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1.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e51, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531629

RESUMO

A drug resistance survey involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients of a tertiary Hospital in the Rio de Janeiro city (RJ), Brazil, between the years 1996 and 1998 revealed a high frequency of isoniazid (HR) resistance. These isolates were revisited and genotyped. Patients came from different RJ neighborhoods and municipalities, and 70% were outpatients. Applying the 3' and 5' IS 6110 -RFLP and the Spoligotype genotyping methods, the clonal structure of this population was investigated obtaining a snapshot of past epidemiological events. The 3' clusters were subsequently 5' IS 6110 -RFLP typed. Spoligotyping was analyzed in the SITVIT2 database. Epidemiological relationships were investigated. The major lineage was T (54.4%), and SIT 53/T1 and SIT 535/T1 were the most frequent. The T1 sublineage comprises 12.8% of resistant strains and SIT 535 were assigned for 31.8% of them. Orphan patterns corresponded to 12% and 73.3% and belonged to the T lineage. One pattern was unlisted in the SITVIT2. The 5' IS 6110 -RFLP did not confirm 3/12 of the 3' IS 6110 -RFLP clusters. A combination of all methods decreased the number of clusters to three. Nosocomial transmission was associated with one cluster involving a hospital cupbearer. This event was suspected in a multidrug resistant-TB inpatient caregiver who harbored a mixed infection. The 3' IS 6110 clusters were associated with HR (p=0.046). These genotypic retrospective data may reflect a fraction of more extensive recent transmission in different communities that may be corroborated by the concentration of HR patients, and may serve as a database for further evolutionary and characterization evaluation of circulating strains and together with epidemiological data favors a more effective transmission control.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 36, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recessive loss-of-function (LOF) alleles at genes which are essential for life, can result in early embryonic mortality. Cattle producers can use the LOF carrier status of individual animals to make selection and mate allocation decisions. METHODS: Two beef cattle breeding strategies i.e. (1) selection against LOF carriers as parents and (2) simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid the occurrence of homozygous offspring in three scenarios, which differed in number and frequency of LOF alleles were evaluated using the mate selection program, MateSel. Scenarios included (a) seven loci with high-frequency LOF alleles, (b) 76 loci with low-frequency LOF alleles, and (c) 50 loci with random high- and low-frequency LOF alleles. In addition, any savings resulting from the information obtained by varying the percentage (0-100%) of the herd genotyped, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, were calculated to determine (1) which percentage optimized net profit for a fixed cost of genotyping ($30/test), and (2) the breakeven cost for genotyping. RESULTS: With full knowledge of the LOF alleles carried by selection candidates, the most profitable breeding strategy was always simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid homozygous affected offspring (aa) as compared to indiscriminate selection against carrier parents (Aa). The breakeven value of genotyping depended on the number of loci modeled, the LOF allele frequencies, and the mating/selection strategies used. Genotyping was most valuable when it was used to avoid otherwise high levels of embryonic mortalities. As the number of essential loci with LOF alleles increased, especially when some were present at relatively high minor allele frequencies, embryonic losses increased, and profit was maximized by genotyping 10 to 20% of a herd and using that information to reduce these losses. CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping 100% of the herd was never the most profitable outcome in any scenario; however, genotyping some proportion of the herd, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, maximized overall profit in scenarios with large numbers of loci with LOF alleles. As more LOF alleles are identified, such a mate selection software will likely be required to optimally select and allocate matings to balance the rate of genetic gain, embryonic losses, and inbreeding.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genes Recessivos , Software , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Seleção Genética
3.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 44, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental intercrosses between outbred founder populations are powerful resources for mapping loci that contribute to complex traits i.e. quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we present an approach and its accompanying software for high-resolution reconstruction of founder mosaic genotypes in the intercross offspring from such populations using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data on founder individuals (~ 30×) and very low-coverage sequence data on intercross individuals (< 0.5×). Sets of founder-line informative markers were selected for each full-sib family and used to infer the founder mosaic genotypes of the intercross individuals. The application of this approach and the quality of the estimated genome-wide genotypes are illustrated in a large F2 pedigree between two divergently selected lines of chickens. RESULTS: We describe how we obtained whole-genome genotype data for hundreds of individuals in a cost- and time-efficient manner by using a Tn5-based library preparation protocol and an imputation algorithm that was optimized for this application. In total, 7.6 million markers segregated in this pedigree and, within each full-sib family, between 10.0 and 13.7% of these were fully informative, i.e. fixed for alternative alleles in the founders from the divergent lines, and were used for reconstruction of the offspring mosaic genotypes. The genotypes that were estimated based on the low-coverage sequence data were highly consistent (> 95% agreement) with those obtained using individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The estimated resolution of the inferred recombination breakpoints was relatively high, with 50% of them being defined on regions shorter than 10 kb. CONCLUSIONS: A method and software for inferring founder mosaic genotypes in intercross offspring from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in pedigrees from heterozygous founders are described. They provide high-quality, high-resolution genotypes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The software is freely available at https://github.com/CarlborgGenomics/Stripes .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
4.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(4): 19-21, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407701

RESUMO

The amelogenin gene encodes dental enamel protein and is present in humans in two forms - AMELX and AMELY, located on the X- and Y-chromosomes, respectively. This rare case depicts a partial deletion of the AMELY gene. In the Into-Stil LLC laboratory, we performed the genetic testing of the DNA samples extracted from buccal epithelial cells of the alleged father and the disputed child (a boy). Genotyping was carried out using COrDIS Plus ('Gordis', Russian Federation) and AmpFLSTR Identifiler Direct PCR Amplification ('Applied Biosystems', USA) Kits. Our findings have demonstrated that both the alleged father and the disputed child lacked the fragments corresponding with the AMELY gene. Using both STR-systems, we detected, in the disputed child's genome, the allele formally identical to the allele in the genome of the alleged father. Further analysis using the COrDYS ('Gordis', Russian Federation) kit allowed us to detect the amplified fragments corresponding with all the STR loci of Y chromosome, except DYS576 and DYS449, which confirmed that both studied individuals belonged to male biological sex.


Assuntos
Amelogenina/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Paternidade , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Federação Russa
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 134, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432266

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens and may induce severe diarrheagenic diseases in humans and other animals. Non-O157 STEC have been emerging as important pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has become a global public health problem, which involves different ecological spheres, including animals. This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 and sul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). The stx1, stx2 and ehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected, being O176:HNM the most predominant. Phylogenetic group E was the most prevalent, followed by B1, A and B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the world of blaCTX-M-Gp9 (O75, O114, O100, O128ac and O176 serogroups), qnrB and oqxB genes in non-O157 STEC in healthy sheep. The results obtained in the present study call attention to the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant non-O157 STEC harboring acquired ARGs worldwide and indicate a zoonotic risk due to the profile of virulence, resistance and serotype found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
6.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126298, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421716

RESUMO

An increasing number of infections originating from probiotic use are reported worldwide, with the majority of such cases caused by the yeast Saccharomyces 'boulardii', a subtype of S. cerevisiae. Reliably linking infectious cases to probiotic products requires unequivocal genotyping data, however, these techniques are often time-consuming and difficult to implement in routine diagnostics. This leads to a widespread lack of genetic data regarding the origin of Saccharomyces infections. We propose a quick and reliable PCR-based protocol for the identification of S. 'boulardii' based on a combined analysis of interdelta fingerprinting and microsatellite typing. By applying various typing methods and our proposed method to the clinical yeast collection of a Hungarian hospital we show that probiotic origin is common among clinical Saccharomyces, and that the new multiplex method enables rapid and unequivocal identification of probiotic yeast infections. This method can be applied for the identification of yeast infection sources, helping decisions on probiotic use.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Probióticos , Saccharomyces/genética , Saccharomyces/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Fungemia/microbiologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Micoses/microbiologia , Saccharomyces/classificação , Saccharomyces/patogenicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação
7.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2699-2706, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435867

RESUMO

Recently, a clinical need for an improved human papilloma virus (HPV) test that covers a broad range of genotypes has emerged as a valuable primary screening tool for cervical lesions. The liquid bead microarray (LBMA) assay is a recently developed high-throughput platform covering a broad range of genotypes. Here, we compared the clinical performance of two recently developed LBMA assays, GeneFinderTM HPV Liquid Bead Microarray (GeneFinder) and CareGENETM HPV genotyping kit-O (CareGENE), in the Korean general population. A total of 3,148 cervical swabs were tested by the GeneFinder and CareGENE assays. Cases with discrepant results between the two assays were subjected to direct sequencing as a reference method for evaluating the performance of the two LBMA assays. Among all swabs tested, 12.6% showed HPV positivity, and the prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV53, 70, 16, 39, and 51, in that order. The concordance rates between the two assays for the detection of HPV and for genotyping were 96.6% (kappa = 0.836) and 94.5% (kappa = 0.779), respectively. The two LBMA assays showed comparable sensitivity and specificity for HPV detection (GeneFinder: sensitivity 94.4% and specificity 98.7%, CareGENE: sensitivity 89.8% and specificity 99.6%) and for genotyping (GeneFinder: sensitivity 91.0% and specificity 96.6%, CareGENE: sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 99.1%). This is the first demonstration that CareGENE has comparable clinical performance to GeneFinder, which has been established to show excellent performance for screening HPV in previous studies. Both LBMA platforms are thus considered to be valuable tools for HPV detection and genotyping to improve cervical screening in the general population.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alphapapillomavirus/classificação , Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 328, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To efficiently protect and exploit germplasm resources for marker development and breeding purposes, we must accurately depict the features of the tea populations. This study focuses on the Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) population and aims to (i) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the genome level, (ii) investigate the genetic diversity and population structure, and (iii) characterize the linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern to facilitate next genome-wide association mapping and marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: We collected 415 tea accessions from the Origin Center and analyzed the genetic diversity, population structure and LD pattern using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. A total of 79,016 high-quality SNPs were identified; the polymorphism information content (PIC) and genetic diversity (GD) based on these SNPs showed a higher level of genetic diversity in cultivated type than in wild type. The 415 accessions were clustered into three groups by STRUCTURE software and confirmed using principal component analyses (PCA)-wild type, cultivated type, and admixed wild type. However, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) trees indicated the accessions should be grouped into more clusters. Further analyses identified four groups, the Pure Wild Type, Admixed Wild Type, ancient landraces and modern landraces using STRUCTURE, and the results were confirmed by PCA and UPGMA tree method. A higher level of genetic diversity was detected in ancient landraces and Admixed Wild Type than that in the Pure Wild Type and modern landraces. The highest differentiation was between the Pure Wild Type and modern landraces. A relatively fast LD decay with a short range (kb) was observed, and the LD decays of four inferred populations were different. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first population genetic analysis of tea germplasm from the Origin Center, Guizhou Plateau, using GBS. The LD pattern, population structure and genetic differentiation of the tea population revealed by our study will benefit further genetic studies, germplasm protection, and breeding.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , China , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 644-652, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307973

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips have been widely used in genetic studies and breeding applications in animal and plant species. The quality of SNP genotypes is of paramount importance. More often than not, there are situations in which a number of genotypes may fail, requiring them to be imputed. There are also situations in which ungenotyped loci need to be imputed between different chips, or high-density genotypes need to be imputed based on low-density genotypes. Under these circumstances, the validity and reliability of subsequent data analyses is subject to the accuracy of these imputed genotypes. For justifying a better understanding of factors affecting imputation accuracy, in the present study, the impacts of SNP genotyping call rate and SNP genotyping error rate on the accuracy of genotype imputation were investigated under two scenarios in 20 116 U.S. Holstein cattle, each genotyped with a GGP 50K SNP chip. When the two factors were not correlated in scenario 1, simulated genotyping call rate varied from 50% to 100% and simulated genotyping error rate changed from 0% to 50%, with both factors being independent of each other. In scenario 2, genotyping error rates were correlated with genotyping call rate, and the relationship was set up by fitting a linear regression model between the two variables on a real dataset. That is, the simulated SNP call rate varied from 100% to 50% whereas the SNP genotyping rate changed from 0% to 13.55%. Finally, a 5-fold cross-validation was used to assess the subsequent imputation accuracy. The results showed that when original SNP genotyping call rate were independent of SNP genotyping error rate, the imputation accuracy did not change significantly with the original genotyping call rate (P>0.05), but it decreased significantly as the genotyping error rate increased (P<0.01). However, when original genotyping call rate was negatively correlated with genotyping error rate, the imputation error increased with elevated original genotyping error rate. In both scenarios, genotyping call rate needs to be no less than 0.90 in order to obtain 98% or higher genotype imputation accuracy. The present results can provide guidance for establishing quality assurance criteria for SNP genotyping in practice.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 311, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing is now revolutionizing the ability to effectively modify plant genomes in the absence of efficient homologous recombination mechanisms that exist in other organisms. However, soybean is allotetraploid and is commonly viewed as difficult and inefficient to transform. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in soybean at relatively high efficiency. This was shown by specifically targeting the Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 (GmFAD2) that converts the monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1) to the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2), therefore, regulating the content of monounsaturated fats in soybean seeds. RESULTS: We designed two gRNAs to guide Cas9 to simultaneously cleave two sites, spaced 1Kb apart, within the second exons of GmFAD2-1A and GmFAD2-1B. In order to test whether the Cas9 and gRNAs would perform properly in transgenic soybean plants, we first tested the CRISPR construct we developed by transient hairy root transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenesis strain K599. Once confirmed, we performed stable soybean transformation and characterized ten, randomly selected T0 events. Genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9 T0 transgenic lines detected a variety of mutations including large and small DNA deletions, insertions and inversions in the GmFAD2 genes. We detected CRISPR- edited DNA in all the tested T0 plants and 77.8% of the events transmitted the GmFAD2 mutant alleles to T1 progenies. More importantly, null mutants for both GmFAD2 genes were obtained in 40% of the T0 plants we genotyped. The fatty acid profile analysis of T1 seeds derived from CRISPR-edited plants homozygous for both GmFAD2 genes showed dramatic increases in oleic acid content to over 80%, whereas linoleic acid decreased to 1.3-1.7%. In addition, transgene-free high oleic soybean homozygous genotypes were created as early as the T1 generation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data showed that dual gRNA CRISPR/Cas9 system offers a rapid and highly efficient method to simultaneously edit homeologous soybean genes, which can greatly facilitate breeding and gene discovery in this important crop plant.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genes de Plantas , RNA Guia , Soja/genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Marcadores Genéticos , Vetores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Padrões de Herança , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 318, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array and re-sequencing technologies have different properties (e.g. calling rate, minor allele frequency profile) and drawbacks (e.g. ascertainment bias). This lead us to study their complementarity and the consequences of using them separately or combined in diversity analyses and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). We performed GWAS on three traits (grain yield, plant height and male flowering time) measured in 22 environments on a panel of 247 F1 hybrids obtained by crossing 247 diverse dent maize inbred lines with a same flint line. The 247 lines were genotyped using three genotyping technologies (Genotyping-By-Sequencing, Illumina Infinium 50 K and Affymetrix Axiom 600 K arrays). RESULTS: The effects of ascertainment bias of the 50 K and 600 K arrays were negligible for deciphering global genetic trends of diversity and for estimating relatedness in this panel. We developed an original approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) extent in order to determine whether SNPs significantly associated with a trait and that are physically linked should be considered as a single Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) or several independent QTLs. Using this approach, we showed that the combination of the three technologies, which have different SNP distributions and densities, allowed us to detect more QTLs (gain in power) and potentially refine the localization of the causal polymorphisms (gain in resolution). CONCLUSIONS: Conceptually different technologies are complementary for detecting QTLs by tagging different haplotypes in association studies. Considering LD, marker density and the combination of different technologies (SNP-arrays and re-sequencing), the genotypic data available were most likely enough to well represent polymorphisms in the centromeric regions, whereas using more markers would be beneficial for telomeric regions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Biodiversidade , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(7): 520-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular characteristics and intracellular growth ability of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) strains from 1989 to 2016 in Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates of L. pneumophila were collected from environmental and clinical sources, including cooling towers, hot springs, bath water, fountains, and patients, and identified with 16S rRNA gene analysis and serum agglutination assay. The isolates were then typed by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT), and Genotyping of forty-two LP1 strains were analyzed by means of multiple-locus VNTR analysis with 8 loci (MLVA-8). All strains were further analyzed for two virulence genes: Legionella vir homologue (lvh) and repeats in structural toxin (rtxA). The intracellular growth ability of 33 selected isolates was determined by examining their interaction with J774 cells. RESULTS: All isolates were identified to L. pneumophila including 11 serogroups, among which the main serogroup were LP1, accounting for 54.43%. Thirty-three different sequence types (STs) from five main clonal groups and five singletons were identified, along with 8 different MLVA patterns. Both the lvh and rtxA loci were found in all 79 strains. Thirty isolates showed high intracellular growth ability in J774 cells. CONCLUSION: L. pneumophila is a potential threat to public health, and effective control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Legionella pneumophila/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , China , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1279-1286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282855

RESUMO

Introduction. Non-photochromogenic rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) that branch distinctly from Mycobacteroides (Myco) and Mycolicibacterium (Mycolici) are increasingly observed clinically and present a complicated treatment challenge; thus, appropriate in vitro susceptibility testing is required.Methodology. We evaluated the MICs of nine antimicrobials used in the treatment of infections of 25 NPRGM type strains. The relation of inducible macrolide resistance with functional erythromycin ribosomal methylase (erm) genes was also investigated.Results. The initial clarithromycin MIC reading at 3 days showed resistance in four of the Mycolici strains. In contrast, the presence of erm genes among Mycolici species differed from previous findings. Both Myco and Mycolici species were highly susceptible to amikacin and linezolid. Myco species were resistant to fluoroquinolones, while Mycolici species were susceptible. Meropenem showed low activity against Myco species, but high activity against Mycolici species.Conclusion. NPRGM clade-specific susceptibility patterns suggest an urgent need to establish distinct breakpoints for Myco and Mycolici species.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genes Bacterianos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1330-1340, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347999

RESUMO

Purpose. This study aimed to characterize 27 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis that occurred at the University Hospital of Botucatu Medical School, Brazil, between 1997 and 2015.Methodology. These isolates were characterized regarding the occurrence of 22 virulence factor-encoding genes, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm production. We then evaluated whether these factors influenced the clinical outcome.Results. Over an 18-year period, 726 episodes of PD-related peritonitis were diagnosed, with 27 of them (3.7 %) being due to E. coli. The majority of the isolates were classified in phylogroups B1 (33.3 %), B2 (30.0 %) or F (18.0 %). fimH (100.0 %), ompT (66.7 %) and irp2 (51.9 %) were the most prevalent genes, while papA, papC, iha, sat, irp2, iucD, ireA, ibe10, ompT and kpsMTII were significantly more prevalent among isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and F (P<0.05). Non-susceptibility to quinolones was detected in six isolates, which harboured chromosomal and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, while two CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing E. coli were identified. Virulence factor-encoding genes (alone or in combination) and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with non-resolution outcomes. However, there was a trend for the ability to produce biofilm to be associated with treatment failure, although this association was not statistically significant.Conclusion. The E. coli isolates were heterogeneous in terms of the features investigated, and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial drugs tested, despite the unsuccessful treatment observed in more than 50.0 % of the patients. Studies including more cases could help to clarify if biofilm production can influence the outcome in patients with PD-related peritonitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Biológica da População , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2559-2563, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321587

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) gene were genotyped in individuals who were chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the 236 patients, the frequencies of risk alleles of the -164T/C (rs1800804), -400A/T (rs1800803) and H297Q (rs2306985) polymorphisms were 0.30, 0.41 and 0.50, respectively. A significant association between the risk alleles of the -164T/C and -400A/T polymorphisms combined with HCV genotype 3 infection and the occurrence of steatosis was detected (p = 0.004 and p = 0.032), suggesting that a combination of host and viral factors can potentially be used to predict hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2493-2504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346769

RESUMO

One of the pathological forms of chronic hepatitis C is occult HCV infection (OCI), in which there is no detectable HCV RNA in plasma specimens but HCV RNA is present in PBMCs and liver biopsy specimens. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of OCI in HIV-positive people who are injection drug users (IDUs). From April 2015 to August 2018, 161 Iranian IDUs with HIV infection enrolled in the study. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and PBMC samples of participants, and the presence of HCV RNA was examined using RT nested PCR with primers from two conserved regions (5´-UTR and NS5B). HCV genotyping was performed using RFLP and sequencing methods. Of the 161 patients, 134 (83.2%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. All 27 patients who were negative for anti-HCV were also negative for HCV RNA in plasma, but five of them (18.5%) were positive for HCV RNA in PBMCs. Importantly, 9 out of 50 patients (18.0%) who apparently had recovered from HCV infection (i.e., were anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA negative) were positive for HCV RNA in PBMCs. Overall, 18.1% of the patients who had no signs of previous HCV infection or had apparently recovered from the disease had OCI. The HCV genotypes of the cases with OCI were as follows: five patients (35.7%) were infected with subtype 1a, eight patients (57.1%) were infected with subtype 3a, and one patient (7.1%) was infected with genotype 4. Thus, it seems that the prevalence of OCI in HIV-positive IDUs is extremely significant in Iran and is likely to delay the global eradication of HCV infection until 2030.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2791-2797, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the role of caspase-8 rs3834129 polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Taiwanese CRC patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The caspase-8 rs3834129 (-652 6N insertion/deletion) polymorphic genotypes were analyzed in 362 patients with CRC and the same number of age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The interaction of caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypes with personal behaviors and clinicopathological features were also examined. RESULTS: The percentage of variants ID and DD for caspase-8 rs3834129 genotype were 37.6 and 5.8% in CRC group and 39.0 and 6.6% in the control group, respectively (p for trend=0.7987). The allelic frequency distribution analysis showed that caspase-8 rs3834129 D allele conferred a non-significant lower susceptibility for CRC compared with I allele (OR=0.92, 95%CI=0.74-1.20, p=0.5063). There was no obvious link between caspase-8 rs3834129 genotype and CRC risk among ever-smokers, non-smokers, non-alcohol drinkers or alcohol drinkers. No statistically significant correlation was observed between caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypic distribution and age, gender, tumor size, location or metastasis status. CONCLUSION: Overall, caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypes may not serve as predictors for CRC risk or prognosis.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taiwan
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2861-2869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: PON1 gene has an executive role in antioxidant defense, protecting cells from genotoxic factors. Q192R and L55M PON1 polymorphisms reduce catalytic activity of the encoded protein. These polymorphisms were studied in 300 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and 106 healthy donors. They were also associated with patients' cytogenetic findings, to investigate their possible implication in CLL pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Karyotypic analysis was also performed by chromosome G-banding analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Genotypic and allelic distribution of Q192R polymorphism showed a statistically significant higher frequency of mutant genotypes and mutant alleles in patients compared to controls. The same observation was noted in patients with abnormal karyotypes and those carrying abn14q32 and del(6q). A statistically increased frequency for the mutant allele was also revealed in patients with del(11q). On the contrary, L55M polymorphism showed a similar distribution between patients and controls. CONCLUSION: Q192R polymorphism plays a role in CLL predisposition and the formation of specific chromosomal aberrations.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2903-2909, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between selected polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (rs699947, rs144854329, rs833061, rs2010963, rs3025039) and the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included 446 patients with prostate cancer and 241 healthy men. Genotyping was performed by polymerase-chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: No significant association between the individual polymorphisms studied and the risk of prostate cancer development was detected. A statistically significantly increased risk of prostate cancer development associated with the presence of 9 or 10 risky alleles was found considering the whole group of patients, as well as in patients with low-grade carcinomas (Gleason score <7). CONCLUSION: Individual polymorphisms of VEGF do not appear to contribute to prostate cancer. However, a combination of risky alleles of the studied polymorphisms significantly increases the risk of prostate cancer in Slovak patients.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Eslovênia
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