, our “PFA helper” will guide you through the three basic principles of PFA: look, listen and link. This will help you to approach affected people, listen and understand their needs, and link them with practical support and information. It will also bring to your attention the needs of specific groups, including men, women, children and adolescents, and people with disabilities, among others. Enjoy the booklet. Read it again from time to time, share it with friends, family and members of your community, and spread the message: “Stronger together”.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Técnicas Psicológicas , Primeiros Socorros , Desastres , Segurança , Depressão , Ansiedade , Apoio Social
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 125, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to provide faculty-wide undergraduate ultrasound training in times of scarce resources, many medical faculties employ trained peer-student tutors to oversee the hands-on training. However, data to guide the training of ultrasound peer-student tutors are scarce. We conducted a prospective quasi-randomized study to assess the gain in theoretical knowledge and practical scanning skills of peer-student tutors who were trained with a course only, an internship only, or the combination of a course and an internship. METHODS: A total of 44 peer-student tutors were trained by a one-week course only (C-Group, n = 21), by an internship only (I-Group, n = 10) or by a course and an internship (CI-Group, n = 13). Prior to and after the completion of the training the peer-student tutors completed an MC-test (theoretical knowledge) and an OSCE (practical scanning skills). RESULTS: With all three education concepts, the peer-student tutors had significant and comparable gains in theoretical knowledge (C-group + 90%, I-group + 61.5%, CI-group + 114.0%) and practical scanning skills (C-group + 112.0%, I-group + 155.0% and CI-group + 123.5%), all p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Peer-student tutors, who were trained with a course or an internship or a course and internship improved their theoretical knowledge and their practical scanning skills significantly and to a comparable degree.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Medicina Interna/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/normas , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Grupo Associado , Estudos Prospectivos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 70-82, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-183270

RESUMO

Comportamentos antissociais tornaram-se recorrentes no ambiente escolar e se manifestado por meio de agressões físicas, verbais e simbólicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito de uma intervenção, fundamentada no atendimento das necessidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), nos comportamentos pró e antissociais em aulas de Educação Física escolar. Participaram deste estudo 45 alunos e 2 professores de educação Física (PEF) divididos em Grupo Controle (GC) e Grupo Intervenção (GI). Os alunos responderam o Questionário de Atitudes no Esporte (QAE-23) e uma entrevista semiestruturada nos momentos pré e pós intervenção. A intervenção consistiu em uma orientação semanal com o PEF do GI durante 10 semanas, com objetivo de realizar adaptações na aula a fim de levar ao cumprimento das NPB. Para verificar diferença entre os grupos, em relação às respostas do QAE-23, nos momentos pré e pós, foi utilizado o teste T de Student e adotado nível de significância 5%. Na análise qualitativa, as entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e, posteriormente, categorizadas e analisadas. Mediante análise dos relatos obtidos pela entrevista foi possível observar percepção do atendimento das NPB e redução de comportamentos antissociais. Contudo, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos para as respostas do QAE-2. Conclui-se, por meio dos relatos obtidos na entrevista, que a intervenção pautada no cumprimento das NPB possibilitou um efeito positivo em relação à redução dos comportamentos antissociais, porém, os dados quantitativos sugerem que a duração do estudo pode ter sido um fator limitante de maior efeito em relação à ausência internalização dos comportamentos


Los comportamientos antissociales se tornaron recurrentes en el ambiente escolar y se manifestaron por medio de agresiones físicas, verbales y simbólicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el efecto de una intervención, fundamentada en la atención de las necesidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), en los comportamientos pro y antisociales en clases de Educación Física escolar. En este estudio participaron 45 alumnos y 2 profesores de educación Física (PEF) divididos en Grupo Control (GC) y Grupo Intervención (GI). Los alumnos respondieron el Cuestionario de Actitudes en el Deporte (QAE-23) y una entrevista semiestructurada en los momentos pre y post intervención. La intervención consistió en una orientación semanal con el PEF del GI durante 10 semanas, con el objetivo de realizar adaptaciones en la clase a fin de llevar al cumplimiento de las NPB. Para verificar la diferencia entre los grupos, en relación a las respuestas del QAE-23, en los momentos pre y post, se utilizó la prueba T de Student y se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5%. En el análisis cualitativo, las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y posteriormente clasificadas y analizadas. Mediante el análisis de los relatos obtenidos por la entrevista fue posible observar percepción de la atención de las NPB y reducción de comportamientos antisociales. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos para las respuestas del QAE-2. Se concluye, por medio de los relatos obtenidos en la entrevista, que la intervención pautada en el cumplimiento de las NPB posibilitó un efecto positivo en relación a la reducción de los comportamientos antisociales, sin embargo, los datos cuantitativos sugieren que la duración del estudio puede haber sido un factor limitante de mayor efecto en relación a la ausencia de internalización de los comportamientos


The objective was to verify the effect of an intervention, based on the attendance of the basic psychological needs (NPB) and pro and antisocial behaviors in school physical education classes. Thirty-five students and two teachers of Physical Education, divided into Control Group (CG) and Intervention (GI) participated in this study. The students answered the Attitudes Questionnaire in Sport (QAE-23) and participated in a semi-structured interview in the pre-and post-intervention moments. The intervention was performed with the GI teacher for 10 weeks, aiming to promote NPB during class. The Student's t-test was used and adopted p <0.05. The interviews were categorized and analyzed. It was observed perception of NPB care and reduction of antisocial behaviors. It was concluded that intervention based on NPB compliance enabled a reduction of antisocial behavior, but the duration of the study may have been a limiting factor of greater effect in relation to the internalization of these behaviors


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Técnicas Psicológicas/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 209-226, mayo 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183281

RESUMO

El estudio de las variables psicológicas en el deporte es un punto clave para entender los diferentes comportamientos y resultados en el mundo del deporte, así como para desarrollar diferentes estrategias de intervención psicológica para mejorar el rendimiento. Recoger información de variables psicológicas de una forma sencilla y práctica nos permitirá conocer, en mayor profundidad, el campo de la psicología deportiva. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue reducir y validar el Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportista (CNPD) de Dosil (2005) de 30 ítems que se dividen en 4 factores: Concentración, Activación, Confianza y Motivación. Se recogió una muestra de 327 deportistas de 18 deportes diferentes y con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 54 años (M = 18.47 ; DT = 7.1). Los resultados de los análisis psicométricos mostraron una buena validez y una alta fiabilidad, obteniendo un instrumento reducido a 15 ítems y 4 factores, adecuado para su aplicación en el ámbito del deporte


The studying of psychological factors is a key element for understanding different behaviours and results in the Sports world, and also for developing different strategies of psychological intervention in order to improve the performance. Collecting data of psychological factors in a simple and practical way will allow us to have a deeper understanding of the Sports Psychology field. Therefore, the goal of this study was to simplify and validate a Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportistas (CNPD) by Dosil (20015), composed of 30 items, and divided in 4 factors: focus, activation, confidence and motivation. In order to do that, we collected a sample of 327 sportsmen and women of 18 different sports, with ages ranging between 11 and 54 (M = 18.47 ; DT = 7.1). The results of the psychometric analysis showed a good validity and a high reliability, yielding an instrument reduced just to 15 items and 4 factors, which is suitable for the Sports scope


O estudo das variáveis psicológicas no esporte é um ponto chave para perceber os diferentes comportamentos e resultados do mundo do esporte assim como para desenvolver diferentes estratégias de intervenção psicológica e para melhorar o rendimento. Recolher informação de variáveis psicólogas de um jeito simples e prático permitirá conhecer com maior profundidade o ramo da psicologia esportiva. Por isto, o objetivo deste estudo foi reduzir e validar el Cuestionario de Necesidades Psicológicas del Deportista(CNPD) de 30 itens que são divididos em 4 fatores: Foco, ativação, confiança e motivação. Para isso foi realizada uma amostra de 327 esportistas de 18 esportes diferentes e com idades entre 11 e 54 anos(M= 18.47 ; DP= 7.1). Os resultados das análises psicométricas mostraram validez e alta fiabilidades obtendo assim um instrumento reduzido a 15 itens e 4 fatores, adequado ao ramo da Psicologia Esportiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Esportes/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Retroalimentação Psicológica/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Psicológicas/instrumentação
10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 36: 151-156, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986660

RESUMO

This research illuminates the perceptions of eighteen final year undergraduate pre-registration student nurses, to understand what theoretical knowledge was perceived to be useful during their pre-registration nursing education, and what was not. The research adopted a qualitative phenomenological approach, and utilised a sample size of eighteen final year student nurses as the data source. The data collection method consisted of semi-structured interviews and the study took place at a Higher Education Institution within the North West of England approved to provide pre-registration nurse education. Participants provided their data during their final year of their undergraduate pre-registration nursing programme, via semi-structured, digitally recorded interviews, which were transcribed verbatim. The transcribed interviews were then analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The findings generated three themes, these were; important knowledge to learn for everyday practice, irrelevant for my future role, and, can we have some more? Findings demonstrate what aspects of the taught curriculum student nurses perceive to be of use to their practice, and why they perceive this to be the case. This affects how student nurses approach their learning during their nursing education. In addition it was clear what participants perceived was not useful for their practice and why this was the case. Additionally, participants offered suggestions of what they would also like adding to their curriculum, and provided insights for what they would like adding to the curriculum, which can be used for enhancing this. This is useful when developing future curricula to understand which aspects student nurses learn in a deep and superficial way. This can provide a useful insight for to ensure that patient care is not compromised.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Percepção , Técnicas Psicológicas/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 130-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Student well-being, though widely researched, continues to be a poorly defined concept. Few student well-being studies focus on students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who may have a poorer sense of well-being compared to typically developing students. AIMS: The current study aims to explore the conceptualisation, barriers, and ways to enhance the well-being of students with ASD from their perspectives. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Photovoice, a participatory research method was used to elicit the views of 16 high school students with ASD to explore the concept of well-being. Data analysis was conducted using a grounded theory approach. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Students conceptualised well-being as multidimensional, identified sensory barriers, social barriers, and barriers that were associated with learning, and several external and internal assets that could support their well-being. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: To promote well-being, barriers should be mitigated, while external and internal assets developed. Researchers should also consider the use of Photovoice to enable students' meaningful participation in research studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Saúde Mental , Fotografação , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Causalidade , Barreiras de Comunicação , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Psicológicas/instrumentação
12.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 51-58, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New classification system Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed.(DSM - 5) includes sensory problems as one of the symptoms in diagnostic profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Researching the effects of sensory integration treatment may improve new approaches to the individuals with ASD. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of Snoezelen, multisensory environment on the severity of ASD and stereotyped/repetitive behaviours in adolescents and adults using CARS scale. METHOD: The study involved 40 subjects with ASD associated with intellectual difficulties of both sexes, aged 15-35. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a control one (without treatment) and an experimental one (with treatment). The assessments were rated by CARS (Childhood Autism Rating Scale) before and after the three-month treatment. RESULTS: In the experimental group, there was a statistically significant difference of the total CARS score before and after the treatment (p < 0.0005). Comparing the results of both experimental and control groups, a statistically significant difference was found on total CARS score (p < 0.0005). Conslusion: The results in the present study indicate that the continual sessions in Snoezelen room had effects on reducing severity of ASD and repetitive and stereotyped behaviours on CARS scale.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Estimulação Física/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sensação , Comportamento Estereotipado , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Psicológicas , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884824

RESUMO

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) has stated that over 1.1 billion people suffered from mental disorders globally in 2016, and the burden of mental disorders has continued to grow with impacts on social development. Despite the implementation of strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health WHO's Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013⁻2020, the difficulty of diagnosis of mental disorders makes the objective "To provide comprehensive, integrated, and responsive mental health and social care services in community-based settings" hard to carry out. This paper presents a mental-disorder-aided diagnosis model (MDAD) to quantify the multipolarity sentiment affect intensity of users' short texts in social networks in order to analyze the 11-dimensional sentiment distribution. We searched the five mental disorder topics and collected data based on Twitter hashtag. Through sentiment distribution similarity calculations and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), people with a high probability of suffering from mental disorder can be detected in real time. In particular, mental health warnings can be made in time for users with an obvious emotional tendency in their tweets. In the experiments, we make a comprehensive evaluation of MDAD by five common adult mental disorders: depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, and panic disorder. Our proposed model can effectively diagnose common mental disorders by sentiment multipolarity analysis, providing strong support for the prevention and diagnosis of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Saúde Mental , Percepção , Rede Social , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Psicológicas
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(10): e14738, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protocol of this systematic review will be proposed for assessing the effects of advanced care (AC) on psychological condition in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: We will search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to the January 30, 2019. Any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for assessing the effects of AC on psychological condition in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis will be fully considered. The methodological quality will be assessed by using Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two independent reviewers will perform the study selection, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment. A third reviewer will be invited to judge the disagreements between 2 reviewers by discussion. RESULTS: The protocol of this proposed systematic review will compare the effects of AC on psychological condition in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. The outcomes will comprise of depression. The secondary outcome includes anxiety, health related quality of life, and any adverse events. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of AC on psychological condition in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All data used in this systematic review will be collected from previous published clinical studies. Thus, no ethic approval is required for this study. The findings of this study will be published at a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019122275.


Assuntos
Depressão , Falência Renal Crônica , Técnicas Psicológicas , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos
16.
Clín. salud ; 30(1): 13-20, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180394

RESUMO

La innovación en los servicios sanitarios afronta retos en cuanto a la generación de alternativas eficaces para las crecientes necesidades de la población, así como el desarrollo de metodologías para su evaluación. El propósito de éste estudio fue determinar el retorno social de la inversión (SROI) de un tratamiento psicológico basado en la evidencia. Se llevó a cabo el análisis de un programa de intervención psicológica con un diseño que incluía medidas pre/postratamiento y un grupo control. Como resultado se obtuvo un impacto social positivo: cada euro invertido ofreció un retorno social neto de 2.98€. En conclusión, puede decirse que el SROI puede ofrecer información sobre el impacto social provocado por las intervenciones clínicas, determinando los rendimientos tangibles obtenidos con la inversión


Innovation in health care services generates the development of new initiatives. Research should focus on the development of methodologies that allow the evaluation of interventions and determine the true impact they have. The purpose of this study was to determine the social return of investment (SROI) of a health treatment. An analysis of a psychological intervention program was carried out with a design that included pre/post-treatment measures and control group. As results, a positive social impact was obtained. Each monetary unit spent offered a net social return of 2.98. In conclusion, SROI can offer information about the social impact caused by health care interventions, determining the tangible return obtained with the investment


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Casos e Controles
18.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(1): 71-88, mar. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183823

RESUMO

Some studies have presented math tasks as distractors in Delayed Matching-to-Sample (DMTS) procedures between the offset of the sample stimulus and the onset of the comparison stimuli in tests for equivalence class formation. The main findings have been a decrease in experimenter-defined correct matching performance when participants have been exposed to such distractors. Therefore, the purpose of two experiments in the present study was to extend the knowledge of how different types of distractors may or may not influence equivalence class formation in DMTS procedures. Experiments 1 and 2 were arranged as ABA designs. The A-phases were arranged without distractors and the B-phases with distractors during testing. In the test phases, dictation tasks were used as distractors in Experiment 1, while echoic tasks were used as distractors in Experiment 2. The results showed that matching accuracy and equivalence class formation were reduced in the B-phases but not in the A-phases in Experiment 1, while the echoic tasks did not influence performance in Experiment 2. The results are also discussed on the basis of the criterion of correct responding


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Assuntos
Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Generalização do Estímulo , Técnicas Psicológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pesquisador-Sujeito/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 5, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that a cognitive factor associated with a worsening of depressive symptoms amongst people with and without diagnoses of depression - reduced Autobiographical Memory (rAMS) - can be ameliorated by a group cognitive training protocol referred to as Memory Specificity Training (MeST). When transporting interventions such as MeST from research to routine clinical practices (RCPs), modifications are inevitable, with potentially a decrease in effectiveness, so called voltage drop. We examined the transportability of MeST to RCPs as an add-on to treatment as usual with depressed in- and out- patients. METHODS: We examined whether 1) MeST was adaptable to local needs of RCPs by implementing MeST in a joint decision-making process in seven Belgian RCPs 2) without losing its effect on rAMS. The effectiveness of MeST was measured by pre- and post- intervention measurements of memory specificity. RESULTS: Adaptations were made to the MeST protocol to optimize the fit with RCPs. Local needs of RCPs were met by dismantling MeST into different subparts. By dismantling it in this way, we were able to address several challenges raised by clinicians. In particular, multidisciplinary teams could divide the workload across different team members and, for the open version of MeST, the intervention could be offered continuously with tailored dosing per patient. Both closed and open versions of MeST, with or without peripheral components, and delivered by health professionals with different backgrounds, resulted in a significant increase in memory specificity for depressed in- and out- patients in RCPs. CONCLUSIONS: MeST is shown to be a transportable and adaptable add-on intervention which effectively maintains its core mechanism when delivered in RCPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, IDISRCTN10144349 , registered on January 22, 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aprendizagem , Memória Episódica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Adulto , Bélgica , Cognição , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(680): e171-e181, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common in later life and increase both the risk of functional and cognitive decline and the use of healthcare services. Despite older people expressing preferences for talking therapies, they are less likely to be referred than younger adults, particularly when aged ≥80 years. AIM: To explore how healthcare professionals (HCPs) manage older people in relation to depression and referrals to psychological therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. METHOD: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Social Sciences Citation Index (inception-March 2018) were searched for studies exploring HCPs' views regarding management of late-life depression across all settings. Studies of older people's views or depression management across all ages were excluded. RESULTS: In total, 27 studies, were included; these predominantly focused on the views of GPs and primary and community care nurses. Many HCPs felt that late-life depression was mainly attributable to social isolation and functional decline, but treatments appropriate for this were limited. Clinicians perceived depression to have associated stigma for older adults, which required time to negotiate. Limited time in consultations and the complexity of needs in later life meant physical health was often prioritised over mental health, particularly in people with frailty. Good management of late-life depression appeared to depend more on the skills and interest of individual GPs and nurses than on any structured approach. CONCLUSION: Mental ill health needs to be a more-prominent concern in the care of older adults, with greater provision of psychological services tailored to later life. This may facilitate future identification and management of depression.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Depressão , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
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