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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8397053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029526

RESUMO

Introduction: The Portuguese healthcare system had to adapt at short notice to the COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented workflow changes to our molecular pathology laboratory, a national reference center, to maximize safety and productivity. We assess the impact this situation had on our caseload and what conclusions can be drawn about the wider impact of the pandemic in oncological therapy in Portugal. Material and Methods. We reviewed our database for all oncological molecular tests requested between March and April of 2019 and 2020. For each case, we recorded age, sex, region of the country, requesting institution, sample type, testing method, and turnaround time (TAT). A comparison between years was made. Results: The total number of tests decreased from 421 in 2019 to 319 in 2020 (p = 0.0027). The greatest reduction was in clinical trial-related cases. Routine cases were similar between years (267 vs. 256). TAT was higher in 2019 (mean 15 days vs. 12.3 days; p = 0.0003). Medium- to large-sized public hospitals in the north of the country were mostly responsible for the reduction in cases (p = 0.0153). Conclusions: Case reduction was observed at hospitals that have mostly been involved in the treatment of COVID-19 and in the north of the country, the region worst-hit by the pandemic. Similar to other studies, our TAT decreased, even with a similar number of routine cases. Thus, we conclude that it is possible to successfully adapt the workflow of a molecular pathology laboratory to new safety standards without losing efficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Patologia Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pessoal de Laboratório , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4774, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963224

RESUMO

Detection of microbial nucleic acids in body fluids has become the preferred method for rapid diagnosis of many infectious diseases. However, culture-based diagnostics that are time-consuming remain the gold standard approach in certain cases, such as sepsis. New culture-free methods are urgently needed. Here, we describe Single MOLecule Tethering or SMOLT, an amplification-free and purification-free molecular assay that can detect microorganisms in body fluids with high sensitivity without the need of culturing. The signal of SMOLT is generated by the displacement of micron-size beads tethered by DNA probes that are between 1 and 7 microns long. The molecular extension of thousands of DNA probes is determined with sub-micron precision using a robust and rapid optical approach. We demonstrate that SMOLT can detect nucleic acids directly in blood, urine and sputum at sub-femtomolar concentrations, and microorganisms in blood at 1 CFU mL-1 (colony forming unit per milliliter) threefold faster, with higher multiplexing capacity and with a more straight-forward protocol than amplified methodologies. SMOLT's clinical utility is further demonstrated by developing a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of sepsis-causing Candida species directly in whole blood.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Urina
3.
J Clin Virol ; 131: 104614, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid sample-to-answer tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 are emerging and data on their relative performance is urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the analytical performance of two rapid nucleic acid tests, Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Mobidiag Novodiag® Covid-19, in comparison to a combination reference of three large-scale PCR tests. Moreover, utility of the Novodiag® test in tertiary care emergency departments was assessed. RESULTS: In the preliminary evaluation, analysis of 90 respiratory samples resulted in 100% specificity and sensitivity for Xpert®, whereas analysis of 107 samples resulted in 93.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Novodiag®. Rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing with Novodiag® was made available for four tertiary care emergency departments in Helsinki, Finland between 18 and 31 May, coinciding with a rapidly declining epidemic phase. Altogether 361 respiratory specimens, together with relevant clinical data, were analyzed with Novodiag® and reference tests: 355/361 of the specimens were negative with both methods, and 1/361 was positive in Novodiag® and negative by the reference method. Of the 5 remaining specimens, two were negative with Novodiag®, but positive with the reference method with late Ct values. On average, a test result using Novodiag® was available nearly 8 hours earlier than that obtained with the large-scale PCR tests. CONCLUSIONS: While the performance of novel sample-to-answer PCR tests need to be carefully evaluated, they may provide timely and reliable results in detection of SARS-CoV-2 and thus facilitate patient management including effective cohorting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4711, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948757

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 disease spreads rapidly in the world. Rapid and early detection of SARS-CoV-2 facilitates early intervention and prevents the disease spread. Here, we present an All-In-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (AIOD-CRISPR) assay for one-pot, ultrasensitive, and visual SARS-CoV-2 detection. By targeting SARS-CoV-2's nucleoprotein gene, two CRISPR RNAs without protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) site limitation are introduced to develop the AIOD-CRISPR assay and detect the nucleic acids with a sensitivity of few copies. We validate the assay by using COVID-19 clinical swab samples and obtain consistent results with RT-PCR assay. Furthermore, a low-cost hand warmer (~$0.3) is used as an incubator of the AIOD-CRISPR assay to detect clinical samples within 20 min, enabling an instrument-free, visual SARS-CoV-2 detection at the point of care. Thus, our method has the significant potential to provide a rapid, sensitive, one-pot point-of-care assay for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Genes Virais , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Virais/análise , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 41-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963890

RESUMO

Problem: Emerging bacterial antimicrobial (antibiotic) resistance (AMR) is a global threat to human health. However, most lower income countries do not have microbiological diagnostic testing for prompt, reliable confirmation of bloodstream infection and identification of AMR. Context: Clinicians in Pacific island nations are increasingly challenged by patients who have infection due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Treatment of infection remains empirical because of a lack of diagnostic testing capacity and may follow guidelines that were formulated without reference to local measures of AMR prevalence. There is limited understanding among clinicians of microbiology testing and test interpretation. Action: Examine the lessons learnt from pilot laboratory development programmes in two Pacific island nations that focused on establishing standard procedures for micrological diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and on improving the training of clinicians to increase their use of laboratory services. Outcome: The pilot programmes addressed a range of logistical difficulties and evaluated two blood culture systems. They also examined and improved internal QC implementation and evaluated the prevalence of AMR. Discussion: Continued development of microbiological diagnostic capability in the Pacific region is paramount. Pacific Island nations need to develop the capability of at least one central laboratory to culture AMR pathogens and subject them to quality-controlled AST or arrange for suitable referral to a nearby country. Discussion: This study demonstrated a persistently high prevalence of three major bacterial STIs across four countries in WHO's Western Pacific Region during nearly two decades. Further strengthening of strategies to control and prevent STIs is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico , Projetos Piloto , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112642, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979593

RESUMO

The outbreaks of the infectious disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 seriously threatened the life of humans. A rapid, reliable and specific detection method was urgently needed. Herein, we reported a contamination-free visual detection method for SARS-CoV-2 with LAMP and CRISPR/Cas12a technology. CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were pre-added on the inner wall of the tube lid. After LAMP reaction, CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were flowed into the tube and mixed with amplicon solution by hand shaking, which can effectively avoid possible amplicon formed aerosol contamination caused by re-opening the lid after amplification. CRISPR/Cas12a can highly specific recognize target sequence and discriminately cleave single strand DNA probes (5'-6FAM 3'-BHQ1). With smart phone and portable 3D printing instrument, the produced fluorescence can be seen by naked eyes without any dedicated instruments, which is promising in the point-of-care detection. The whole amplification and detection process could be completed within 40 min with high sensitivity of 20 copies RNA of SARS-CoV-2. This reaction had high specificity and could avoid cross-reactivity with other common viruses such as influenza virus. For 7 positive and 3 negative respiratory swab samples provided by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, our detection results had 100% positive agreement and 100% negative agreement, which demonstrated the accuracy and application prospect of this method.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Fluorescência , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Smartphone
7.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883050

RESUMO

Until vaccines and effective therapeutics become available, the practical solution to transit safely out of the current coronavirus disease 19 (CoVID-19) lockdown may include the implementation of an effective testing, tracing and tracking system. However, this requires a reliable and clinically validated diagnostic platform for the sensitive and specific identification of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the development of a de novo, high-resolution and comparative genomics guided reverse-transcribed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. To further enhance the assay performance and to remove any subjectivity associated with operator interpretation of results, we engineered a novel hand-held smart diagnostic device. The robust diagnostic device was further furnished with automated image acquisition and processing algorithms and the collated data was processed through artificial intelligence (AI) pipelines to further reduce the assay run time and the subjectivity of the colorimetric LAMP detection. This advanced AI algorithm-implemented LAMP (ai-LAMP) assay, targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, showed high analytical sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2. A total of ~200 coronavirus disease (CoVID-19)-suspected NHS patient samples were tested using the platform and it was shown to be reliable, highly specific and significantly more sensitive than the current gold standard qRT-PCR. Therefore, this system could provide an efficient and cost-effective platform to detect SARS-CoV-2 in resource-limited laboratories.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Cães , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Células Vero
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24450-24458, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900935

RESUMO

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had an enormous impact on society worldwide, threatening the lives and livelihoods of many. The effects will continue to grow and worsen if economies begin to open without the proper precautions, including expanded diagnostic capabilities. To address this need for increased testing, we have developed a sensitive reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay compatible with current reagents, which utilizes a colorimetric readout in as little as 30 min. A rapid inactivation protocol capable of inactivating virions, as well as endogenous nucleases, was optimized to increase sensitivity and sample stability. This protocol, combined with the RT-LAMP assay, has a sensitivity of at least 50 viral RNA copies per microliter in a sample. To further increase the sensitivity, a purification protocol compatible with this inactivation method was developed. The inactivation and purification protocol, combined with the RT-LAMP assay, brings the sensitivity to at least 1 viral RNA copy per microliter in a sample. This simple inactivation and purification pipeline is inexpensive and compatible with other downstream RNA detection platforms and uses readily available reagents. It should increase the availability of SARS-CoV-2 testing as well as expand the settings in which this testing can be performed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Colorimetria , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/economia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Inativação de Vírus
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4464, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900994

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown how a rapid rise in demand for patient and community sample testing can quickly overwhelm testing capability globally. With most diagnostic infrastructure dependent on specialized instruments, their exclusive reagent supplies quickly become bottlenecks, creating an urgent need for approaches to boost testing capacity. We address this challenge by refocusing the London Biofoundry onto the development of alternative testing pipelines. Here, we present a reagent-agnostic automated SARS-CoV-2 testing platform that can be quickly deployed and scaled. Using an in-house-generated, open-source, MS2-virus-like particle (VLP) SARS-CoV-2 standard, we validate RNA extraction and RT-qPCR workflows as well as two detection assays based on CRISPR-Cas13a and RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). In collaboration with an NHS diagnostic testing lab, we report the performance of the overall workflow and detection of SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples using RT-qPCR, CRISPR-Cas13a, and RT-LAMP. The validated RNA extraction and RT-qPCR platform has been installed in NHS diagnostic labs, increasing testing capacity by 1000 samples per day.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bioensaio , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pandemias , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22727-22735, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868442

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic provides an urgent example where a gap exists between availability of state-of-the-art diagnostics and current needs. As assay protocols and primer sequences become widely known, many laboratories perform diagnostic tests using methods such as RT-PCR or reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Here, we report an RT-LAMP isothermal assay for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and demonstrate the assay on clinical samples using a simple and accessible point-of-care (POC) instrument. We characterized the assay by dipping swabs into synthetic nasal fluid spiked with the virus, moving the swab to viral transport medium (VTM), and sampling a volume of the VTM to perform the RT-LAMP assay without an RNA extraction kit. The assay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 50 RNA copies per µL in the VTM solution within 30 min. We further demonstrate our assay by detecting SARS-CoV-2 viruses from 20 clinical samples. Finally, we demonstrate a portable and real-time POC device to detect SARS-CoV-2 from VTM samples using an additively manufactured three-dimensional cartridge and a smartphone-based reader. The POC system was tested using 10 clinical samples, and was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 from these clinical samples by distinguishing positive samples from negative samples after 30 min. The POC tests are in complete agreement with RT-PCR controls. This work demonstrates an alternative pathway for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics that does not require conventional laboratory infrastructure, in settings where diagnosis is required at the point of sample collection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/normas , Smartphone
11.
J Virol Methods ; 285: 113970, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920028

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid development of tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Studies are required to assess the relative performance of different assays. Here, we compared the performance of two commercial assays, the cobas® SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics) and Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Cepheid®) tests, and a laboratory developed RT-PCR test adapted for use on the Hologic® Panther Fusion® (Hologic®) instrument as well as Bio-Rad and QIAGEN real-time PCR detection systems. Performance characteristics for each test were determined by testing clinical specimens and reference material. All assays detect the pan-Sarbecovirus E (envelope structural protein) gene plus a SARS-CoV-2-specific target. The limit of detection for the E gene target varied from ∼2 copies/reaction to >30 copies/reaction. Due to assay-specific differences in sample processing and nucleic acid extraction, the overall analytical sensitivity ranged from 24 copies/mL specimen to 574 copies/mL specimen. Despite these differences, there was 100 % agreement between the commercial and laboratory developed tests. No false-negative or false-positive SARS-CoV-2 results were observed and there was no cross-reactivity with common respiratory viruses, including endemic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Pandemias , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784770

RESUMO

Sensitive molecular assays are critical for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Here, we designed and evaluated two single-tube nested (STN) real-time RT-PCR assays, targeting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp/Hel and N genes. Both STN assays had a low limit of detection and did not cross react with other human coronaviruses and respiratory viruses. Using 213 initial respiratory specimens from suspected COVID-19 patients, the sensitivity of both the STN COVID-19-RdRp/Hel and the STN COVID-19-N assays was 100% (99/99), while that of the comparator non-nested N assay was 95% (94/99). Among 108 follow-up specimens from confirmed COVID-19 patients who tested negative by the non-nested COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay, 28 (25.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by the STN COVID-19-RdRp/Hel or the STN COVID-19-N assay. To evaluate the performance of our novel STN assays in pooled specimens, we created four sample pools, with each pool consisting of one low positive specimen and 49 negative specimens. While the non-nested COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay was positive in only one of four sample pools (25%), both of the STN assays were positive in two of four samples pools (50%). In conclusion, the STN assays are highly sensitive and specific for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Their boosted sensitivity offers advantages in non-traditional COVID-19 testing algorithms such as saliva screening and pooled sample screening during massive screening.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Replicase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
14.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 23 Suppl: 8-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860390

RESUMO

On December 2019, a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in China and spread worldwide, causing acute severe respiratory syndrome. Due to the increased transmission rate of the virus, it became of great importance the early diagnosis of the disease. The coronavirus pandemic led to the development of numerous tests in order to mass screening population for active viral load and for the identification of antibodies for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes the different diagnostic tests available to the clinicians for the diagnosis and follow up of the SARS COV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/normas , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/normas
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112455, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739797

RESUMO

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic. This unprecedented situation has garnered worldwide attention. An effective strategy for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic is to develop highly accurate methods for the rapid identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Many companies and institutes are therefore striving to develop effective methods for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA), antibodies, antigens, and the virus. In this review, we summarize the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its genome and gene expression characteristics, and the current progression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, antibodies, antigens, and virus detection. Further, we discuss the reasons for the observed false-negative and false-positive RNA and antibody detection results in practical clinical applications. Finally, we provide a review of the biosensors which hold promising potential for point-of-care detection of COVID-19 patients. This review thereby provides general guidelines for both scientists in the biosensing research community and for those in the biosensor industry to develop a highly sensitive and accurate point-of-care COVID-19 detection system, which would be of enormous benefit for controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vírion/isolamento & purificação
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112471, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777726

RESUMO

The infection and spread of pathogens (e.g., COVID-19) pose an enormous threat to the safety of human beings and animals all over the world. The rapid and accurate monitoring and determination of pathogens are of great significance to clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental evaluation. In recent years, with the evolution of nanotechnology, nano-sized graphene and graphene derivatives have been frequently introduced into the construction of biosensors due to their unique physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. The combination of biomolecules with specific recognition capabilities and graphene materials provides a promising strategy to construct more stable and sensitive biosensors for the detection of pathogens. This review tracks the development of graphene biosensors for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens, mainly including the preparation of graphene biosensors and their working mechanism. The challenges involved in this field have been discussed, and the perspective for further development has been put forward, aiming to promote the development of pathogens sensing and the contribution to epidemic prevention.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Grafite/química , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nanotecnologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
18.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949067, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840148

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test is currently the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease requires high-quality viral nucleic acid tests, and selecting the type of specimen from patients, who are at different disease stages, to use in the nucleic acid test is challenging. This article reports in detail the diagnosis and treatment process for two patients with confirmed COVID-19 and analyzes the results of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests that were used for different types of specimens (sputum from deep cough, nasopharyngeal swab, and feces). The nucleic acid testing results of sputum from deep cough showed the best performance for positive detection. Our findings provide a reference for selecting the most suitable specimen for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and improving the positive detection rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , RNA Viral/análise
19.
J Clin Virol ; 131: 104593, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay is only validated on nasopharyngeal specimens for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Other specimen types such as deep throat saliva (DTS), also known as posterior oropharyngeal saliva and lower-respiratorytract specimens (LRT) including sputum, tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage are not validated. These non-validated specimen types, however, do have significant diagnostic value. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the performance of Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 from DTS and LRT specimens. METHODS: 162 specimens from 158 patients with suspected COVID-19 disease were tested with Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay. These included 120 DTS and 42 LRT specimens i.e. 35 sputum, 6 tracheal aspirate and one bronchoalveolar lavage. Results were compared to those by the TIB-Molbiol LightMix® SarbecoV E-gene assay. RESULTS: Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay has satisfactory performance when compared with reference method. The positive percent agreement (PPA) of DTS and LRT specimens were 98.86 % & 100 % respectively while the negative percent agreement (NPA) was 100 % for both DTS and LRT specimens. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated with appropriate sample pre-treatment, Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay can be used to test on non-validated specimen types including DTS & LRT specimens.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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