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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4498, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908142

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is the master regulator of prostate cancer (PCa) development, and inhibition of AR signalling is the most effective PCa treatment. AR is expressed in PCa cells and also in the PCa-associated stroma, including infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages have a decisive function in PCa initiation and progression, but the role of AR in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that AR signalling in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line supports PCa cell line migration and invasion in culture via increased Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) signalling and expression of its downstream cytokines. Moreover, AR signalling in THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages upregulates IL-10 and markers of tissue residency. In conclusion, our data suggest that AR signalling in macrophages may support PCa invasiveness, and blocking this process may constitute one mechanism of anti-androgen therapy.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Anilidas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Buffy Coat/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Técnicas de Cocultura , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Invasividade Neoplásica/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Células THP-1 , Compostos de Tosil/farmacologia , Compostos de Tosil/uso terapêutico
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4387, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873795

RESUMO

The role of neutrophils in solid tumor metastasis remains largely controversial. In preclinical models of solid tumors, both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic effects of neutrophils have been reported. In this study, using mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the metastasis-modulating effects of neutrophils are dictated by the status of host natural killer (NK) cells. In NK cell-deficient mice, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-expanded neutrophils show an inhibitory effect on the metastatic colonization of breast tumor cells in the lung. In contrast, in NK cell-competent mice, neutrophils facilitate metastatic colonization in the same tumor models. In an ex vivo neutrophil-NK cell-tumor cell tri-cell co-culture system, neutrophils are shown to potentially suppress the tumoricidal activity of NK cells, while neutrophils themselves are tumoricidal. Intriguingly, these two modulatory effects by neutrophils are both mediated by reactive oxygen species. Collectively, the absence or presence of NK cells, governs the net tumor-modulatory effects of neutrophils.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Neutropenia/prevenção & controle , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/sangue , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/complicações , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Neutropenia/sangue , Neutropenia/etiologia , Neutropenia/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5641-5647, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained remarkable attention because of their ability to dualistically regulate tumor growth. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic effects of human bone marrow-derived (hBM) MSCs in combination with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and to determine the cytokines involved in the apoptotic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hBM-MSCs were co-cultured with MCF-7 cells either directly and indirectly for 72 h in-vitro. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), apoptosis and cytokines were analyzed. RESULTS: hBM-MSCs increased the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells partially through TRAIL in vitro. IFN-γ enhanced the apoptotic effect of hBM-MSCs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: hBM-MSCs in combination with IFN-γ might be a suitable therapy for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Células MCF-7 , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
4.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(6): 500-506, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842261

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether CD137 signaling can promote angiogenesis via regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization. Methods: (1) The primary peritoneal macrophages in mice induced by 3% thiglycollate broth were divided into three groups: control group, CD137 signaling activated group and CD137 signaling inhibited group. Various specific markers of M1 and M2 macrophages were detected to observe the phenotype change of macrophages, and the macrophages protein expression of CD137, CD86 and CD206 was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The protein and mRNA expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase Ⅰ(Arg-1) was determined by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. The secretion levels of IL-12 and IL-10 in culture supernatant of macrophages were detected by ELISA. (2) Macrophages were co-cultured with the endothelial cells (bEnd.3), and macrophages were implanted in the upper chamber, endothelial cells were implanted in stromal glue of the lower chamber. The experiment was divided into three groups: the control group, CD137 signaling activated group and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) inhibited group, and tube formation ability of endothelial cells in each group was determined. Results: (1) The purity of primary peritoneal macrophages in mice was (97.93±1.31)%. The expression of CD137 on the surface of macrophages was (97.40±2.70)%. (2) Compared with control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Arg-1 were significantly increased and the mRNA and protein expression of iNOS were significantly decreased in CD137 signaling activated group (all P<0.05). Compared with CD137 signaling activated group, the mRNA and protein expression of Arg-1 were significantly lower and the mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS were significantly higher in CD137 signaling inhibited group (all P<0.05). FCM results showed that the average fluorescence intensity of CD206 was higher, while the average fluorescence intensity of CD86 was lower in CD137 signaling activated group than in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively); the expression of CD206 was significantly lower, while the expression of CD86 was higher, in the CD137 signaling inhibited group than in CD137 signaling activated group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). ELISA results showed that the secretion of IL-10 was higher, and the secretion level of IL-12 was significantly lower in CD137 signaling activated group than in control group (both P<0.01); the secretion of IL-10 was significantly lower and the secretion of IL-12 was significantly higher in CD137 signaling inhibited group than in CD137 signaling activated group (both P<0.05). (3) Values of the formation of tube length and branch number were both longer in CD137 signaling activated group than control group (P<0.05). The formation of the tube length and branch number were less in PPAR-γ inhibited group than in CD137 signaling activated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: CD137 signaling can promote angiogenesis by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica
5.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859121

RESUMO

Natural killer cells are important in the control of viral infections. However, the role of NK cells during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has previously not been identified. Peripheral blood NK cells from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects were evaluated for their activation, degranulation, and interferon-gamma expression in the presence of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. K562 and lung epithelial cells were transfected with spike proteins and co-cultured with NK cells. The analysis was performed by flow cytometry and immune fluorescence. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins did not alter NK cell activation in a K562 in vitro model. On the contrary, SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein (SP1) intracellular expression by lung epithelial cells resulted in NK cell-reduced degranulation. Further experiments revealed a concomitant induction of HLA-E expression on the surface of lung epithelial cells and the recognition of an SP1-derived HLA-E-binding peptide. Simultaneously, there was increased modulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A/CD94 on NK cells when SP1 was expressed in lung epithelial cells. We ruled out the GATA3 transcription factor as being responsible for HLA-E increased levels and HLA-E/NKG2A interaction as implicated in NK cell exhaustion. We show for the first time that NK cells are affected by SP1 expression in lung epithelial cells via HLA-E/NKG2A interaction. The resulting NK cells' exhaustion might contribute to immunopathogenesis in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Doadores de Sangue , Brônquios/citologia , Degranulação Celular/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células K562 , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/química , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transfecção
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140138, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806344

RESUMO

An understanding of the inter-species relationships, especially their metabolic network in a mixed-culture system, is crucial to design an effective inoculum for enhancing the power generation of wastewater fed microbial fuel cell (MFC). In the present study, the influence of microbial mutualistic interactions on the power generation of palm oil mill effluent fed MFCs has been widely investigated by designing several co-culture and mixed culture inoculums. Among the different inoculum compositions, the highest power density of 14.8 W/m3 was achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella variicola co-culture inoculum due to their synergistic relationships which were inter-linked via fermentation-based metabolites. Besides, the interaction of K. variicola and Bacillus cereus positively influenced the power generation resulting in a maximum power density of 11.8 W/m3 whereas the antagonistic relationship between B. cereus and P. aeruginosa resulted in a lower power generation of 1.9 W/m3. The microbial mutualistic interactions were investigated with polarization, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by using metabolite and biofilm analysis. It was observed that the synergism between bacteria enhanced power generation through the production of higher electron shuttling mediators and efficient biofilm formation as evidenced by polarization, CV and EIS analysis. In contrast, the antagonistic relationship resulted in production of cell inhibiting metabolites leading to the formation of ineffective biofilm. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between or within microorganisms is emergent in designing co-culture or mixed-culture inoculum for achieving maximum power generation in MFCs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas de Cocultura , Klebsiella , Interações Microbianas , Águas Residuárias
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110932, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800216

RESUMO

Adverse health effects arising from exposure to fine particulates have become a major concern. Angiogenesis is a vital physiological process for the growth and development of cells and structures in the human body, whereby excessive or insufficient vessel growth could contribute to pathogenesis of diseases. We therefore evaluated indirect effects of carbon black (CB) and inhalable airborne particles on the angiogenic ability of unexposed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) by co-culturing HUVECs with pre-exposed Small Airway Epithelial Cells (SAECs). As endothelial cells are major components of blood vessels and potential targets of fine particles, we investigated if lung epithelial cells exposed to ambient PM2.5 surrogates could induce bystander effects on neighboring unexposed endothelial cells in an alveolar-capillary co-culture lung model. Epithelial exposure to CB at a non-toxic dose of 25 µg/mL reduced endothelial tube formation and cell adhesion in co-cultured HUVECs, and decreased expression of angiogenic genes in SAECs. Similarly, exposure of differentiated SAECs to PM2.5 surrogates reduced cell reproductive ability, adhesion and tube formation of neighboring HUVECs. This indicates epithelial exposure to CB and urban PM2.5 surrogates both compromised the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells through bystander effects, thereby potentially perturbing the ventilation-perfusion ratio and affecting lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epiteliais , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica , Fuligem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833989

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-limited structures derived from outward budding of the plasma membrane or endosomal system that participate in cellular communication processes through the transport of bioactive molecules to recipient cells. To date, there are no published methodological works showing step-by-step the isolation, characterization and internalization of small EVs secreted by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (MDM-derived sEVs). Thus, here we aimed to provide an alternative protocol based on differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) to describe small EVs (sEVs) from these cells. Monocyte-derived macrophages were cultured in EV-free medium during 24, 48 or 72 h and, then, EVs were isolated from culture supernatants by (dUC). Macrophages secreted a large amount of sEVs in the first 24 h, with size ranging from 40-150 nm, peaking at 105 nm, as evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The markers Alix, CD63 and CD81 were detected by immunoblotting in EV samples, and the co-localization of CD63 and CD81 after sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation (S-DGUC) indicated the presence of sEVs from late endosomal origin. Confocal fluorescence revealed that the sEVs were internalized by primary macrophages after three hours of co-culture. The methodology here applied aims to contribute for enhancing reproducibility between the limited number of available protocols for the isolation and characterization of MDM-derived sEVs, thus providing basic knowledge in the area of EV methods that can be useful for those investigators working with sEVs released by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Buffy Coat/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Fracionamento Celular/métodos , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Monócitos/fisiologia , Cultura Primária de Células
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20223-20234, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759215

RESUMO

Nano-sized archaeota, with their small genomes and limited metabolic capabilities, are known to associate with other microbes, thereby compensating for their own auxotrophies. These diminutive and yet ubiquitous organisms thrive in hypersaline habitats that they share with haloarchaea. Here, we reveal the genetic and physiological nature of a nanohaloarchaeon-haloarchaeon association, with both microbes obtained from a solar saltern and reproducibly cultivated together in vitro. The nanohaloarchaeon Candidatus Nanohalobium constans LC1Nh is an aerotolerant, sugar-fermenting anaerobe, lacking key anabolic machinery and respiratory complexes. The nanohaloarchaeon cells are found physically connected to the chitinolytic haloarchaeon Halomicrobium sp. LC1Hm. Our experiments revealed that this haloarchaeon can hydrolyze chitin outside the cell (to produce the monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine), using this beta-glucan to obtain carbon and energy for growth. However, LC1Hm could not metabolize either glycogen or starch (both alpha-glucans) or other polysaccharides tested. Remarkably, the nanohaloarchaeon's ability to hydrolyze glycogen and starch to glucose enabled growth of Halomicrobium sp. LC1Hm in the absence of a chitin. These findings indicated that the nanohaloarchaeon-haloarchaeon association is both mutualistic and symbiotic; in this case, each microbe relies on its partner's ability to degrade different polysaccharides. This suggests, in turn, that other nano-sized archaeota may also be beneficial for their hosts. Given that availability of carbon substrates can vary both spatially and temporarily, the susceptibility of Halomicrobium to colonization by Ca Nanohalobium can be interpreted as a strategy to maximize the long-term fitness of the host.


Assuntos
Halobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Nanoarchaeota/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica em Archaea , Genoma Arqueal , Genômica , Filogenia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233945, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701964

RESUMO

The survival of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes in foods and food production environments (FPE) is dependent on several genes that increase tolerance to stressors; this includes competing with intrinsic bacteria. We aimed to uncover genes that are differentially expressed (DE) in L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 121 strain 6179 when co-cultured with cheese rind bacteria. L. monocytogenes was cultivated in broth or on plates with either a Psychrobacter or Brevibacterium isolate from cheese rinds. RNA was extracted from co-cultures in broth after two or 12 hours and from plates after 24 and 72 hours. Broth co-cultivations with Brevibacterium or Psychrobacter yielded up to 392 and 601 DE genes, while plate co-cultivations significantly affected the expression of up to 190 and 485 L. monocytogenes genes, respectively. Notably, the transcription of virulence genes encoding the Listeria adhesion protein and Listeriolysin O were induced during plate and broth co-cultivations. The expression of several systems under the control of the global stress gene regulator, σB, increased during co-cultivation. A cobalamin-dependent gene cluster, responsible for the catabolism of ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol, was upregulated in both broth and plate co-cultures conditions. Finally, a small non-coding (nc)RNA, Rli47, was induced after 72 hours of co-cultivation on plates and accounted for 50-90% of the total reads mapped to L. monocytogenes. A recent study has shown that Rli47 may contribute to L. monocytogenes stress survival by slowing growth during stress conditions through the suppression of branch-chained amino acid biosynthesis. We hypothesize that Rli47 may have an impactful role in the response of L. monocytogenes to co-cultivation by regulating a complex network of metabolic and virulence mechanisms.


Assuntos
Brevibacterium/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Etanolamina/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Propilenoglicol/metabolismo , Psychrobacter/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Aclimatação , Ágar , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultura , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fermentação/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Plasmídeos , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/biossíntese , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Virulência/genética
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4663-4674, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Roles for mutant (mt) KRAS in the innate immune microenvironment in colorectal cancer (CRC) were explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human CRC HCT116-derived, mtKRAS-disrupted (HKe3) cells that express exogenous mtKRAS and allogenic cytokine-activated killer (CAK) cells were co-cultured in 3D floating (3DF) culture. The anti-CD155 antibody was used for function blocking and immuno histochemistry. RESULTS: Infiltration of CAK cells, including NKG2D+ T cells, into the deep layer of HKe3-mtKRAS spheroids, was observed. Surface expression of CD155 was found to be up-regulated by mtKRAS in 3DF culture and CRC tissues. Further, the number of CD3+ tumor-infiltrating cells in the invasion front that show substantial CD155 expression was significantly larger than the number showing weak expression in CRC tissues with mtKRAS. CD155 blockade decreased the growth of spheroids directly and indirectly through the release of CAK cells. CONCLUSION: CD155 blockade may be useful for therapies targeting tumors containing mtKRAS.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123766, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645575

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from Chlorella vulgaris and co-cultured with its host microalgae to determine whether this symbiotic system is suitable for purifying biogas and biogas slurry. Results showed that endophytic bacteria S395-1 and S395-2 belonged to different genera. Both strains promoted microalgae growth while improving photosynthetic performance, carbonic anhydrase activity, nutrient removal efficiency, and CO2 fixation. The optimal bacteria (S395-2)-to-microalgae ratio and co-culture duration were 10:1 and 7 days. Under this condition, the growth rate and carbonic anhydrase activity were 0.196 ± 0.06 d-1 and 31.24 ± 0.28 EU/cell, respectively. The symbiotic system had removal efficiencies of 88.29 ± 5.03%, 88.31 ± 4.29%, 88.21 ± 4.51%, and 68.13 ± 1.69% for chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, phosphorus, and CO2, respectively. These results will provide a framework for constructing a microalgal-bacterial consortium that can improve wastewater treatment and enhance biogas quality.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cocultura , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Águas Residuárias
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123754, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650264

RESUMO

In this study, mixed culture (microalgae:activated sludge) of a photobioreactor (PBR) were investigated at different inoculation ratios (1:0, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 0:1 wt/wt). This work was not only to determine the optimal ratio for pollutant remediation and biomass production but also to explore the role of microorganisms in the co-culture system. The results showed high total biomass concentrations were obtained from 1:0 and 3:1 ratio being values of 1.06, 1.12 g L-1, respectively. Microalgae played a dominant role in nitrogen removal via biological assimilation while activated sludge was responsible for improving COD removal. Compared with the single culture of microalgae, the symbiosis between microalgae and bacteria occurred at 3:1 and 1:1 ratio facilitated a higher COD removal by 37.5-45.7 %. In general, combined assessment based on treatment performance and biomass productivity facilitated to select an optimal ratio of 3:1 for the operation of the co-culture PBR.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cocultura , Nitrogênio/análise , Esgotos
14.
Life Sci ; 257: 118088, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663573

RESUMO

AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been reported to interact with multiple myeloma (MM) and exert a vital function of the survival of MM cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme, has the potential to become a hematological malignancies targeted gene. This study aimed to investigate the role of HO-1 in MM resistance of BMSCs and its possible mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: In this study, the expression of related proteins was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. HO-1 expression was regulated by lentivirus transfection. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by Flow cytometry and CCK-8. Cytokine secretion was assayed by ELISA. The survival and carcinogenic abilities was detected by clone formation assay. KEY FINDINGS: HO-1 expression in the BMSCs of stage III MM patients was substantially increased, compared with that of healthy donors and stage I/II patients. The results of co-culture of BMSCs and MM cells indicated that, the upregulated HO-1 inhibited the apoptosis of co-cultured MM cells, while downregulated HO-1 promoted the chemosensitivity of co-cultured MM cells, moreover, the upregulated HO-1 in BMSCs increased the colony-formation ability of MM cells. This protective capability may be regulated by CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. High HO-1 expression in BMSCs can promote the phosphorylation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, thereby increasing secretion of SDF-1 in BMSCs and activating CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. In addition, direct contact between BMSCs and MM cells may cause drug resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that the regulation of HO-1 in BMSCs may be a new effective method of MM therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Cocultura , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 257: 118087, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702442

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggest that direct exposure of cells to fractionated radiotherapy might induce radioresistance. However, the effects of fractionated radiotherapy on the non-irradiated bystander cells remain unclear. We hypothesized that fractionated radiotherapy could enhance radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. MAIN METHODS: Human tumor cell lines, including A549 and HT29 were irradiated (2 Gy per day). The irradiated cells (either A549 or HT29) were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line using transwell co-culture system. Tumor cell proliferation, radioresistance and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay and Annexin-V in bystander cells, respectively. In addition, activation of Chk1 (Ser 317), Chk2 (Thr 68) and Akt (Ser473) were measured via western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Irradiated HT29 cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modulation of clonogenic survival parameters (decreased area under curve, D10 and ED50 and increased α) and proliferation in recipient neighbors. While, irradiated A549 cells significantly enhanced the radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. These changes were accompanied with enhanced activation of Chk1, Chk2 and Akt in non-irradiated bystander A549 cells. Moreover, both bystander effects (damaging and protective) were mediated through secreted factors. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that fractionated radiotherapy could promote proliferation and radioresistance of bystander cells probably through survival and proliferation pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Efeito Espectador/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos da radiação , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células HT29 , Humanos
16.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1781-1796, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712670

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated at periconception affect key events in early pregnancy, i.e. decidualization and spiral artery remodeling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Two PIs, lopinavir and darunavir, currently offered as cART options in HIV-positive pregnancies were evaluated, and we found that lopinavir-based cART, but not darunavir-based cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both human ex vivo and mouse in vivo experimental models. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early initiation of cART is recommended for pregnant women living with HIV. However, poor birth outcomes are frequently observed in HIV-positive pregnancies exposed to PI-based cART, especially when it is initiated prior to conception. The correlation between early initiation of PI-cART and adverse birth outcomes is poorly understood, due to lack of data on the specific effects of PI-cART on the early stages of pregnancy involving uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Lopinavir and darunavir were evaluated in clinically relevant combinations using an ex vivo human first-trimester placenta-decidua explant model, an in vitro human primary decidual cell culture system, and an in vivo mouse pregnancy model. The first-trimester (gestational age, 6-8 weeks) human placenta-decidua tissue was obtained from 11 to 15 healthy women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. C57Bl/6 female mice (four/treatment group) were administered either lopinavir-cART, darunavir-cART or water by oral gavage once daily starting on the day of plug detection until sacrifice. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Human: Spiral artery remodeling was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of first-trimester placenta-decidua explant co-culture system. Trophoblast migration was measured using a placental explant culture. A primary decidual cell culture was used to evaluate the viability of immune cell populations by flow cytometry. Soluble factors, including biomarkers of decidualization and angiogenesis, were quantified by ELISA and Luminex assay using decidua-conditioned media. Mouse: In the mouse pregnancy model, gestational day 6.5 or 9.5 implantation sites were used to assess decidualization, spiral artery remodeling and uterine natural killer (uNK) cell numbers by immunohistochemistry. Transcription factor STAT3 was assayed by immunohistochemistry in both human decidua and mouse implantation sites. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both experimental models. Lopinavir-cART treatment was also associated with selective depletion of uNK cells, reduced trophoblast migration and defective placentation. The lopinavir-associated decidualization defects were attributed to a decrease in expression of transcription factor STAT3, known to regulate decidualization. Our results suggest that periconceptional initiation of lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, causes defective maturation of the uterine endometrium, leading to impairments in spiral artery remodeling and placentation, thus contributing to the poor birth outcomes. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The human first-trimester placenta/decidua samples could only be obtained from healthy females undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. As biopsy is the only way to obtain first-trimester decidua from pregnant women living with HIV on PI-cART, ethics approval and participant consent are difficult to obtain. Furthermore, our animal model is limited to the study of cART and does not include HIV. HIV infection is also associated with immune dysregulation, inflammation, alterations in angiogenic factors and complement activation, all of which could influence decidual and placental vascular remodeling and modify any cART effects. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings provide mechanistic insight with direct clinical implications, rationalizing why the highest adverse birth outcomes are reported in HIV-positive pregnancies exposed to lopinavir-cART from conception. We demonstrate that dysregulation of decidualization is the mechanism through which lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, use in early pregnancy leads to poor birth outcomes. Although lopinavir is no longer a first-line regimen in pregnancy, it remains an alternate regimen and is often the only PI available in low resource settings. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current guidelines recommending lopinavir use in pregnancy and indicate that lopinavir should be avoided especially in the first trimester, whereas darunavir is safe to use and should be the preferred PI in pregnancy.Further, in current times of the COVID-19 pandemic, lopinavir is among the top drug candidates which are being repurposed for inclusion in clinical trials world-over, to assess their therapeutic potential against the dangerous respiratory disease. Current trials are also testing the efficacy of lopinavir given prophylactically to protect health care workers and people with potential exposures. Given the current extraordinary numbers, these might include women with early pregnancies, who may or may not be cognizant of their gestational status. This is a matter of concern as it could mean that women with early pregnancies might be exposed to this drug, which can cause decidualization defects. Our findings provide evidence of safety concerns surrounding lopinavir use in pregnancy, that women of reproductive age considering participation in such trials should be made aware of, so they can make a fully informed decision. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (PJT-148684 and MOP-130398 to L.S.). C.D. received support from CIHR Foundation (FDN143262 to Stephen Lye). S.K. received a TGHRI postdoctoral fellowship. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. L.S. reports personal fees from ViiV Healthcare for participation in a Women and Transgender Think Tank.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Placentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Técnicas de Cocultura , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Decídua/irrigação sanguínea , Decídua/citologia , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/irrigação sanguínea , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Trofoblastos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3412, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641742

RESUMO

Regulatory B cells restrict immune and inflammatory responses across a number of contexts. This capacity is mediated primarily through the production of IL-10. Here we demonstrate that the induction of a regulatory program in human B cells is dependent on a metabolic priming event driven by cholesterol metabolism. Synthesis of the metabolic intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) is required to specifically drive IL-10 production, and to attenuate Th1 responses. Furthermore, GGPP-dependent protein modifications control signaling through PI3Kδ-AKT-GSK3, which in turn promote BLIMP1-dependent IL-10 production. Inherited gene mutations in cholesterol metabolism result in a severe autoinflammatory syndrome termed mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). Consistent with our findings, B cells from MKD patients induce poor IL-10 responses and are functionally impaired. Moreover, metabolic supplementation with GGPP is able to reverse this defect. Collectively, our data define cholesterol metabolism as an integral metabolic pathway for the optimal functioning of human IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th1/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008700, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687537

RESUMO

With antibiotic resistance rates on the rise, it is critical to understand how microbial species interactions influence the evolution of resistance. In obligate mutualisms, the survival of any one species (regardless of its intrinsic resistance) is contingent on the resistance of its cross-feeding partners. This sets the community antibiotic sensitivity at that of the 'weakest link' species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that weakest link dynamics in an obligate cross-feeding relationship would limit the extent and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance evolution. We experimentally evolved an obligate co-culture and monoculture controls along gradients of two different antibiotics. We measured the rate at which each treatment increased antibiotic resistance, and sequenced terminal populations to question whether mutations differed between mono- and co-cultures. In both rifampicin and ampicillin treatments, we observed that resistance evolved more slowly in obligate co-cultures of E. coli and S. enterica than in monocultures. While we observed similar mechanisms of resistance arising under rifampicin selection, under ampicillin selection different resistance mechanisms arose in co-cultures and monocultures. In particular, mutations in an essential cell division protein, ftsI, arose in S. enterica only in co-culture. A simple mathematical model demonstrated that reliance on a partner is sufficient to slow the rate of adaptation, and can change the distribution of adaptive mutations that are acquired. Our results demonstrate that cooperative metabolic interactions can be an important modulator of resistance evolution in microbial communities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Microbianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Mutação , Rifampina/farmacologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1087-1096, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. Tumor microenvironment is composed of activated fibroblasts, the so called carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). They express high levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1), and support proliferation and migration of tumor epithelial cells. Extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs), acoustic waves, are effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, due to their ability to modulate fibrosis. Based on this rationale, the study evaluated the effects of ESWs on CAF activation and the influence of ESW-treated CAFs on the growth and migration of epithelial prostatic carcinoma cells. METHODS: Primary cultures of CAFs (n = 10) were prepared from tumors of patients undergoing surgery for high-risk prostate carcinoma. CAFs were treated with ESWs (energy levels: 0.32 mJ/mm2 , 1000 pulses; 0.59 mJ/mm2 , 250 pulses). After treatment, the messenger RNA and protein levels of the stromal activation markers α-SMA and COL1 were determined. Subsequently, two different stabilized cell lines (PC3 and DU145) of androgen-resistant prostate cancer were treated with the conditioned media produced by ESW-treated CAFs. At different times, viability and migration of PC3 and DU145 cells were evaluated. Viability was also assessed by coculture system using CAFs and PC3 or DU145 cells. RESULTS: ESWs reduced gene expression and protein level of α-SMA and COL1 in CAFs. The treatment of PC3 and DU145 with conditioned media of ESW-treated CAFs determined a reduction of their growth and invasive potential. Coculture systems between ESW-treated CAFs and PC3 or DU145 cells confirmed the epithelial cell number reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that ESWs are able to modulate the activation of prostate CAFs in favor of a less "reactive" stroma, with consequent slowing of the growth and migration of prostate cancer epithelial cells. However, only further studies to be performed in vivo will confirm the possibility of using this new therapy in patients with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Células Estromais/patologia , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2171-2186, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), consisting of dilated capillary channels formed by a single layer of endothelial cells lacking surrounding mural cells. It is unclear why CCM lesions are primarily confined to brain vasculature, although the 3 CCM-associated genes (CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3) are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. We aimed to determine the role of CCM gene in brain mural cell in CCM pathogenesis. Approach and Results: SM22α-Cre was used to drive a specific deletion of Ccm3 in mural cells, including pericytes and smooth muscle cells (Ccm3smKO). Ccm3smKO mice developed CCM lesions in the brain with onset at neonatal stages. One-third of Ccm3smKO mice survived upto 6 weeks of age, exhibiting seizures, and severe brain hemorrhage. The early CCM lesions in Ccm3smKO neonates were loosely wrapped by mural cells, and adult Ccm3smKO mice had clustered and enlarged capillary channels (caverns) formed by a single layer of endothelium lacking mural cell coverage. Importantly, CCM lesions throughout the entire brain in Ccm3smKO mice, which more accurately mimicked human disease than the current endothelial cell-specific CCM3 deletion models. Mechanistically, CCM3 loss in brain pericytes dramatically increased paxillin stability and focal adhesion formation, enhancing ITG-ß1 (integrin ß1) activity and extracellular matrix adhesion but reducing cell migration and endothelial cell-pericyte associations. Moreover, CCM3-wild type, but not a paxillin-binding defective mutant, rescued the phenotypes in CCM3-deficient pericytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that deletion of a CCM gene in the brain mural cell induces CCM pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Microvasos/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Pericitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/deficiência , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Adesões Focais/genética , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Microvasos/anormalidades , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Paxilina/metabolismo , Pericitos/patologia , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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