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1.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932592

RESUMO

Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) infect both wild and domestic cat populations world-wide. FCoVs present as two main biotypes: the mild feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the fatal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FIPV develops through mutations from FECV during a persistence infection. So far, the molecular mechanism of FECV-persistence and contributing factors for FIPV development may not be studied, since field FECV isolates do not grow in available cell culture models. In this work, we aimed at establishing feline ileum and colon organoids that allow the propagation of field FECVs. We have determined the best methods to isolate, culture and passage feline ileum and colon organoids. Importantly, we have demonstrated using GFP-expressing recombinant field FECV that colon organoids are able to support infection of FECV, which were unable to infect traditional feline cell culture models. These organoids in combination with recombinant FECVs can now open the door to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which FECV can persist in the gut for a longer period of time and how transition to FIPV is achieved.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Felino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/veterinária , Organoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Colo/citologia , Colo/virologia , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/citologia
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785186

RESUMO

The coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses in the infected host. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of chickens that can affect the kidneys and reproductive systems resulting in bird mortality and decreased reproductivity. The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are activated in response to viral infections and represent a class of cellular restriction factors that restrict the replication of many viral pathogens. Here, we characterize the relative mRNA expression of the chicken IFITM genes in response to IBV infection, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro using the pathogenic M41-CK strain, the nephropathogenic QX strain and the nonpathogenic Beaudette strain. In vivo we demonstrate a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2, 3 and 5 in M41-CK- and QX-infected trachea two days post-infection. In vitro infection with Beaudette, M41-CK and QX results in a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2 and 3 at 24 h post-infection. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2497-2507, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor explant culture systems can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment, proposing as a substitute for preclinical studies for prediction of individual treatment response. Therefore, our study evaluated the potential usefulness of ex vivo tumor explants culture assembled into the cell sheets by anticancer drug screening in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Our model included tumor explants incorporated into cell sheet composing of epithelium and subepithelial stroma using tumor and mucosal samples obtained from the HNSCC patients who underwent surgery. Cell growth, viability, and hypoxia were measured by cell counting kit-8, live/dead assay, propidium iodide, and LOX-1 staining, and were compared among the different treatment groups with vehicle, cisplatin or docetaxel. RESULTS: Tumor explants stably survived in the cell sheet over 10 days after explantation, whereas most of the explants in non-matrix culture became nonviable within 5-8 days with the significant daily decrease of viability. The live tissue areas of tumor explants in the cell sheet maintained over 30 days without significant changes although hypoxic cell areas gradually increased up to 5 days. Tissue viability and live cancer tissue areas significantly decreased after the treatment of cisplatin or docetaxel in the dose and time-dependent manners. CONCLUSION: Our cell sheet-based tumor explants model might be applied to the reliable ex vivo screening for anticancer chemotherapeutics for HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpetic keratitis (HK) models using whole human corneas are essential for studying virus-host relationships, because of high species specificity and the role of interactions between corneal cell populations that cell culture cannot reproduce. Nevertheless, the two current corneal storage methods (hypothermia and organ culture (OC)) do not preserve corneas in good physiological condition, as they are characterized by epithelial abrasion, stromal oedema, and excessive endothelial mortality. METHODS: To rehabilitate human corneas intended for scientific use, we used an active storage machine (ASM) that restores two physiological parameters that are essential for corneal homeostasis: intraocular pressure and storage medium renewal (21mmHg and 2.6 µL/min, respectively). ASM storage regenerates a normal multilayer epithelium in 2 weeks. We infected six pairs of corneas unsuitable for graft by inoculating the epithelium with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and compared each ASM-stored cornea with the other cornea stored in the same medium using the conventional OC method. RESULTS: Only corneas in the ASM developed a dendritic (n = 3) or geographic (n = 2) epithelial ulcer reproducing typical HSV-1-induced clinical lesions. Corneas in OC showed only extensive desquamations. None of the uninfected controls showed epithelial damage. Histology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction on corneal tissue confirmed infection in all cases (excluding negative controls). CONCLUSIONS: The ASM provides an innovative ex vivo model of HK in whole human cornea that reproduces typical epithelial lesions.


Assuntos
Córnea/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Ceratite Herpética/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/instrumentação , Preservação de Órgãos/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/ultraestrutura , Córnea/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Ceratite Herpética/diagnóstico , Ceratite Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda
5.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(3): C465-C480, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639873

RESUMO

Bioprinting aims to direct the spatial arrangement in three dimensions of cells, biomaterials, and growth factors. The biofabrication of clinically relevant constructs for the repair or modeling of either diseased or damaged tissues is rapidly advancing, resulting in the ability to three-dimensional (3D) print biomimetic platforms which imitate a large number of tissues in the human body. Primary tissue-specific cells are typically isolated from patients and used for the fabrication of 3D models for drug screening or tissue repair purposes. However, the lack of resilience of these platforms, due to the difficulties in harnessing, processing, and implanting patient-specific cells can limit regeneration ability. The printing of stem cells obviates these hurdles, producing functional in vitro models or implantable constructs. Advancements in biomaterial science are helping the development of inks suitable for the encapsulation and the printing of stem cells, promoting their functional growth and differentiation. This review specifically aims to investigate the most recent studies exploring innovative and functional approaches for the printing of 3D constructs to model disease or repair damaged tissues. Key concepts in tissue physiology are highlighted, reporting stem cell applications in biofabrication. Bioprinting technologies and biomaterial inks are listed and analyzed, including recent advancements in biomaterial design for bioprinting applications, commenting on the influence of biomaterial inks on the encapsulated stem cells. Ultimately, most recent successful efforts and clinical potentials for the manufacturing of functional physiological tissue substitutes are reported here, with a major focus on specific tissues, such as vasculature, heart, lung and airways, liver, bone and muscle.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Bioimpressão/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Tinta , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2212-2226, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a fetal artery connecting the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Progressive matrix remodeling, that is, intimal thickening (IT), occurs in the subendothelial region of DA to bring anatomic DA closure. IT is comprised of multiple ECMs (extracellular matrices) and migrated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because glycoprotein fibulin-1 binds to multiple ECMs and regulates morphogenesis during development, we investigated the role of fibulin-1 in DA closure. Approach and Results: Fibulin-1-deficient (Fbln1-/-) mice exhibited patent DA with hypoplastic IT. An unbiased transcriptome analysis revealed that EP4 (prostaglandin E receptor 4) stimulation markedly increased fibulin-1 in DA-SMCs via phospholipase C-NFκB (nuclear factor κB) signaling pathways. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that fibulin-1 binding protein versican was derived from DA-endothelial cells (ECs). We examined the effect of fibulin-1 on directional migration toward ECs in association with versican by using cocultured DA-SMCs and ECs. EP4 stimulation promoted directional DA-SMC migration toward ECs, which was attenuated by either silencing fibulin-1 or versican. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that fibulin-1 and versican V0/V1 were coexpressed at the IT of wild-type DA, whereas 30% of versican-deleted mice lacking a hyaluronan binding site displayed patent DA. Fibulin-1 expression was attenuated in the EP4-deficient mouse (Ptger4-/-) DA, which exhibits patent DA with hypoplastic IT, and fibulin-1 protein administration restored IT formation. In human DA, fibulin-1 and versican were abundantly expressed in SMCs and ECs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-1 contributes to DA closure by forming an environment favoring directional SMC migration toward the subendothelial region, at least, in part, in combination with EC-derived versican and its binding partner hyaluronan.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/metabolismo , Canal Arterial/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Canal Arterial/anormalidades , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/genética , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 256: 117986, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585245

RESUMO

AIMS: HSP70, a molecular chaperone, helps to maintain proteostasis. In muscle biology, however, evidence suggests HSP70 to have a more versatile range of functions, as genetic deletion of its inducible genes impairs Ca2+ handling, and consequently, cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility. Still, it is unknown whether HSP70 is involved in vascular reactivity, an intrinsic physiological mechanism of blood vessels. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that proper vascular reactivity requires the assistance of HSP70. MAIN METHODS: We performed functional studies in a wire-myograph using thoracic aorta isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats. Experiments were conducted with and without an HSP70 inhibitor as well as in heat-stressed vessels. The expression levels of HSP70 were evaluated with Western blotting. NO and ROS levels were assessed with fluorescence microscopy. KEY FINDINGS: We report that blockade of HSP70 weakens contraction in response to phenylephrine (dose-response) in the aorta. Additionally, we demonstrated that inhibition of HSP70 affects the amplitude of the fast and of the slow components of the time-force curve. Corroborating these findings, we found that inhibition of HSP70, in vessels over-expressing this protein, partly rescues the contractile phenotype of aortic rings. Furthermore, we show that blockade of HSP70 facilitates relaxation in response to acetylcholine and clonidine without affecting the basal levels of NO and ROS. SIGNIFICANCE: Our work introduces an additional physiological role for HSP70, the assistance of vascular reactivity, which highlights this protein as a new player in vascular physiology, and therefore, uncovers a promising research avenue for vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/agonistas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Nucleosídeos de Purina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555682

RESUMO

Renal dysplasia, the major cause of childhood renal failure, is characterized by defective branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis. Beta-catenin, a transcription factor and cell adhesion molecule, is markedly increased in the nucleus of kidney cells in human renal dysplasia and contributes to its pathogenesis by altering target genes that are essential for kidney development. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, reduces nuclear beta-catenin levels and reduces beta-catenin transcriptional activity. In this study, we utilized wild type and dysplastic mouse kidney organ explants to determine if quercetin reduces beta-catenin activity during kidney development and whether it improves the severity of renal dysplasia. In wild type kidney explants, quercetin treatment resulted in abnormal branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis in a dose dependent manner. In wild type embryonic kidneys, quercetin reduced nuclear beta-catenin expression and decreased expression of beta-catenin target genes Pax2, Six2, and Gdnf, which are essential for kidney development. Our RDB mouse model of renal dysplasia recapitulates the overexpression of beta-catenin and histopathological changes observed in human renal dysplasia. RDB kidneys treated with quercetin resulted in improvements in the overall histopathology, tissue organization, ureteric branching morphogenesis, and nephrogenesis. Quercetin treatment also resulted in reduced nuclear beta-catenin and reduced Pax2 expression. These improvements were associated with the proper organization of vimentin, NCAM, and E-cadherin, and a 45% increase in the number of developing and maturing nephrons. Further, our results show that in human renal dysplasia, beta-catenin, vimentin, and e-cadherin also have abnormal expression patterns. Taken together, these data demonstrate that quercetin treatment reduces nuclear beta-catenin and this is associated with improved epithelial organization of developing nephrons, resulting in increased developing nephrons and a partial rescue of renal dysplasia.


Assuntos
Rim/anormalidades , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Morfogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfogênese/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Gravidez , Vimentina/metabolismo , beta Catenina/química , beta Catenina/genética
10.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 622-625, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556552

RESUMO

The appearance of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV­2) poses challenges in ophthalmology particularly for eye banks. A valid risk assessment for the removal and processing of donor corneas is difficult due to the lack of data. The risk to infect transplant recipients with SARS-CoV­2 still appears very unlikely due to the experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus(­1) (SARS-CoV(­1)) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV); however, due to the occurrence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the cornea an infection of this tissue with SARS-CoV­2 cannot be completely excluded. Therefore, routine testing of the organ culture medium used for donor corneas for SARS-CoV­2 prior to transplantation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic should be considered.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Córnea , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2319-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507967

RESUMO

Preclinical assessment of novel therapies to fight cancer requires models that reflect the human physiology and immune response. Here, we established an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed organotypic human melanoma-in-skin (Mel-RhS) model to investigate cellular and molecular features of tumor formation over a period of 6 weeks. Tumor nests developed over time at the epidermal-dermal junction and spread towards the dermis, in places disrupting the basement membrane. This coincided with secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by melanoma cells. These features resemble the initial stages of invasive melanoma. Interestingly, while the SK-MEL-28 cell line did not secrete detectable levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in traditional two-dimensional monolayers, it did express IL-10 in the 3D Mel-RhS, as did the surrounding keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This cellular cross-talk-induced secretion of IL-10 in the Mel-RhS indicated the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. Culture supernatants from Mel-RhS interfered with monocyte-to-dendritic-cell differentiation, leading to the development of M2-like macrophages, which was in part prevented by antibody-mediated IL-10 blockade. Indeed, high-dimensional single-cell analysis revealed a shift within the monocyte population away from a CD163+PD-L1+ M2-like phenotype upon IL-10 blockade. Thus, the 3D configuration of the Mel-RhS model revealed a role for IL-10 in immune escape through misdirected myeloid differentiation, which would have been missed in classical monolayer cultures.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Pele , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421698

RESUMO

We have recently established a protocol to grow wildtype human oral mucosa organoids. These three-dimensional structures can be maintained in culture long-term, do not require immortalization, and recapitulate the multilayered composition of the epithelial lining of the oral mucosa. Here, we validate the use of this model to study the effect of Leucovorin (LV) on Methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although effective, the use of MTX often results in severe side-effects, including oral mucositis, which is characterized by epithelial cell death. Here, we show that organoids are sensitive to MTX, and that the addition of LV reduces MTX toxicity, in both a concentration- and timing-dependent manner. Additionally, we show that a 24 hour 'pretreatment' with LV reduces MTX-induced cell death, suggesting that such a pretreatment could decrease mucositis in patients. Taken together, we provide the first in vitro model to study the effect of MTX on wildtype oral mucosa cells. Our findings underscore the relevance of the clinically applied LV regimen and highlight the potential of this model to further optimize modifications in dosing and timing of Leucovorin on oral mucosa cells.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11432-11443, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381732

RESUMO

The structure and mechanics of many connective tissues are dictated by a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), where collagen fibers provide topological cues that direct cell migration. However, comparatively little is known about how cells navigate the hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich, nanoporous ECM of the brain, a problem with fundamental implications for development, inflammation, and tumor invasion. Here, we demonstrate that glioblastoma cells adhere to and invade HA-rich matrix using microtentacles (McTNs), which extend tens of micrometers from the cell body and are distinct from filopodia. We observe these structures in continuous culture models and primary patient-derived tumor cells, as well as in synthetic HA matrix and organotypic brain slices. High-magnification and superresolution imaging reveals McTNs are dynamic, CD44-coated tubular protrusions containing microtubules and actin filaments, which respectively drive McTN extension and retraction. Molecular mechanistic studies reveal that McTNs are stabilized by an interplay between microtubule-driven protrusion, actomyosin-driven retraction, and CD44-mediated adhesion, where adhesive and cytoskeletal components are mechanistically coupled by an IQGAP1-CLIP170 complex. McTNs represent a previously unappreciated mechanism through which cells engage nanoporous HA matrix and may represent an important molecular target in physiology and disease.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/patologia , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/metabolismo
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007932, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453795

RESUMO

Fast synaptic inhibition is a critical determinant of neuronal output, with subcellular targeting of synaptic inhibition able to exert different transformations of the neuronal input-output function. At the receptor level, synaptic inhibition is primarily mediated by chloride-permeable Type A GABA receptors. Consequently, dynamics in the neuronal chloride concentration can alter the functional properties of inhibitory synapses. How differences in the spatial targeting of inhibitory synapses interact with intracellular chloride dynamics to modulate the input-output function of neurons is not well understood. To address this, we developed computational models of multi-compartment neurons that incorporate experimentally parametrised mechanisms to account for neuronal chloride influx, diffusion, and extrusion. We found that synaptic input (either excitatory, inhibitory, or both) can lead to subcellular variations in chloride concentration, despite a uniform distribution of chloride extrusion mechanisms. Accounting for chloride changes resulted in substantial alterations in the neuronal input-output function. This was particularly the case for peripherally targeted dendritic inhibition where dynamic chloride compromised the ability of inhibition to offset neuronal input-output curves. Our simulations revealed that progressive changes in chloride concentration mean that the neuronal input-output function is not static but varies significantly as a function of the duration of synaptic drive. Finally, we found that the observed effects of dynamic chloride on neuronal output were mediated by changes in the dendritic reversal potential for GABA. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the computational effects of chloride dynamics on dendritically targeted synaptic inhibition.


Assuntos
Cloretos/química , Dendritos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ligação Proteica , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2660, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461556

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC)-often referred to as a "silent killer"-is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. The fallopian tube (murine oviduct) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) are considered the main candidate tissues of origin of this cancer. However, the relative contribution of each tissue to HG-SOC is not yet clear. Here, we establish organoid-based tumor progression models of HG-SOC from murine oviductal and OSE tissues. We use CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to introduce mutations into genes commonly found mutated in HG-SOC, such as Trp53, Brca1, Nf1 and Pten. Our results support the dual origin hypothesis of HG-SOC, as we demonstrate that both epithelia can give rise to ovarian tumors with high-grade pathology. However, the mutated oviductal organoids expand much faster in vitro and more readily form malignant tumors upon transplantation. Furthermore, in vitro drug testing reveals distinct lineage-dependent sensitivities to the common drugs used to treat HG-SOC in patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Organoides , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Epitélio/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ovário/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Anesthesiology ; 133(2): 377-392, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine induces a sedative response that is associated with rapid arousal. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the authors hypothesized that dexmedetomidine increases the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and that this action contributes to the unique sedative properties of dexmedetomidine. METHODS: Only male mice were used. The activity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons was measured by a genetically encoded Ca indicator and patch-clamp recording. Dopamine neurotransmitter dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were measured by a genetically encoded dopamine sensor. Ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons were inhibited or activated by a chemogenetic approach, and the depth of sedation was estimated by electroencephalography. RESULTS: Ca signals in dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area increased after intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine (40 µg/kg; dexmedetomidine, 16.917 [14.882; 21.748], median [25%; 75%], vs. saline, -0.745 [-1.547; 0.359], normalized data, P = 0.001; n = 6 mice). Dopamine transmission increased in the medial prefrontal cortex after intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine (40 µg/kg; dexmedetomidine, 10.812 [9.713; 15.104], median [25%; 75%], vs. saline, -0.498 [-0.664; -0.355], normalized data, P = 0.001; n = 6 mice) and in the nucleus accumbens (dexmedetomidine, 8.543 [7.135; 11.828], median [25%; 75%], vs. saline, -0.329 [-1.220; -0.047], normalized data, P = 0.001; n = 6 mice). Chemogenetic inhibition or activation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons increased or decreased slow waves, respectively, after intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine (40 µg/kg; delta wave: two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F[2, 33] = 8.016, P = 0.002; n = 12 mice; theta wave: two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F[2, 33] = 22.800, P < 0.0001; n = 12 mice). CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine activates dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and increases dopamine concentrations in the related forebrain projection areas. This mechanism may explain rapid arousability upon dexmedetomidine sedation.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Animais , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/química , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Fotometria/métodos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/química , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(1): C64-C74, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401607

RESUMO

Insulin resistance leads to excessive endothelial cell (EC) superoxide generation and accelerated atherosclerosis. The principal source of superoxide from the insulin-resistant endothelium is the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase. Here we examine the therapeutic potential of Nox2 inhibition on superoxide generation in saphenous vein ECs (SVECs) from patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes and on vascular function, vascular damage, and lipid deposition in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice with EC-specific insulin resistance (ESMIRO). To examine the effect of genetic inhibition of Nox2, ESMIRO mice deficient in ApoE-/- and Nox2 (ESMIRO/ApoE-/-/Nox2-/y) were generated and compared with ESMIRO/ApoE-/-/Nox2+/y littermates. To examine the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Nox2, we administered gp91dstat or scrambled peptide to ESMIRO/ApoE-/- mice. SVECs from diabetic patients had increased expression of Nox2 protein with concomitant increase in superoxide generation, which could be reduced by the Nox2 inhibitor gp91dstat. After 12 wk Western diet, ESMIRO/ApoE-/-/Nox2-/y mice had reduced EC superoxide generation and greater aortic relaxation to acetylcholine. ESMIRO/ApoE-/-/Nox2-/y mice developed more lipid deposition in the thoraco-abdominal aorta with multiple foci of elastin fragmentation at the level of the aortic sinus and greater expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Gp91dstat reduced EC superoxide and lipid deposition in the thoraco-abdominal aorta of ESMIRO/ApoE-/- mice without causing elastin fragmentation or increased ICAM-1 expression. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance is characterized by increased Nox2-derived vascular superoxide. Complete deletion of Nox2 in mice with EC insulin resistance exacerbates, whereas partial pharmacological Nox2 inhibition protects against, insulin resistance-induced vascular damage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , NADPH Oxidase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2/deficiência , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
18.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(1): C151-C165, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459504

RESUMO

In vitro cell cultures are crucial research tools for modeling human development and diseases. Although the conventional monolayer cell cultures have been widely used in the past, the lack of tissue architecture and complexity of such model fails to inform the true biological processes in vivo. Recent advances in the organoid technology have revolutionized the in vitro culture tools for biomedical research by creating powerful three-dimensional (3D) models to recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity, structure, and functions of the primary tissues. Such organoid technology enables researchers to recreate human organs and diseases in a dish and thus holds great promises for many translational applications such as regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and precision medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the organoid history and development. We discuss the strengths and limitations of organoids as well as their potential applications in the laboratory and the clinic.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides/fisiologia , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/tendências , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/tendências , Organoides/citologia
19.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 228-232, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314900

RESUMO

Branching morphology is important to ensure that the organ can obtain the efficient functional morphology in a limited volume. The submandibular gland is a crucial model for studying the morphological processes of organ branches. Harvesting the submandibular gland from mouse embryo is also an essential research technique. In this paper, a modified method for obtaining the submandibular glands of mouse embryo was introduced, and the whole process of obtaining and establishing in vitro organ culture was briefly introduced to accurately simulate branch morphogenesis for vivo development and related research.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Glândula Submandibular , Animais , Camundongos , Morfogênese , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1994, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332736

RESUMO

Gas1 and Boc/Cdon act as co-receptors in the vertebrate Hedgehog signalling pathway, but the nature of their interaction with the primary Ptch1/2 receptors remains unclear. Here we demonstrate, using primordial germ cell migration in mouse as a developmental model, that specific hetero-complexes of Ptch2/Gas1 and Ptch1/Boc mediate the process of Smo de-repression with different kinetics, through distinct modes of Hedgehog ligand reception. Moreover, Ptch2-mediated Hedgehog signalling induces the phosphorylation of Creb and Src proteins in parallel to Gli induction, identifying a previously unknown Ptch2-specific signal pathway. We propose that although Ptch1 and Ptch2 functionally overlap in the sequestration of Smo, the spatiotemporal expression of Boc and Gas1 may determine the outcome of Hedgehog signalling through compartmentalisation and modulation of Smo-downstream signalling. Our study identifies the existence of a divergent Hedgehog signal pathway mediated by Ptch2 and provides a mechanism for differential interpretation of Hedgehog signalling in the germ cell niche.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Receptor Patched-1/metabolismo , Receptor Patched-2/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Microscopia Intravital , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor Smoothened/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
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