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1.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 338-345, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881432

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the association between the FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232), Bsml (rs1544410), TaqI (rs 731236), and Cdx2 (rs11568820) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), as well as their effect on clinical characteristics of women with SPTB and their newborns. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled women who gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Ljubljana between 2010 to 2019. Cases were 118 women with spontaneous initiation of PTB after natural conception and 119 controls with a term singleton delivery after an uncomplicated pregnancy. The molecular analysis of VDR SNPs employed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Patients and controls did not significantly differ in the distribution of genotype or allele SNP frequencies. However, the FokI polymorphism had a significant effect on newborn birth weight in women with SPTB but not in controls (F=5.17, P=0.007, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffe test), with newborns of FokI TT carriers having the lowest birth weight (P=0.011). No other VDR SNP was associated with any other clinical characteristic of women with SPTB and their newborns. CONCLUSION: The TT genotype of the VDR FokI polymorphism is associated with newborn birth weight in women of European origin with SPTB.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Idade Gestacional , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
2.
Gene ; 762: 145102, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882331

RESUMO

The Angiotensin system is implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. First, ACE2 is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and expression of the ACE2 gene could regulate the individuals susceptibility to infection. In addition, the balance between ACE1 and ACE2 activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases and could play a role in the severity of COVID-19. Functional ACE1/ACE2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and could thus also contribute to the outcome of COVID-19. We studied 204 COVID-19 patients (137 non-severe and 67 severe-ICU cases) and 536 age-matched controls. The ACE1 insertion/deletion and ACE2 rs2285666 polymorphism were determined. Variables frequencies were compared between the groups by logistic regression. We also sequenced the ACE2 coding nucleotides in a group of patients. Severe COVID-19 was associated with hypertension male gender (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.006), hypercholesterolaemia (p = 0.046), and the ACE1-DD genotype (p = 0.049). In the multiple logistic regression hypertension (p = 0.02, OR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.12-4.63) and male gender (p = 0.002; OR = 3.15, 95%CI = 1.56-6.66) remained as independent significant predictors of severity. The ACE2 polymorphism was not associated with the disease outcome. The ACE2 sequencing showed no coding sequence variants that could explain an increased risk of developing COVID-19. In conclusion, an adverse outcome of COVID-19 was associated with male gender, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and the ACE1 genotype. Our work suggested that the ACE1-I/D might influence COVID-19 severity, but the effect was dependent on the hypertensive status. This result requires further validation in other large cohorts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750100

RESUMO

Animal Tubulin-Based-Polymorphism (aTBP), an intron length polymorphism method recently developed for vertebrate genotyping, has been successfully applied to the identification of several fish species. Here, we report data that demonstrate the ability of the aTBP method to assign a specific profile to fish species, each characterized by the presence of commonly shared amplicons together with additional intraspecific polymorphisms. Within each aTBP profile, some fragments are also recognized that can be attributed to taxonomic ranks higher than species, e.g. genus and family. Versatility of application across different taxonomic ranks combined with the presence of a significant number of DNA polymorphisms, makes the aTBP method an additional and useful tool for fish genotyping, suitable for different purposes such as species authentication, parental recognition and detection of allele variations in response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed/polyclonal infections due to different genotypes are reported in Tuberculosis. The current study was designed to understand the fate of mixed infections during the course of treatment and follow-up and its role in disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected on 0,1,2,3,6,12 and 24 months from 157 treatment-naïve patients, cultures subjected to Drug-Susceptibility-testing (MGIT 960), spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR and SNP genotyping. All isolated colonies on thin layer agar (7H11) were subjected to spoligotyping. FINDINGS: One thirty three baseline cultures were positive (133/157, 84.7%), 43(32.3%) had mixture of genotypes. Twenty-four of these patients (55.8%) showed change in genotype while six showed different drug-susceptibility patterns while on treatment. Twenty-three (53.5%) patients with polyclonal infections showed resistance to at least one drug compared to 10/90 (11.1%) monoclonal infections (P<0.0001). Eight patients had recurrent TB, two with a new genotype and two with altered phenotypic DST. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of different genotypes and change of genotypes during the same disease episode, while on treatment, confirms constancy of polyclonal infections. The composition of the mixture of genotypes and the relative predominance may be missed by culture due to its limit of detection. Polyclonal infections in TB could be a rule rather than exception and challenges the age-old dogma of reactivation/reinfection.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Evolução Clonal , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Recidiva , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853203

RESUMO

Takifugu rubripes is more expensive than other species of the genus because of its high protein content and special flavor. However, it is easily confused with imported T. chinensis and T. pseudommus because they have similar morphological characteristics. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of T. rubripes by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and evaluated their ability to distinguish among T. rubripes, T. chinensis, and T. pseudommus. In all, 18 polymorphic SNPs were subjected to phylogenetic analyses of the three Takifugu species. Additionally, we subjected a second set of samples to Sanger sequencing to verify that the polymorphic SNPs could be used to evaluate the genetic variation among the three Takifugu species. A phylogenetic tree that included the analyzed sequence of set A, which is referred to as the reference sequence, and a validation sequence of set B with 18 SNPs were produced. Based on this phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analyses, T. rubripes, T. chinensis and T. pseudommus have low genetic variation and should be considered the same gene pool. Our findings suggest that further studies are needed to estimate the genetic association of the three Takifugu species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Takifugu/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Takifugu/classificação , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
JAMA ; 324(8): 761-771, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840598

RESUMO

Importance: After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), patients with CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss-of-function (LOF) variants treated with clopidogrel have increased risk of ischemic events. Whether genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy improves ischemic outcomes is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of a genotype-guided oral P2Y12 inhibitor strategy on ischemic outcomes in CYP2C19 LOF carriers after PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label randomized clinical trial of 5302 patients undergoing PCI for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were enrolled at 40 centers in the US, Canada, South Korea, and Mexico from May 2013 through October 2018; final date of follow-up was October 2019. Interventions: Patients randomized to the genotype-guided group (n = 2652) underwent point-of-care genotyping. CYP2C19 LOF carriers were prescribed ticagrelor and noncarriers clopidogrel. Patients randomized to the conventional group (n = 2650) were prescribed clopidogrel and underwent genotyping after 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, and severe recurrent ischemia at 12 months. A secondary end point was major or minor bleeding at 12 months. The primary analysis was in patients with CYP2C19 LOF variants, and secondary analysis included all randomized patients. The trial had 85% power to detect a minimum hazard ratio of 0.50. Results: Among 5302 patients randomized (median age, 62 years; 25% women), 82% had ACS and 18% had stable CAD; 94% completed the trial. Of 1849 with CYP2C19 LOF variants, 764 of 903 (85%) assigned to genotype-guided therapy received ticagrelor, and 932 of 946 (99%) assigned to conventional therapy received clopidogrel. The primary end point occurred in 35 of 903 CYP2C19 LOF carriers (4.0%) in the genotype-guided therapy group and 54 of 946 (5.9%) in the conventional therapy group at 12 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.43-1.02]; P = .06). None of the 11 prespecified secondary end points showed significant differences, including major or minor bleeding in CYP2C19 LOF carriers in the genotype-guided group (1.9%) vs the conventional therapy group (1.6%) at 12 months (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.60-2.51]; P = .58). Among all randomized patients, the primary end point occurred in 113 of 2641 (4.4%) in the genotype-guided group and 135 of 2635 (5.3%) in the conventional group (HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.65-1.07]; P = .16). Conclusions and Relevance: Among CYP2C19 LOF carriers with ACS and stable CAD undergoing PCI, genotype-guided selection of an oral P2Y12 inhibitor, compared with conventional clopidogrel therapy without point-of-care genotyping, resulted in no statistically significant difference in a composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, and severe recurrent ischemia based on the prespecified analysis plan and the treatment effect that the study was powered to detect at 12 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01742117.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Medicina de Precisão , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Imediatos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730349

RESUMO

Using pooled DNA genotyping to estimate the proportional contributions from multiple families in a pooled sample is of particular interest for selective breeding in aquaculture. We compared different pooled libraries with separate 2b-RAD sequencing of Litopenaeus vannamei individuals to assess the effect of different population structures (different numbers of individuals and families) on pooled DNA sequencing, the accuracy of parent sequencing of the DNA pools and the effect of SNP numbers on pooled DNA sequencing. We demonstrated that small pooled DNA genotyping of up to 53 individuals by 2b-RAD sequencing could provide a highly accurate assessment of population allele frequencies. The accuracy increased as the number of individuals and families increased. The allele frequencies of the parents from each pool were highly correlated with those of the pools or the corresponding individuals in the pool. We chose 500-28,000 SNPs to test the effect of SNP number on the accuracy of pooled sequencing, and no linear relationship was found between them. When the SNP number was fixed, increasing the number of individuals in the mixed pool resulted in higher accuracy of each pooled genotyping. Our data confirmed that pooled DNA genotyping by 2b-RAD sequencing could achieve higher accuracy than that of individual-based genotyping. The results will provide important information for shrimp breeding programs.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Penaeidae/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição , Alelos , Animais , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21256, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the role of serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) polymorphisms (Asn368Ser, Asp386Asn and Glu420Lys) and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS: Studies associated with SPINK5 mutations and AD risk were searched from three databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library, with a retrieval deadline of April 22, 2019. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was chosen as the effect size. Egger's linear regression test was enrolled to assess the level of publication bias. RESULTS: Overall, 6 studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Significantly statistical differences were calculated between patients with AD and healthy individuals on Asn368Ser polymorphism in the allele model (G vs A: OR = 1.2643, 95% CI = 1.0666-1.4987, P = .0069), co-dominant model (GG vs AA: OR = 1.6609, 95% CI = 1.1736-2.3505, P = .0042; GA vs AA: OR = 1.5448, 95% CI = 1.1263-2.1189, P = .0070), and dominant model (GG+GA vs AA: OR = 1.5700, 95% CI = 1.1656-2.1146, P = .0030). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the recessive model for Asn368Ser and other genetic models for Asp386Asn and Glu420Lys (all P > .05). No significant publication bias was found. CONCLUSION: The SPINK5 Asn368Ser polymorphism may be a risk factor for AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Inibidor de Serinopeptidase do Tipo Kazal 5/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 31, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional way to estimate variance components (VC) is based on the animal model using a pedigree-based relationship matrix (A) (A-AM). After genomic selection was introduced into breeding programs, it was anticipated that VC estimates from A-AM would be biased because the effect of selection based on genomic information is not captured. The single-step method (H-AM), which uses an H matrix as (co)variance matrix, can be used as an alternative to estimate VC. Here, we compared VC estimates from A-AM and H-AM and investigated the effect of genomic selection, genotyping strategy and genotyping proportion on the estimation of VC from the two methods, by analyzing a dataset from a commercial broiler line and a simulated dataset that mimicked the broiler population. RESULTS: VC estimates from H-AM were severely overestimated with a high proportion of selective genotyping, and overestimation increased as proportion of genotyping increased in the analysis of both commercial and simulated data. This bias in H-AM estimates arises when selective genotyping is used to construct the H-matrix, regardless of whether selective genotyping is applied or not in the selection process. For simulated populations under genomic selection, estimates of genetic variance from A-AM were also significantly overestimated when the effect of genomic selection was strong. Our results suggest that VC estimates from H-AM under random genotyping have the expected values. Predicted breeding values from H-AM were inflated when VC estimates were biased, and inflation differed between genotyped and ungenotyped animals, which can lead to suboptimal selection decisions. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that VC estimates from H-AM are biased with selective genotyping, but are close to expected values with random genotyping.VC estimates from A-AM in populations under genomic selection are also biased but to a much lesser degree. Therefore, we recommend the use of H-AM with random genotyping to estimate VC for populations under genomic selection. Our results indicate that it is still possible to use selective genotyping in selection, but then VC estimation should avoid the use of genotypes from one side only of the distribution of phenotypes. Hence, a dual genotyping strategy may be needed to address both selection and VC estimation.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Simulação por Computador , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Modelos Animais , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
11.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 32, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cattle international genetic evaluations allow the comparison of estimated breeding values (EBV) across different environments, i.e. countries. For international evaluations, across-country genetic correlations (rg) need to be estimated. However, lack of convergence of the estimated parameters and high standard errors of the rg are often experienced for beef cattle populations due to limited across-country genetic connections. Furthermore, using all available genetic connections to estimate rg is prohibitive due to computational constraints, thus sub-setting the data is necessary. Our objective was to investigate and compare the impact of strategies of data sub-setting on estimated across-country rg and their computational requirements. METHODS: Phenotype and pedigree information for age-adjusted weaning weight was available for ten European countries and 3,128,338 Limousin beef cattle males and females. Using a Monte Carlo based expectation-maximization restricted maximum likelihood (MC EM REML) methodology, we estimated across-country rg by using a multi-trait animal model where countries are modelled as different correlated traits. Values of rg were estimated using the full data and four different sub-setting strategies that aimed at selecting the most connected herds from the largest population. RESULTS: Using all available data, direct and maternal rg (standard errors in parentheses) were on average equal to 0.79 (0.14) and 0.71 (0.19), respectively. Direct-maternal within-country and between-country rg were on average equal to - 0.12 (0.09) and 0.00 (0.14), respectively. Data sub-setting scenarios gave similar results: on average, estimated rg were smaller compared to using all data for direct (0.02) and maternal (0.05) genetic effects. The largest differences were obtained for the direct-maternal within-country and between-country rg, which were, on average 0.13 and 0.12 smaller compared to values obtained by using all data. Standard errors always increased when reducing the data, by 0.02 to 0.06, on average. The proposed sub-setting strategies reduced the required computing time up to 22% compared to using all data. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating all 120 across-country rg that are required for beef cattle international evaluations, using a multi-trait MC EM REML approach, is feasible but involves long computing time. We propose four strategies to reduce computational requirements while keeping a multi-trait estimation approach. In all scenarios with data sub-setting, the estimated rg were consistently smaller (mainly for direct-maternal rg) and had larger standard errors.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Carne Vermelha , Desmame
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 33, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural and artificial directional selection in cosmopolitan and autochthonous pig breeds and wild boars have shaped their genomes and resulted in a reservoir of animal genetic diversity. Signatures of selection are the result of these selection events that have contributed to the adaptation of breeds to different environments and production systems. In this study, we analysed the genome variability of 19 European autochthonous pig breeds (Alentejana, Bísara, Majorcan Black, Basque, Gascon, Apulo-Calabrese, Casertana, Cinta Senese, Mora Romagnola, Nero Siciliano, Sarda, Krskopolje pig, Black Slavonian, Turopolje, Moravka, Swallow-Bellied Mangalitsa, Schwäbisch-Hällisches Schwein, Lithuanian indigenous wattle and Lithuanian White old type) from nine countries, three European commercial breeds (Italian Large White, Italian Landrace and Italian Duroc), and European wild boars, by mining whole-genome sequencing data obtained by using a DNA-pool sequencing approach. Signatures of selection were identified by using a single-breed approach with two statistics [within-breed pooled heterozygosity (HP) and fixation index (FST)] and group-based FST approaches, which compare groups of breeds defined according to external traits and use/specialization/type. RESULTS: We detected more than 22 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 23 compared populations and identified 359 chromosome regions showing signatures of selection. These regions harbour genes that are already known or new genes that are under selection and relevant for the domestication process in this species, and that affect several morphological and physiological traits (e.g. coat colours and patterns, body size, number of vertebrae and teats, ear size and conformation, reproductive traits, growth and fat deposition traits). Wild boar related signatures of selection were detected across all the genome of several autochthonous breeds, which suggests that crossbreeding (accidental or deliberate) occurred with wild boars. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a catalogue of genetic variants of many European pig populations and identify genome regions that can explain, at least in part, the phenotypic diversity of these genetic resources.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Suínos/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Cruzamento , Domesticação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
13.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555734

RESUMO

Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. Invasive brown (Rattus norvegicus) and black (R. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. Eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. Genetic tools can help inform IAS management, but such applications to date have been largely reactive, time-consuming, and costly. Here, we developed a Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing (GT-seq) panel for rapid species identification and population assignment of invasive brown and black rats (RapidRat) in Haida Gwaii, an archipelago comprising ~150 islands off the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We constructed an optimized panel of 443 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using previously generated double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) genotypic data (27,686 SNPs) from brown (n = 295) and black rats (n = 241) sampled throughout Haida Gwaii. The informativeness of this panel for identifying individuals to species and island of origin was validated relative to the ddRAD results; in all comparisons, admixture coefficients and population assignments estimated using RapidRat were consistent. To demonstrate application, 20 individuals from novel invasions of three islands (Agglomerate, Hotspring, Ramsay) were genotyped using RapidRat, all of which were confidently assigned (>98.5% probability) to Faraday and Murchison Islands as putative source populations. These results indicated that a previous eradication on Hotspring Island was conducted at an inappropriate geographic scale; future management should expand the eradication unit to include neighboring islands to prevent re-invasion. Overall, we demonstrated that RapidRat is an effective tool for managing invasive rat populations in Haida Gwaii and provided a clear framework for GT-seq panel development for informing biodiversity conservation in other systems.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Ilhas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101720, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505804

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal SNP (Y-SNP), with its stable inheritance and low mutation, can provide Supplementary information in forensic investigation. While commonly used Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes show their limitations, typing of Y-SNP would become a powerful complement. In this study, a 16-plex Y-SNP typing system based on allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was developed to discriminate four dominant Y-chromosomal haplogroups (C-M130, D-CTS3946, N-M231, and O-M175) and 12 predominant sub-haplogroups of O-M175 (O1a-M119, O1a1a1a-CTS3265, O1b-M268, O1b1a2-Page59, O2-M122, O2a1-L127.1, O2a1b-F240, O2a1b1a1-CTS5820, O2a2-P201, O2a2b1a1-M177, O2a2b1a1a1a-Y17728, O2a2b1a2-F114). A series of experimental validation studies including sensitivity, species specificity, male-female mixture and inhibition were performed. The discrimination of the typing system was preliminarily proved with a haplogroup diversity of 0.9239. Altogether, the Y-SNP typing system based on AS-PCR should be capable of distinguishing China's dominant Y-chromosomal haplogroups in a rapid and reliable manner, thus can be employed as a useful complement in forensic casework.


Assuntos
Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497070

RESUMO

Several studies suggest the relation of DNA methylation to diseases in humans and important phenotypes in plants drawing attention to this epigenetic mark as an important source of variability. In the last decades, several methodologies were developed to assess the methylation state of a genome. However, there is still a lack of affordable and precise methods for genome wide analysis in large sample size studies. Methyl sensitive double digestion MS-DArT sequencing method emerges as a promising alternative for methylation profiling. We developed a computational pipeline for the identification of DNA methylation using MS-DArT-seq data and carried out a pilot study using the Eucalyptus grandis tree sequenced for the species reference genome. Using a statistic framework as in differential expression analysis, 72,515 genomic sites were investigated and 5,846 methylated sites identified, several tissue specific, distributed along the species 11 chromosomes. We highlight a bias towards identification of DNA methylation in genic regions and the identification of 2,783 genes and 842 transposons containing methylated sites. Comparison with WGBS, DNA sequencing after treatment with bisulfite, data demonstrated a precision rate higher than 95% for our approach. The availability of a reference genome is useful for determining the genomic context of methylated sites but not imperative, making this approach suitable for any species. Our approach provides a cost effective, broad and reliable examination of DNA methylation profile on MspI/HpaII restriction sites, is fully reproducible and the source code is available on GitHub (https://github.com/wendelljpereira/ms-dart-seq).


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Metilação de DNA/genética , Eucalyptus/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Árvores/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mapeamento por Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA/economia , Sulfitos/farmacologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping and cytology have been recommended for colposcopy triage, but it is unclear which combinations of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and cytology with various thresholds provide clinically useful information for the triage after primary HPV screening on self-collected samples. METHOD: Chinese Multi-site Screening Trial (CHIMUST) database focused on self-collected samples was reviewed using the results of Cobas4800 HPV assay. Absolute risks of each genotype for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse/ 3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) were calculated. Triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse cytology was used as the comparator, and diagnostic accuracy for paired comparisons between algorithms was obtained using McNemar's test. RESULTS: A total of 10, 498 women were included, the overall prevalence of hrHPV, HPV16, HPV18, and Other hrHPV genotypes were 13.7%, 2.4%, 0.8%, and 10.5%, respectively. HPV16-positive women had the highest absolute risk among various genotypes for CIN2+/CIN3+ whether in normal or abnormal cytology (ASCUS or worse) and among all age groups. When compared with the comparator, combining HPV16 positivity and/or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse yielded higher specificity (97.7% vs. 97.0%, p<0.0001), similar sensitivity (90.7% vs. 96.3%, p = 0.256) for detection of CIN3+, and a decrease in colposcopy referral rate from 3.5% to 2.7%, similar results were found for CIN2+. Positivity for HPV16 and/or (ASCUS or worse), and positivity for (HPV16 and/or HPV18) and/or (ASCUS or worse) achieved favorable sensitivity compared with the comparator (80.6% and 81.3% vs. 70.1% respectively for CIN2+, p<0.0001; both 96.3% vs. 96.3% for CIN3+, p = 1.000), these algorithms would reduce the colposcopy referral rate to 5.0% and 5.6% respectively, compared with 13.7% of that for HPV alone. CONCLUSIONS: Triage of HPV-positive women on self-collected samples by combining HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotyping with different thresholds of cytology could provide tradeoffs in sensitivity for detecting cervical lesions and colposcopy referral rates, and tailor management in various circumstances of clinical practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Triagem/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo do Útero/citologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 183-193, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534852

RESUMO

High-quality genomic tools have been integral in understanding genomic architecture and function in the modern-day horse. The equine genetics community has a long tradition of pooling resources to develop genomic tools. Since the equine genome was sequenced in 2006, several iterations of high throughput genotyping arrays have been developed and released, enabling rapid and cost-effective genotyping. This review highlights the design considerations of each iteration, focusing on data available during development and outlining considerations in selecting the genetic variants included on each array. Additionally, we outline recent applications of equine genotyping arrays as well as future prospects and applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Genômica , Genótipo , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428206

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to assess the value of genotyping DNA pools as a strategy to generate accurate and cost-effective genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) of sires in multi-sire mating systems. In order to do that, we used phenotypic records of 2,436 Australian Angus cattle from 174 sires, including yearling weight (YWT; N = 1,589 records), coat score (COAT; N = 2,026 records), and Meat Standards Australia marbling score (MARB; N = 1,304 records). Phenotypes were adjusted for fixed effects and age at measurement and pools of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 animals were explored. Pools were created either by phenotype or at random. When pools were created at random, 10 replicates were examined to provide a measure of sampling variation. The relative accuracy of each pooling strategy was measured by the Pearson correlation coefficient between the sire's GEBV with pooled progeny and the GEBV using individually genotyped progeny. Random pools allow the computation of sire GEBV that are, on average, moderately correlated (i.e., r > 0.5 at pool sizes [PS] ≤ 10) with those obtained without pooling. However, for pools assigned at random, the difference between the best and the worst relative accuracy obtained out of the 10 replicates was as high as 0.41 for YWT, 0.36 for COAT, and 0.61 for MARB. This uncertainty associated with the relative accuracy of GEBV makes randomly assigning animals to pools an unreliable approach. In contrast, pooling by phenotype allowed the estimation of sires' GEBV with a relative accuracy ≥ 0.9 at PS < 10 for all three phenotypes. Moreover, even with larger PS, the lowest relative accuracy obtained was 0.88 (YWT, PS = 20). In agreement with results using simulated data, we conclude that pooling by phenotype is a robust approach to implementing genomic evaluation using commercial herd data, and PS larger than 10 individuals can be considered.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Animais , Austrália , Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/classificação , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Genomics ; 112(5): 3588-3596, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353474

RESUMO

The emerging global infectious COVID-19 disease by novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents critical threats to global public health and the economy since it was identified in late December 2019 in China. The virus has gone through various pathways of evolution. To understand the evolution and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, genotyping of virus isolates is of great importance. This study presents an accurate method for effectively genotyping SARS-CoV-2 viruses using complete genomes. The method employs the multiple sequence alignments of the genome isolates with the SARS-CoV-2 reference genome. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes are then measured by Jaccard distances to track the relationship of virus isolates. The genotyping analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the globe reveals that specific multiple mutations are the predominated mutation type during the current epidemic. The proposed method serves an effective tool for monitoring and tracking the epidemic of pathogenic viruses in their global and local genetic variations. The genotyping analysis shows that the genes encoding the S proteins and RNA polymerase, RNA primase, and nucleoprotein, undergo frequent mutations. These mutations are critical for vaccine development in disease control.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genômica , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções por Coronavirus , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alinhamento de Sequência
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