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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180487, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618408

RESUMO

Authentication of cell lines is of paramount importance to validate the results from their use in biomedical research. Although isoenzyme polymorphism is the standard method, molecular methods based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been developed to replace it. The aim of this study was the improvement of our isoenzyme electrophoretic analysis and the validation of one molecular technique targeted at mtDNA for the authentication of our animal cell lines. The combined method of cellular lysing through osmotic shock, followed by freezing-thawing in N2 to obtain isoenzyme extracts, and with 42 × 106 cells maintained the best efficiency. The superior electrophoretic conditions were PAGE run at 200 V. All cell lines had isoenzymatic mobility corresponding to their species to lactate dehydrogenase, malate-dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, and could be distinguished from each other. Two molecular techniques based on mtDNA were tested, one on the cytochrome b gene and other on cytochrome c oxidase I subunit gene. Due to difficulties in distinguishing all cell lines using only one these techniques, we merged the primers of two methods in such a way that there was a sufficient differentiation of all DNA fragments. The sequencing of these PCR products was also performed to validate these data.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Isoenzimas/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Eletroforese , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , Malato Desidrogenase/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
Cell Prolif ; 52(5): e12668, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reproducing human hair follicles in vitro is often limited by various reasons such as the lack of a systematic approach to culture distinct hair follicle cell types to reproduce their spatial relationship. Here, we reproduce hair follicle-like constructs resembling the spatial orientation of different cells in vivo, to study the role of keratinocytes in maintaining cellular compartmentalization among hair follicle-related cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dermal papilla (DP) cells, HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells were seeded sequentially into three-dimensional (3D) microwells fabricated from polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogels. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare inductive gene expression of 3D and two-dimensional (2D) DP. DP and HaCaT cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein lentivirus, respectively, to enable cell visualization using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The 3D DP cultures showed significantly enhanced expression of essential DP genes as compared 2D cultures. Core-shell configurations containing keratinocytes forming the outer shell and DP forming the core were observed. Migratory polarization was mediated by cell-cell interaction between the keratinocytes and HDF cells, while preserving the aggregated state of the DP cells. CONCLUSIONS: Keratinocytes may play a role in maintaining compartmentalization between the DP and the surrounding HDF residing in the dermis, and therefore maintains the aggregative state of the DP cells, necessary for hair follicle development and function.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Queratinócitos/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Derme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e058, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432925

RESUMO

Cementum is the mineralized tissue covering the tooth root that functions in tooth attachment and post-eruptive adjustment of tooth position. It has been reported to be highly similar to bone in several respects but remains poorly understood in terms of development and regeneration. Here, we investigate whether cementocytes, the residing cells in cellular cementum, have the potential to be protagonist in cementum homeostasis, responding to endocrine signals and directing local cementum metabolism. Cells from healthy erupted human teeth were isolated using sequential collagenase/EDTA digestions, and maintained in standard cell culture conditions. A cementocyte-like cell line was cloned (HCY-23, for human cementocyte clone 23), which presented a cementocyte compatible gene expression signature, including the expression of dentin matrix protein 1 ( DMP1 ), sclerostin ( SOST ), and E11/gp38/podoplanin ( E11 ). In contrast, these cells did not express the odontoblast/dentin marker dentin sialoprotein ( DSPP ). HCY-23 cells produced mineral-like nodules in vitro under differentiation conditions, and were highly responsive to inorganic phosphate (Pi). Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that cementocytes are phosphate-responsive cells, and have the potential do play a key role in periodontal homeostasis and regeneration.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Cemento Dentário/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/análise , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cemento Dentário/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/análise , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Dente Molar/citologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sialoglicoproteínas/análise , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3029, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292444

RESUMO

With improving biofabrication technology, 3D bioprinted constructs increasingly resemble real tissues. However, the fundamental principles describing how cell-generated forces within these constructs drive deformations, mechanical instabilities, and structural failures have not been established, even for basic biofabricated building blocks. Here we investigate mechanical behaviours of 3D printed microbeams made from living cells and extracellular matrix, bioprinting these simple structural elements into a 3D culture medium made from packed microgels, creating a mechanically controlled environment that allows the beams to evolve under cell-generated forces. By varying the properties of the beams and the surrounding microgel medium, we explore the mechanical behaviours exhibited by these structures. We observe buckling, axial contraction, failure, and total static stability, and we develop mechanical models of cell-ECM microbeam mechanics. We envision these models and their generalizations to other fundamental 3D shapes to facilitate the predictable design of biofabricated structures using simple building blocks in the future.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Matriz Extracelular , Géis/química , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3
5.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(6): 424-429, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357757

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of substrate mechanical microenvironment and cell-cell interaction on differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), intrahepatic cellular function and phenotype. Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-hepatocytes (HCs) and BMSCs-hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were co-cultured on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel substrates at different stiffness (4.50 ± 0.47 kPa, 19.00 ± 3.51 kPa and 37.00 ± 2.09 kPa) by non-contact co-culture method. Furthermore, the effect of substrate mechanical microenvironment on BMSCs, HCs and HSCs and the activation and proliferation of HCs under different co-cultured condition was studied. A Student's t-test was used to compare the two groups. Results: The expression ofα-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagenα1- I (Col1A1) in BMSCs and HSCs cultured on its own increased with increase of substrate stiffness. After 72 h, the expression of albumin (ALB) of HCs on three stiff substrates was significantly higher than that of 24 and 48 h. Moreover, the expression of ALB of HCs increased with the increase of substrate stiffness. During the co-culture of BMSCs and HSCs, BMSCs of all three stiffness substrates promoted the expression ofα-SMA, Col1A1 in HSCs, but reduced the expression of PPARγin HSCs cells, thererby promoted the activation of HSCs, with apparent stiffness at 37 kPa. HSCs promoted the expression of ABL in BMSCs at three stiff substrates, but inhibited the expression of alpha-SMA and Col1A1 in BMSCs at 37 kPa, suggesting that co-culture had inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs myofibroblasts, and promoted the differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells, especially at high stiff substrates. In the co-culture of BMSCs and hepatic parenchymal cells, BMSCs had promoted the proliferation of hepatic parenchymal cells at 4.5 kPa. Further, hepatic parenchymal cells had inhibited the expression ofα-SMA in BMSCs, and promoted the expression of Alb, with inhibition of BMSCs differentiation towards myofibroblasts. Conclusion: The differentiation of BMSCs affects the substrate mechanical microenvironment, co-culture of HCs and HSCs. Simultaneously, affecting the function of hepatocytes in relation to the mechanical state of the substrates.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea , Comunicação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Malar J ; 18(1): 215, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse genetics approaches have become powerful tools to dissect the biology of malaria parasites. In a previous study, development of an in vitro drug selection method for generating transgenic parasite of Plasmodium berghei was reported. Using this method, two novel and independent selection markers using the P. berghei heat shock protein 70 promoter was previously established. While the approach permits the easy and flexible genetic manipulation of P. berghei, shortcomings include a low variety in promoter options to drive marker gene expression and increased complexity of the selection procedure. In this study, addressing these issues was attempted. METHODS: To secure a variety of promoters, the use of a P. berghei elongation factor-1α promoter for marker gene expression was attempted. To simplify the procedure of in vitro selection, the establishment of a two cell-cycle culture method and its application for drug selection were attempted. RESULTS: The P. berghei elongation factor-1α (pbef-1α) promoter, which is commonly used to drive marker gene expression, was successfully applied as an alternative promoter model for marker gene expression, using the parasite's codon-optimized marker sequence. To simplify the in vitro selection method, a two cell-cycle culture method in which the merozoite was released by filtration of the culture containing matured schizont-infected erythrocytes was also developed and successfully applied for drug selection. CONCLUSION: The pbef-1α promoter was successfully applied in an in vitro selection system. The in vitro selection procedure also could be simplified for practical use using a two cell-cycle culture method. These improvements provide a more versatile platform for the genetic manipulation of P. berghei.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Feminino , Malária/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/efeitos dos fármacos , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2806-2821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254429

RESUMO

In human and dogs, bladder cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm affecting the urinary tract. Dog BC resembles human muscle-invasive BC in histopathological characteristics and gene expression profiles, and could be an important research model for this disease. Cancer patient-derived organoid culture can recapitulate organ structures and maintains the gene expression profiles of original tumor tissues. In a previous study, we generated dog prostate cancer organoids using urine samples, however dog BC organoids had never been produced. Therefore we aimed to generate dog BC organoids using urine samples and check their histopathological characteristics, drug sensitivity, and gene expression profiles. Organoids from individual BC dogs were successfully generated, expressed urothelial cell markers (CK7, CK20, and UPK3A) and exhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. In a cell viability assay, the response to combined treatment with a range of anticancer drugs (cisplatin, vinblastine, gemcitabine or piroxicam) was markedly different in each BC organoid. In RNA-sequencing analysis, expression levels of basal cell markers (CK5 and DSG3) and several novel genes (MMP28, CTSE, CNN3, TFPI2, COL17A1, and AGPAT4) were upregulated in BC organoids compared with normal bladder tissues or two-dimensional (2D) BC cell lines. These established dog BC organoids might be a useful tool, not only to determine suitable chemotherapy for BC diseased dogs but also to identify novel biomarkers in human muscle-invasive BC. In the present study, for the 1st time, dog BC organoids were generated and several specifically upregulated organoid genes were identified. Our data suggest that dog BC organoids might become a new tool to provide fresh insights into both dog BC therapy and diagnostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/veterinária , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação para Cima , Bexiga Urinária/citologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Urina/citologia , Urotélio/citologia
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 201, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joint injury is extremely common in equine athletes and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), a progressive and debilitating disease, is estimated to affect 60% of horses in the USA. The limited potential for intrinsic healing of articular cartilage has prompted intense efforts to identify a cell-based repair strategy to prevent progression of PTOA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to become an ideal source for cell-based treatment of cartilage lesions; however, full chondrogenic differentiation remains elusive. Due to the relatively low oxygen tension in articular cartilage, hypoxia has been proposed as a method of increasing MSC chondrogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoxic culture conditions on chondrogenesis in equine synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). MSCs were isolated from synovial membrane and bone marrow collected from 5 horses. Flow cytometric analysis was used to assess cell surface marker expression including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD45, CD-79α, MHCI and MHCII. MSC pellets were cultured in normoxic (21% O2) or in hypoxic (5% O2) culture conditions for 28 days. Following the culture period, chondrogenesis was assessed by histology, biochemical analyses and gene expression of chondrogenic-related genes including ACAN, COL2b, SOX9, and COL10A1. RESULTS: Both cell types expressed markers consistent with stemness including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and MHCI and were negative for exclusion markers (CD45, CD79α, and MHCII). Although the majority of outcome variables of chondrogenic differentiation were not significantly different between cell types or culture conditions, COL10A1 expression, a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy, was lowest in hypoxic SM-MSCs and was significantly lower in hypoxic SM-MSCs compared to hypoxic BM-MSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxic culture conditions do not appear to increase chondrogenesis of equine SM-MSCs or BM-MSCs; however, hypoxia may downregulate the hypertrophic marker COL10A1 in SM-MSCs.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Condrogênese , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/veterinária , Células Cultivadas , Cavalos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/citologia
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116598, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247209

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a rare cell population in adult bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood possessing self-renewal and differentiation capability into a full spectrum of blood cells. Bone marrow HSC transplantation has been considered as an ideal option for certain disorders treatment including hematologic diseases, leukemia, immunodeficiency, bone marrow failure syndrome, genetic defects such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, autoimmune disease, and certain solid cancers. Ex vivo proliferation of these cells prior to transplantation has been proposed as a potential solution against limited number of stem cells. In such culture process, MSCs have also been shown to exhibit high capacity for secretion of soluble mediators contributing to the principle biological and therapeutic activities of HSCs. In addition, endothelial cells have been introduced to bridge the blood and sub tissues in the bone marrow, as well as, HSCs regeneration induction and survival. Cell culture in the laboratory environment requires cell growth strict control to protect against contamination, symmetrical cell division and optimal conditions for maximum yield. In this regard, microfluidic systems provide culture and analysis capabilities in micro volume scales. Moreover, two-dimensional cultures cannot fully demonstrate extracellular matrix found in different tissues and organs as an abstract representation of three dimensional cell structure. Microfluidic systems can also strongly describe the effects of physical factors such as temperature and pressure on cell behavior.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
10.
Cell Prolif ; 52(4): e12587, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cellular aggregates are readily applicable in cell-based therapy. The effects of agitation and inoculation density on the aggregation of cells in spinner flask and the molecular mechanism of aggregation were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aggregation kinetics of cells in spinner flask was evaluated with bovine articular chondrocytes (bACs), rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and their mixture. The morphology of cellular aggregates was studied with scanning electron microscopy and gene expression of cell adhesion-related molecules was analysed. RESULTS: It was shown that suspension culture in spinner flask induced the aggregation of bACs and rMSCs. Both cells exhibited increased aggregation rate and aggregate size with decreasing agitation rate and increasing cell inoculation density. Additionally, aggregate size increased with extended culture time. By analysing gene expression of integrin ß1 and cadherin, it was indicated that these molecules were potentially involved in the aggregation process of bACs and rMSCs, respectively. Aggregates composed of both bACs and rMSCs were also prepared, showing rMSCs in the core and bACs in the periphery. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular aggregates were prepared in dynamic suspension culture using spinner flask, the key parameters to the aggregation process were identified, and the molecular mechanism of aggregation was revealed. This would lay a solid foundation for the large-scale production of cellular aggregates for cell-based therapy, such as cartilage regeneration.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Bovinos , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Contagem de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Coelhos
11.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1175-1181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if the peripheral corneal endothelium that is discarded after the preparation of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts for transplantation could be successfully used for corneal endothelial cell culture. METHODS: Complete Descemet membrane-endothelial complex (11.00 mm) was peeled from research-grade tissues (n = 15). The periphery (2.75 mm) of clinical-grade tissues (n = 15) deemed for preloaded DMEK transplants was gently peeled and preserved for 48 hours in tissue culture media, followed by centrifugation at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes. After enzymatic digestion, the cells from each group were plated in 2 different wells of an 8-well chamber slide. Media were refreshed and the confluence rate was monitored every alternate day. Live/dead staining and the expression of ZO-1, Tag1A3, Tag2A12, and Ki-67 markers were used to assess the viability, morphology, tight-junctions, cell area, and number of proliferative cells. The Wilcoxon and Student's t test were applied, where P < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Average endothelial cell density at confluence was 2,352 cells/mm2 from complete endothelium and 2,510 cells/mm from peripheral endothelium (P = 0.0351). The confluence rate (%), hexagonality (%), polymorphism (%), cell area (µm), and Ki-67 positivity (%) did not differ between both groups (P > 0.05). All the antibodies were expressed in both groups at confluence. CONCLUSIONS: The discarded peripheral endothelial cells obtained after preparing a preloaded DMEK graft for clinical application has a huge reservoir of healthy endothelial cells having proliferative potential. Using these discarded tissue pieces from donor tissues will significantly increase the primary source of healthy donor endothelial cells for regenerative treatments, which are otherwise difficult to obtain.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Epitélio Posterior/citologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Contagem de Células , Lâmina Limitante Posterior/cirurgia , Humanos
12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1195-1209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177329

RESUMO

The anti-tumor efficacy of TCR-engineered T cells in vivo depends largely on less-differentiated subsets such as T cells with naïve-like T cell (TN) phenotypes with greater expansion and long-term persistence. To increase these subsets, we compared the generation of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1)-specific T cells under supplementation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15. PBMCs were transduced with MS3II-NY-ESO-1-siTCR retroviral vector. T cell generation was adapted from a CD19-specific CART cell production protocol. Comparable results in viability, expansion and transduction efficiency of T cells under stimulation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15 were observed. IL-7/IL-15 led to an increase of CD4+ T cells and a decrease of CD8+ T cells, enriched the amount of TN among CD4+ T cells but not among CD8+ T cells. In a 51Cr release assay, similar specific lysis of NY-ESO-1-positive SW982 sarcoma cells was achieved. However, intracellular cytokine staining revealed a significantly increased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in T cells generated by IL-2 stimulation. To validate these unexpected findings, NY-ESO-1-specific T cell production was evaluated in another protocol originally established for TCR-engineered T cells. IL-7/IL-15 increased the proportion of TN. However, the absolute number of TN did not increase due to a significantly slower expansion of T cells with IL-7/IL-15. In conclusion, IL-7/IL-15 does not seem to be superior to IL-2 for the generation of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells. This is in sharp contrast to the observations in CD19-specific CART cells. Changes of cytokine cocktails should be carefully evaluated for individual vector systems.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética
13.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 17(2): 169-182, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100356

RESUMO

Emerging antibiotic resistance is a major global health threat. The analysis of nucleic acid sequences linked to susceptibility phenotypes facilitates the study of genetic antibiotic resistance determinants to inform molecular diagnostics and drug development. We collected genetic data (11,087 newly-sequenced whole genomes) and culture-based resistance profiles (10,991 out of the 11,087 isolates comprehensively tested against 22 antibiotics in total) of clinical isolates including 18 main species spanning a time period of 30 years. Species and drug specific resistance patterns were observed including increased resistance rates for Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems and for Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones. Species-level pan-genomes were constructed to reflect the genetic repertoire of the respective species, including conserved essential genes and known resistance factors. Integrating phenotypes and genotypes through species-level pan-genomes allowed to infer gene-drug resistance associations using statistical testing. The isolate collection and the analysis results have been integrated into GEAR-base, a resource available for academic research use free of charge at https://gear-base.com.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Internet , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo
14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 1772-1781, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131631

RESUMO

Since proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in culture system provide successful transplantation in this study, culture of human SSCs was compared to SACS (soft agar culture system), gelatin and control groups. The cells were isolated from seminiferous tubules of non-azoospermia patients (NOA) and cultured in DMEM for 3 weeks. The presence of SSCs in culture system was confirmed by immunocytochemistry of GFR-α1 and ITGα6 antibodies. The proliferated cells were cultured in three mentioned groups in the presence of retinoic acid and Sertoli cells conditioned medium for another 2 weeks. The number of colonies in the SACS group was significantly higher than two other groups. Before 2 weeks of culture, only Oct4 expression was observed in testicular cells (2.32 ± 0.25). After 2 weeks, the expression of Oct4 in the gelatin group was higher than that of the SACS group on day 7. The maximum expression of Stra8 was observed in SACS and gelatin groups after 7 days, but its expression was significantly decreased after 14 days of culture (p < .05). The expression of Scp3 and Acrosin genes were higher after 14 days in the SACS group compared to other groups. SACS has positive effects on proliferation and differentiation of hSSCs.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ágar/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nature ; 571(7763): 117-121, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142833

RESUMO

Multipotent self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate the adult blood system after transplantation1, which is a curative therapy for numerous diseases including immunodeficiencies and leukaemias2. Although substantial effort has been applied to identifying HSC maintenance factors through the characterization of the in vivo bone-marrow HSC microenvironment or niche3-5, stable ex vivo HSC expansion has previously been unattainable6,7. Here we describe the development of a defined, albumin-free culture system that supports the long-term ex vivo expansion of functional mouse HSCs. We used a systematic optimization approach, and found that high levels of thrombopoietin synergize with low levels of stem-cell factor and fibronectin to sustain HSC self-renewal. Serum albumin has long been recognized as a major source of biological contaminants in HSC cultures8; we identify polyvinyl alcohol as a functionally superior replacement for serum albumin that is compatible with good manufacturing practice. These conditions afford between 236- and 899-fold expansions of functional HSCs over 1 month, although analysis of clonally derived cultures suggests that there is considerable heterogeneity in the self-renewal capacity of HSCs ex vivo. Using this system, HSC cultures that are derived from only 50 cells robustly engraft in recipient mice without the normal requirement for toxic pre-conditioning (for example, radiation), which may be relevant for HSC transplantation in humans. These findings therefore have important implications for both basic HSC research and clinical haematology.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Álcool de Polivinil/farmacologia , Albumina Sérica , Fator de Células-Tronco/farmacologia , Trombopoetina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
16.
Adv Neurobiol ; 22: 3-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073930

RESUMO

Over the past century, robust methods were developed that enable the isolation, culture, and dynamic observation of mammalian neuronal networks in vitro. But even if neuronal culture cannot yet fully recapitulate the normal brain, the knowledge that has been acquired from these surrogate in vitro models is invaluable. Indeed, neuronal culture has continued to propel basic neuroscience research, proving that in vitro systems have legitimacy when it comes to studying either the healthy or diseased human brain. Furthermore, scientific advancement typically parallels technical refinements in the field. A pertinent example is that a collective drive in the field of neuroscience to better understand the development, organization, and emergent properties of neuronal networks is being facilitated by progressive advances in micro-electrode array (MEA) technology. In this chapter, we briefly review the emergence of neuronal cell culture as a technique, the current trends in human stem cell-based modeling, and the technologies used to monitor neuronal communication. We conclude by highlighting future prospects that are evolving specifically out of the combination of human neuronal models and MEA technology.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Rede Nervosa/citologia
17.
Adv Neurobiol ; 22: 51-79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073932

RESUMO

In recent years, the scientific community has witnessed an exponential increase in the use of nanomaterials for biomedical applications. In particular, the interest of graphene and graphene-based materials has rapidly risen in the neuroscience field due to the properties of this material, such as high conductivity, transparency and flexibility. As for any new material that aims to play a role in the biomedical area, a fundamental aspect is the evaluation of its toxicity, which strongly depends on material composition, chemical functionalization and dimensions. Furthermore, a wide variety of three-dimensional scaffolds have also started to be exploited as a substrate for tissue engineering. In this application, the topography is probably the most relevant amongst the various properties of the different materials, as it may allow to instruct and interrogate neural networks, as well as to drive neural growth and differentiation.This chapter discusses the in vitro approaches, ranging from microscopy analysis to physiology measurements, to investigate the interaction of graphene with the central nervous system. Moreover, the in vitro use of three-dimensional scaffolds is described and commented.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Grafite , Nanoestruturas , Neurônios/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Engenharia Tecidual
18.
Adv Neurobiol ; 22: 299-329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073942

RESUMO

This chapter provides an overview of the current stage of human in vitro functional neuronal cultures, their biological application areas, and modalities to analyze their behavior. During the last 10 years, this research area has changed from being practically non-existent to one that is facing high expectations. Here, we present a case study as a comprehensive short history of this process based on extensive studies conducted at NeuroGroup (University of Tampere) and Computational Biophysics and Imaging Group (Tampere University of Technology), ranging from the differentiation and culturing of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks to their electrophysiological analysis. After an introduction to neuronal differentiation in hPSCs, we review our work on their functionality and approaches for extending cultures from 2D to 3D systems. Thereafter, we discuss our target applications in neuronal developmental modeling, toxicology, drug screening, and disease modeling. The development of signal analysis methods was required due to the unique functional and developmental properties of hPSC-derived neuronal cells and networks, which separate them from their much-used rodent counterparts. Accordingly, a line of microelectrode array (MEA) signal analysis methods was developed. This work included the development of action potential spike detection methods, entropy-based methods and additional methods for burst detection and quantification, joint analysis of spikes and bursts to analyze the spike waveform compositions of bursts, assessment methods for network synchronization, and computational simulations of synapses and neuronal networks.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Microeletrodos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Humanos
19.
Adv Neurobiol ; 22: 351-387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073944

RESUMO

One of the main limitations preventing the realization of a successful dialogue between the brain and a putative enabling device is the intricacy of brain signals. In this perspective, closed-loop in vitro systems can be used to investigate the interactions between a network of neurons and an external system, such as an interacting environment or an artificial device. In this chapter, we provide an overview of closed-loop in vitro systems, which have been developed for investigating potential neuroprosthetic applications. In particular, we first explore how to modify or set a target dynamical behavior in a network of neurons. We then analyze the behavior of in vitro systems connected to artificial devices, such as robots. Finally, we provide an overview of biological neuronal networks interacting with artificial neuronal networks, a configuration currently offering a promising solution for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Neurônios/citologia , Robótica/métodos , Encéfalo/citologia , Humanos
20.
Cell Prolif ; 52(4): e12604, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For optimized expansion of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with regards to clinical applications, we investigated the influence of the inoculum density on the expansion procedure in 3D hollow-fibre bioreactors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical-scale bioreactors with a cell compartment volume of 3 mL or a large-scale bioreactor with a cell compartment volume of 17 mL were used and inoculated with either 10 × 106 or 50 × 106 hiPSCs. Cells were cultured in bioreactors over 15 days; daily measurements of biochemical parameters were performed. At the end of the experiment, the CellTiter-Blue® Assay was used for culture activity evaluation and cell quantification. Also, cell compartment sections were removed for gene expression and immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: The results revealed significantly higher values for cell metabolism, cell activity and cell yields when using the higher inoculation number, but also a more distinct differentiation. As large inoculation numbers require cost and time-extensive pre-expansion, low inoculation numbers may be used preferably for long-term expansion of hiPSCs. Expansion of hiPSCs in the large-scale bioreactor led to a successful production of 5.4 × 109 hiPSCs, thereby achieving sufficient cell amounts for clinical applications. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results show a significant effect of the inoculum density on cell expansion, differentiation and production of hiPSCs, emphasizing the importance of the inoculum density for downstream applications of hiPSCs. Furthermore, the bioreactor technology was successfully applied for controlled and scalable production of hiPSCs for clinical use.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
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