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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070781

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. A major hindrance to resolving this challenge lies in the mammalian hearts inability to regenerate after injury. In contrast, zebrafish retain a regenerative capacity of the heart throughout their lifetimes. Apex resection (AR) is a popular zebrafish model for studying heart regeneration, and entails resecting 10-20% of the heart in the apex region, whereafter the regeneration process is monitored until the heart is fully regenerated within 60 days. Despite this popularity, video tutorials describing this technique in detail are lacking. In this paper we visualize and describe the entire AR procedure including anaesthesia, surgery, and recovery. In addition, we show that the concentration and duration of anaesthesia are important parameters to consider, to balance sufficient levels of sedation and minimizing mortality. Moreover, we provide examples of how zebrafish heart regeneration can be assessed both in 2D (immunohistochemistry of heart sections) and 3D (analyses of whole, tissue cleared hearts using multiphoton imaging). In summary, this paper aims to aid beginners in establishing and conducting the AR model in their laboratory, but also to spur further interest in improving the model and its evaluation.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Recursos Audiovisuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Regeneração/fisiologia , Aminobenzoatos , Anestésicos , Animais , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Cinetocardiografia/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 26(5): 399-414, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949887

RESUMO

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, acute cardiac injury (ACI), as reflected by elevated cardiac troponin above the 99th percentile, has been observed in 8%-62% of patients with COVID-19 infection with highest incidence and mortality recorded in patients with severe infection. Apart from the clinically and electrocardiographically discernible causes of ACI, such as acute myocardial infarction (MI), other cardiac causes need to be considered such as myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome, and direct injury from COVID-19, together with noncardiac conditions, such as pulmonary embolism, critical illness, and sepsis. Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with normal or near-normal coronary arteries (ACS-NNOCA) appear to have a higher prevalence in both COVID-19 positive and negative patients in the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic era. Echocardiography, coronary angiography, chest computed tomography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may render a correct diagnosis, obviating the need for endomyocardial biopsy. Importantly, a significant delay has been recorded in patients with ACS seeking advice for their symptoms, while their routine care has been sharply disrupted with fewer urgent coronary angiographies and/or primary percutaneous coronary interventions performed in the case of ST-elevation MI (STEMI) with an inappropriate shift toward thrombolysis, all contributing to a higher complication rate in these patients. Thus, new challenges have emerged in rendering a diagnosis and delivering treatment in patients with ACI/ACS in the pandemic era. These issues, the various mechanisms involved in the development of ACI/ACS, and relevant current guidelines are herein reviewed.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/mortalidade , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652678

RESUMO

Obesity represents one of the most challenging public health problems of our century. It accounts for approximately 5% of deaths worldwide, mostly owing to cardiovascular disease and its associated complications. Cardiovascular noninvasive imaging may provide early accurate information about hypertrophy and ischemia/fibrosis in obese subjects. Echocardiography and nuclear cardiology have serious limitations in obese subjects owing to poor acoustic window and attenuation artifacts, respectively. Coronary computed tomography angiography can provide information about obstructive coronary disease; however, the use of radiation is a serious disadvantage. Finally, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) holds the promise of an "all in one" examination by combining evaluation of function, wall motion/thickness, stress rest/perfusion, replacement and diffuse fibrosis without radiation. Future studies are required to document the cost/benefit ratio of the CMR in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007761, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535771

RESUMO

Targeted prevention of heart failure (HF) remains a critical need given the high prevalence of HF morbidity and mortality. Similar to risk-based prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, optimal HF prevention strategies should include quantification of risk in the individual patient. In this review, we discuss incorporation of a quantitative risk-based approach into the existing HF staging landscape and the clinical opportunity that exists to translate available data on risk estimation to help guide personalized decision making. We first summarize the recent development of key HF risk prediction tools that can be applied broadly at a population level to estimate risk of incident HF. Next, we provide an in-depth description of the clinical utility of biomarkers to personalize risk estimation in select patients at the highest risk of developing HF. We also discuss integration of genomics-enhanced approaches (eg, Titin [TTN]) and other risk-enhancing features to reclassify risk with a precision medicine approach to HF prevention. Although sequential testing is very likely to identify low and high-risk individuals with excellent accuracy, whether or not interventions based on these risk models prevent HF in clinical practice requires prompt attention including randomized placebo-controlled trials of candidate therapies in risk-enriched populations. We conclude with a summary of unanswered questions and gaps in evidence that must be addressed to move the field of HF risk assessment forward.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiotoxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Comorbidade , Conectina/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Albumina/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Radioterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Troponina T/sangue
6.
Radiol Med ; 126(3): 365-379, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629237

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as new mainstream technique for the evaluation of patients with cardiac diseases, providing unique information to support clinical decision-making. This document has been developed by a joined group of experts of the Italian Society of Cardiology and Italian society of Radiology and aims to produce an updated consensus statement about the current state of technology and clinical applications of CMR. The writing committee consisted of members and experts of both societies who worked jointly to develop a more integrated approach in the field of cardiac radiology. Part 1 of the document will cover ischemic heart disease, congenital heart disease, cardio-oncology, cardiac masses and heart transplant.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Consenso , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Neoplasias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Sociedades Médicas
7.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 186-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518658

RESUMO

Dysferlin is a sarcolemmal protein present in muscle cells. It is responsible for muscle membrane repair. Dysferlin gene (DYSF) mutation, resulting in deficiency in this protein, is termed dysferlinopathy. Clinically, it manifests as early adulthood onset of muscle weakness with markedly elevated creatine kinase levels. The main phenotypes are limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), affecting proximal muscles, and Miyoshi myopathy (MM), affecting distal muscles. Dysferlin is also present in cardiomyocytes, and case reports have emerged of cardiac abnormalities in dysferlinopathy. While routine methods of cardiac screening, namely, electrocardiography or echocardiography, are convenient and noninvasive, they often exhibit insufficient diagnostic sensitivity for detecting subclinical cardiac remodeling during early stages of cardiomyopathy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging though can provide accurate assessment of cardiac chamber sizes and function. With gadolinium administration, it can also detect areas of myocardial scarring and fibrosis. Early diagnosis of neuromuscular disease-related cardiomyopathy is of clinical significance, as appropriate treatment can retard myocardial fibrosis, delaying cardiomyopathy progression. We present a case of a patient with MM incidentally diagnosed with concomitant cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Miopatias Distais/complicações , Gadolínio , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Atrofia Muscular/complicações , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104200, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421825

RESUMO

The use of different cardiac imaging modalities such as MRI, CT or ultrasound enables the visualization and interpretation of altered morphological structures and function of the heart. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in AI and deep learning that take into account spatial and temporal information in medical image analysis. In particular, deep learning tools using temporal information in image processing have not yet found their way into daily clinical practice, despite its presumed high diagnostic and prognostic value. This review aims to synthesize the most relevant deep learning methods and discuss their clinical usability in dynamic cardiac imaging using for example the complete spatiotemporal image information of the heart cycle. Selected articles were categorized according to the following indicators: clinical applications, quality of datasets, preprocessing and annotation, learning methods and training strategy, and test performance. Clinical usability was evaluated based on these criteria by classifying the selected papers into (i) clinical level, (ii) robust candidate and (iii) proof of concept applications. Interestingly, not a single one of the reviewed papers was classified as a "clinical level" study. Almost 39% of the articles achieved a "robust candidate" and as many as 61% a "proof of concept" status. In summary, deep learning in spatiotemporal cardiac imaging is still strongly research-oriented and its implementation in clinical application still requires considerable efforts. Challenges that need to be addressed are the quality of datasets together with clinical verification and validation of the performance achieved by the used method.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Eur J Intern Med ; 84: 10-13, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423907

RESUMO

Tiresias was the blind prophet of Apollo in Thebes. Tiresias is a symbolic figure, which embodies a paradox: he is blind in the physical sense, but his knowledge surpasses all, as opposed to Oedipus who cannot see despite having a good eyesight. Cardiac imaging can be considered the technological extension of human eyes, which has clearly revolutionised the diagnostic approach in Cardiology and specifically in heart failure. Echocardiography contributed to an approach focused on the ejection fraction (EF) which is the cornerstone of the most recent classifications of heart failure. The recent advances in cardiac imaging raised our ability to understand the aetiological roots of disease. However, the increasing amount of information generated by the plethora of diagnostic imaging techniques raises the challenge of clinical significance. The explosion of "big data" in cardiac imaging may also impact on classifications and nomenclature and on our ability to cluster and categorize, an exercise that is becoming remarkably challenging when the quest for the particular is taken to the extreme and the infinitesimal. The essence of cardiac conditions causing heart failure would probably not entirely captured by an approach only focused on the direct visualization of the heart. Delivery of personalized medicine would not be based only on cardiac imaging, but through an holistic approach which overcomes the mere assessment of empiric reality as it appears to our eyes through the lens of increasingly advanced diagnostic techniques.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão
10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 7, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407141

RESUMO

Cardiac vasculitis is recognized as a heterogeneous disease process with a wide spectrum of manifestations including pericarditis, myocarditis, valvular heart disease and less frequently, coronary artery vasculitis (CAV). CAV encompasses an emerging field of diseases which differ from conventional atherosclerotic disease and have a proclivity for the younger population groups. CAV portends multiple complications including the development of coronary artery aneurysms, coronary stenotic lesions, and thrombosis, all which may result in acute coronary syndromes. There are several aetiologies for CAV; with Kawasaki's disease, Takayasu's arteritis, Polyarteritis Nodosa, and Giant-Cell Arteritis more frequently described clinically, and in literature. There is a growing role for multi-modality imaging in assisting the diagnostic process; including transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and conventional coronary angiogram with intravascular ultrasound. Whilst the treatment paradigms fundamentally vary between different aetiologies, there are overlaps with pharmacological regimes in immunosuppressive agents and anti-platelet therapies. Interventional and surgical management are is a consideration in select populations groups, within a multi-disciplinary context. Further large-scale studies are required to better appropriately outline management protocols in this niche population.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Arterite de Células Gigantes , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Poliarterite Nodosa , Arterite de Takayasu , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/epidemiologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Imagem Multimodal , Poliarterite Nodosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Poliarterite Nodosa/epidemiologia , Poliarterite Nodosa/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Takayasu/epidemiologia , Arterite de Takayasu/terapia
13.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 74(1): 72-80, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819849

RESUMO

Cardiac imaging is a crucial component in the management of patients with heart disease, and as such it influences multiple, inter-related parts of the clinical workflow: physician-patient contact, image acquisition, image pre- and postprocessing, study reporting, diagnostics and outcome predictions, medical interventions, and, finally, knowledge-building through clinical research. With the gradual and ubiquitous infiltration of artificial intelligence into cardiology, it has become clear that, when used appropriately, it will influence and potentially improve-through automation, standardization and data integration-all components of the clinical workflow. This review aims to present a comprehensive view of full integration of artificial intelligence into the standard clinical patient management-with a focus on cardiac imaging, but applicable to all information handling-and to discuss current barriers that remain to be overcome before its widespread implementation and integration.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 19(3): 243-249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316894

RESUMO

Vascular diseases are the main reason for morbidity and mortality worldwide. As we know, the earlier phase of vascular diseases is endothelial dysfunction in humans, the endothelial tissues play an important role in inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis, via organizing ligand-receptor associations and the various mediators' secretion. We can use many inflammatory non-invasive tests (flowmediated dilatation, epicedial fat thickness, carotid-intima media thickness, arterial stiffness and anklebrachial index) for assessing the endothelial function. In addition, many biomarkers (ischemia modified albumin, pentraxin-3, E-selectin, angiopoietin, endothelial cell specific molecule 1, asymmetrical dimethylarginine, von Willebrand factor, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells) can be used to evaluate endothelial dysfunction. We have focused on the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers of vascular disease in this review.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
15.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(2): 150-156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702514

RESUMO

Social Media is a rising influence in the global world of cardiovascular medicine, allowing for a dynamic approach to physician education, research dissemination and collaborative discussion. The visual nature of social media platforms, particularly Twitter, lends itself particularly well to the tremendous advances and stunning visuals of cardiac imaging. The hashtag "#cardiotwitter" provides around the clock, asynchronous, ubiquitous, free education. It allows connection among cardiac imagers across the world to share ideas and discuss contemporary issues pertaining to multimodality imaging. This review highlights the role of social media in advancing the practice of cardiac imaging and provides guidance on gaining visibility in the social media imaging community.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Mídias Sociais , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação
17.
Radiol Med ; 126(3): 356-364, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833196

RESUMO

The progressive increase in numbers of noninvasive cardiac imaging examinations broadens the spectrum of knowledge radiologists are expected to acquire in the management of drugs during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and cardiac MR (CMR) to improve image quality for optimal visualization and assessment of the coronary arteries and adequate MR functional analysis. Aim of this review is to provide an overview on different class of drugs (nitrate, beta-blockers, ivabradine, anxiolytic, adenosine, dobutamine, atropine, dipyridamole and regadenoson) that can be used in CTCA and CMR, illustrating their main indications, contraindications, efficacy, mechanism of action, metabolism, safety, side effects or complications, and providing advices in their use.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacocinética , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Atropina/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Dipiridamol/administração & dosagem , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ivabradina/administração & dosagem , Ivabradina/efeitos adversos , Nitroglicerina/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
19.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(1): 59-72, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153947

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis, the most common valvular heart disease in Western countries, affects predominantly older people. Prompt aortic valve replacement is undoubtedly indicated in symptomatic patients. Management of asymptomatic patients is nowadays shifting from a conservative approach to early aortic valve replacement, as multimodality imaging is increasingly available. However, multimodality imaging has led to multiple prognostic parameters and complex algorithms, as well as a new staging classification that has left patients and physicians somewhat puzzled. We highlight the value of thorough serial clinical examinations, Doppler echocardiography and exercise testing when caring for a growing aortic stenosis population, including that has no or limited access to multimodality imaging. Evidence for early aortic valve replacement versus conservative management in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis is biased by the lack of serial stress testing evaluation; 30% of so-called asymptomatic patients were in fact symptomatic, and thus were clear candidates for aortic valve replacement in the above-mentioned studies. Randomized trials of aortic valve replacement versus conservative management that include serial stress testing evaluation are needed to ascertain whether early aortic valve replacement actually improves clinical outcome in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. Less interventional medicine and healthcare resource utilization can result in better health.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(1): 5-14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119418

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Serious respiratory complications aside, the heart is also frequently involved. The mechanisms and the extent of the myocardial injury, along with the short and long-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in COVID-19 survivors remain unclear. Areas covered: myocardial injury has been found in a considerable proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and is associated with a worse prognosis. The late onset of CV complications with myocarditis-like changes revealed by CMR has been reported in COVID-19 survivors. Previous observational studies on viral myocarditis provide evidence of a significant incomplete recovery with residual dysfunction and remodeling of left ventricle. Incomplete recovery is thought to be the result of persistent myocardial inflammation due to a post-viral autoimmune response. Considering the significant inflammatory nature of COVID-19, COVID-19 survivors may be at risk of developing persistent residual myocardial injury, the sequelae of which are unclear. Expert commentary: COVID-19 is an emerging threat for the heart. The extent of CV injury, along with the short and long-term sequelae, requires further investigation. The early detection of residual myocardial changes in COVID-19 survivors is of utmost importance in order to identify those patients at risk of CV complication development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Coração , Cardiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Miocárdio , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Remodelação Ventricular
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