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2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9391251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908584

RESUMO

In this paper, a utility-based multicriteria model is proposed to support the physicians to deal with an important medical decision-the screening decision problem-given the squeeze put on resources due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the COVID-19 emerged, the number of patients with an acute respiratory failure has increased in the health units. This chaotic situation has led to a deficiency in health resources. Thus, this study, using the concepts of the multiattribute utility theory (MAUT), puts forward a mathematical model to aid physicians in the screening decision problem. The model is used to generate which of the three alternatives is the best one for where patients with suspected COVID-19 should be treated, namely, an intensive care unit (ICU), a hospital ward, or at home in isolation. Also, a decision information system, called SIDTriagem, is constructed and illustrated to operate the mathematical model proposed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Conceitos Matemáticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Triagem/métodos
3.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 597-598, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885911
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1139-1143, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817597

RESUMO

Preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in correctional and detention facilities* can be challenging because of population-dense housing, varied access to hygiene facilities and supplies, and limited space for isolation and quarantine (1). Incarcerated and detained populations have a high prevalence of chronic diseases, increasing their risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and making early detection critical (2,3). Correctional and detention facilities are not closed systems; SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can be transmitted to and from the surrounding community through staff member and visitor movements as well as entry, transfer, and release of incarcerated and detained persons (1). To better understand SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in these settings, CDC requested data from 15 jurisdictions describing results of mass testing events among incarcerated and detained persons and cases identified through earlier symptom-based testing. Six jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 0%-86.8% (median = 29.3%) from mass testing events in 16 adult facilities. Before mass testing, 15 of the 16 facilities had identified at least one COVID-19 case among incarcerated or detained persons using symptom-based testing, and mass testing increased the total number of known cases from 642 to 8,239. Case surveillance from symptom-based testing has likely underestimated SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in correctional and detention facilities. Broad-based testing can provide a more accurate assessment of prevalence and generate data to help control transmission (4).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisões , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 34: 100355, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807400

RESUMO

Identifying areas with low access to testing and high case burden is necessary to understand risk and allocate resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. Using zip code level data for New York City, we analyzed testing rates, positivity rates, and proportion positive. A spatial scan statistic identified clusters of high and low testing rates, high positivity rates, and high proportion positive. Boxplots and Pearson correlations determined associations between outcomes, clusters, and contextual factors. Clusters with less testing and low proportion positive tests had higher income, education, and white population, whereas clusters with high testing rates and high proportion positive tests were disproportionately black and without health insurance. Correlations showed inverse associations of white race, education, and income with proportion positive tests, and positive associations with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and poverty. We recommend testing and health care resources be directed to eastern Brooklyn, which has low testing and high proportion positives.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , População Urbana
6.
N Z Med J ; 133(1519): 81-88, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777798

RESUMO

AIM: The diagnostic sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test has not been determined. This has led to a degree of uncertainty in the interpretation of results, particularly in patients tested repeatedly. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of patients who initially tested negative, and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This retrospective observational study utilised data from the LabPlus Virology laboratory, Auckland City Hospital, to identify cases (hospital and community) with initial negative and subsequent positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results. Their clinical and laboratory characteristics were summarised. RESULTS: From 1 February to 13 April a total of 20,089 samples were received for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Of 2,011 samples from patients with multiple tests, 25 samples were positive. Nine samples were from patients who initially tested negative then tested positive. Reasons for the initial negative test results, which were all from upper respiratory tract samples, included pre-symptomatic presentation or late presentation. All patients had significant risk factors and ongoing or evolving symptoms, which warranted repeat testing. CONCLUSION: Few patients had discordant test results for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. For patients who have a significant risk factor and a negative test result, repeat testing should be performed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
N Z Med J ; 133(1519): 89-94, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777799

RESUMO

AIM: There is concern the low incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children reflects under-testing in this population. This study sought to describe the age-distribution of SARS-CoV-2 testing in the Northern Region of New Zealand. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre review of all SARS-CoV-2 tests performed at LabPLUS, Auckland City Hospital, between 12 February and 18 April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 22,333 tests were performed, with 313 (1.40%) positive results. The age-adjusted SARS-CoV-2 testing rate was three times higher in adults than in children. The overall proportion of positive tests was lower in children (0.86%) than adults (1.45%). However, within the paediatric population the proportion of tests positive differed significantly between those <10 years old (0.08%) and those 10-14 years old (2.6%). CONCLUSION: The lower proportion of tests positive in children <10 years of age suggests they are appropriately tested relative to their rates of disease. A large high school-associated cluster makes the higher proportion of tests positive in children 10-14 years old difficult to interpret. Older children may have a higher risk of infection and increasing testing in intermediate and high school aged children may be indicated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 167: 112479, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763826

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic outbreak is the most astounding scene ever experienced in the 21st century. It has been determined to be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the global pandemic, the lack of efficient rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic testing tools has hindered the public opportunely response to the emerging viral threat. Herein, a DNA nanoscaffold hybrid chain reaction (DNHCR)-based nucleic acid assay strategy is reported for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In this method, the DNA nanoscaffolds have been first constructed by the self-assembly of long DNA strands and self-quenching probes (H1). Then, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA will initiate the hybridization of H1 and free H2 DNA probes along the nanoscaffold, and an illuminated DNA nanostring is instantly obtained. By taking advantages of the localization design of the H1 probes and the temperature tolerance of the isothermal amplification, the proposed DNHCR method can detect target at short responding time (within 10 min) and mild condition (15 °C-35 °C). Moreover, the reliability of DNHCR method in serum and saliva samples have also been validated. Therefore, DNHCR-based method is expected to provide a simple and faster alternative to the traditional SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR assay.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , DNA/síntese química , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e178, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807244

RESUMO

Different countries have adopted strategies for the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 since the declaration of community transmission by the World Health Organization (WHO) and timely diagnosis has been considered one of the major obstacles for surveillance and healthcare. Here, we report the increase of the number of laboratories to COVID-19 diagnosis in Brazil. Our results demonstrate an increase and decentralisation of certified laboratories, which does not match the much higher increase in the number of COVID-19 cases. Also, it becomes clear that laboratories are irregularly distributed over the country, with a concentration in the most developed state, São Paulo.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Respir Med ; 170: 106062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high incidence of confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2 and mortality by COVID-19 in the Spanish population, its impact was analysed among persons with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) as a group at risk of a worse evolution. The possible causes of the incidence observed in them are explained and how CF Units have faced this health challenge is detailed. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive observational study, for which a Spanish CF Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 Registry is created, requesting information on number of people affected between 8 March-16 May 2020 and their clinical-demographic characteristics from the CF Units participating in the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry (ECFSPR). The accumulated incidence is calculated, compared with that of the general population. Additionally, a survey (CF-COVID19-Spain) is carried out on prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, workings of CF Units and possible reasons for the incidence observed. RESULTS: COVID-19 was diagnosed in eight CF patients, one of whom had received a lung transplant. The accumulated incidence was 32/10000 in CF patients and 49/10000 in the general population. General death rate was 5.85/10000 while no CF patients included in the ECFSPR died. The characteristics of those affected and the results of the survey are described. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being considered a disease at high risk of severe COVID-19, the low incidence and mortality in CF patients in Spain contrasts with the figures for the general population. The possible factors that would explain such findings are discussed, with the help of the results of the CF-COVID19-Spain survey.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e183, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758313

RESUMO

Diagnostic testing for the novel coronavirus is an important tool to fight the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic. However, testing capacities are limited. A modified testing protocol, whereby a number of probes are 'pooled' (i.e. grouped), is known to increase the capacity for testing. Here, we model pooled testing with a double-average model, which we think to be close to reality for Covid-19 testing. The optimal pool size and the effect of test errors are considered. The results show that the best pool size is three to five, under reasonable assumptions. Pool testing even reduces the number of false positives in the absence of dilution effects.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e475-e483, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data for front-line health-care workers and risk of COVID-19 are limited. We sought to assess risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers compared with the general community and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on risk. METHODS: We did a prospective, observational cohort study in the UK and the USA of the general community, including front-line health-care workers, using self-reported data from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application (app) from March 24 (UK) and March 29 (USA) to April 23, 2020. Participants were voluntary users of the app and at first use provided information on demographic factors (including age, sex, race or ethnic background, height and weight, and occupation) and medical history, and subsequently reported any COVID-19 symptoms. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of our primary outcome, which was a positive COVID-19 test. The COVID Symptom Study app is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04331509. FINDINGS: Among 2 035 395 community individuals and 99 795 front-line health-care workers, we recorded 5545 incident reports of a positive COVID-19 test over 34 435 272 person-days. Compared with the general community, front-line health-care workers were at increased risk for reporting a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 11·61, 95% CI 10·93-12·33). To account for differences in testing frequency between front-line health-care workers and the general community and possible selection bias, an inverse probability-weighted model was used to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 3·40, 95% CI 3·37-3·43). Secondary and post-hoc analyses suggested adequacy of PPE, clinical setting, and ethnic background were also important factors. INTERPRETATION: In the UK and the USA, risk of reporting a positive test for COVID-19 was increased among front-line health-care workers. Health-care systems should ensure adequate availability of PPE and develop additional strategies to protect health-care workers from COVID-19, particularly those from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic backgrounds. Additional follow-up of these observational findings is needed. FUNDING: Zoe Global, Wellcome Trust, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institutes of Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, Alzheimer's Society, National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 8843664, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832047

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease (COVID19) is a fast-spreading infectious disease that is currently causing a healthcare crisis around the world. Due to the current limitations of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based tests for detecting COVID19, recently radiology imaging based ideas have been proposed by various works. In this work, various Deep CNN based approaches are explored for detecting the presence of COVID19 from chest CT images. A decision fusion based approach is also proposed, which combines predictions from multiple individual models, to produce a final prediction. Experimental results show that the proposed decision fusion based approach is able to achieve above 86% results across all the performance metrics under consideration, with average AUROC and F1-Score being 0.883 and 0.867, respectively. The experimental observations suggest the potential applicability of such Deep CNN based approach in real diagnostic scenarios, which could be of very high utility in terms of achieving fast testing for COVID19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia Biomédica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(4): 363-382, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753365

RESUMO

The point-of-care tests (POCT) are subject to accreditation. A national inventory survey provides a synthesis of knowledge. The survey distributed 31 questions in 2019. 147 responses were received (75% biologists, 49% CHU, 42% CHG). Only 20.41% are accredited ISO22870, the majority for <50% of the medical departments; 70% say they are going there at the end of 2019 or in 2020. The maps are unknown for 32% (EBMD) and 82% (TROD). Visibility is poor with: medical establishment committee (40%), IT department (31%). Connection is necessary for 87-95% depending on the criterion (QC, authorizations, etc.) and 66% of answers highlight that less than 50% of connexion is effective. The major advantage is the delay of the result (62.5%), then the relationship with the health teams (33.3%). The disadvantages: difficulty of the quality approach (45%), cost of tests (34.3%). Human resource requirements are identified for technicians (82%) and biologists (76%). The multiplicity of sites, devices and operators means that it is difficult to set up and maintain. Biology outside the laboratories, under biological responsibility, must meet a rigorous imperative quality approach.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Saúde Global , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios/normas , Testes Imediatos , Acreditação , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Imediatos/organização & administração , Testes Imediatos/normas , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 713-720, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are significant differences in the active cases and fatality rates of Covid-19 for different European countries. METHODOLOGY: The present study employs Monte Carlo based transmission growth simulations for Italy, Germany and Turkey. The probabilities of transmission at home, work and social networks and the number of initial cases have been calibrated to match the basic reproduction number and the reported fatality curves. Parametric studies were conducted to observe the effect of social distancing, work closure, testing and quarantine of the family and colleagues of positively tested individuals. RESULTS: It is observed that estimates of the number of initial cases in Italy compared to Turkey and Germany are higher. Turkey will probably experience about 30% less number of fatalities than Germany due its smaller elderly population. If social distancing and work contacts are limited to 25% of daily routines, Germany and Turkey may limit the number of fatalities to a few thousands as the reproduction number decreases to about 1.3 from 2.8. Random testing may reduce the number of fatalities by 10% upon testing least 5/1000 of the population. Quarantining of family and workmates of positively tested individuals may reduce the total number of fatalities by about 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The fatality rate of Covid-19 is estimated to be about 1.5% based on the simulation results. This may further be reduced by limiting the number of non-family contacts to two, conducting tests more than 0.5% of the population and immediate quarantine of the contacts for positively tested individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Características da Família , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Isolamento Social , Rede Social , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112436, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750677

RESUMO

Our recent experience of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of easy-to-use, quick, cheap, sensitive and selective detection of virus pathogens for the efficient monitoring and treatment of virus diseases. Early detection of viruses provides essential information about possible efficient and targeted treatments, prolongs the therapeutic window and hence reduces morbidity. Graphene is a lightweight, chemically stable and conductive material that can be successfully utilized for the detection of various virus strains. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be enhanced by its functionalization or combination with other materials. Introducing suitable functional groups and/or counterparts in the hybrid structure enables tuning of the optical and electrical properties, which is particularly attractive for rapid and easy-to-use virus detection. In this review, we cover all the different types of graphene-based sensors available for virus detection, including, e.g., photoluminescence and colorimetric sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Various strategies of electrochemical detection of viruses based on, e.g., DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions, are also discussed. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based systems for sensing a variety of viruses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, influenza, dengue fever, hepatitis C virus, HIV, rotavirus and Zika virus. General principles, mechanisms of action, advantages and drawbacks are presented to provide useful information for the further development and construction of advanced virus biosensors. We highlight that the unique and tunable physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials make them ideal candidates for engineering and miniaturization of biosensors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Colorimetria , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Desenho de Equipamento , Grafite/química , Humanos , Luminescência , Nanoestruturas/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Virologia/métodos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
18.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 95, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832388

RESUMO

Currently, Nigeria is still at the ascending phase of the COVID-19 curve with no sign of deceleration. Thus, the recent decision by governors of states in northern Nigeria to deport Almajirai (itinerant Islamic school pupils) from their states as part of efforts to contain COVID-19 transmission is likely to have a serious backlash. With hundreds of Almajirai testing positive to COVID-19, and millions of others untested, they constitute ubiquitous nodes of transmission. Their deportation has created multiple emigration channels that constitute prospective feeders to covert community transmission. This viewpoint examines this trend within the context of Nigeria's current [in]capacity to manage the spread of COVID-19 and concludes that greater risks seem to lie ahead unless the government takes stringent containment measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Islamismo , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas
19.
Dan Med J ; 67(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemosensory loss is a common symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been associated with a milder clinical course in younger patients. Whereas several studies have confirmed this association, knowledge about the improvement and recovery of olfactory and gustatory loss is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of improvement and recovery from sudden olfactory and gustatory loss in patients with confirmed and suspected COVID-19. METHODS: Subjective chemosensory function, symptoms of COVID-19, COVID-19 tests results, demographics and medical history were collected through a questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the 109 study participants, 95 had a combined olfactory and gustatory loss, five participants had isolated olfactory loss and nine participants has isolated taste loss. The mean age of participants was 39.4 years and 25% of participants were under the age of 30 years. Young age was not associated with a higher recovery rate. After a mean time of > 30 days since the chemosensory loss, participants reported relatively low recovery and improvement rates. For participants with olfactory loss, only 44% had fully recovered, whereas 28% had not yet experienced any improvement of symptoms. After gustatory loss, 50% had fully recovered, whereas 20% had not yet experienced any improvement. Olfactory and gustatory deficits were predominantly quantitative and mainly included complete loss of both olfactory and gustatory function. CONCLUSIONS: Chemosensory loss was frequent in young individuals and persisted beyond a month after symptom onset, often without any improvement during this time. FUNDING: The author wishes to acknowledge research salary funding from Arla Foods (Viby, Denmark) and the Central Region Denmark. The sponsors had no say, roles or responsibilities in relation to the study, including (but not limited to) the study design, data collection, management and analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/reabilitação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/reabilitação , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 856-865, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737472

RESUMO

The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value for Brazil was estimated at 3.1 (95% Bayesian credible interval = 2.4-5.5), with a higher median but overlapping credible intervals compared with some other seriously affected countries. A positive association between higher per-capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, the severe acute respiratory infection cases with unknown aetiology were associated with lower per-capita income. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses was detected but at very low levels. These findings provide a comprehensive description of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and may help to guide subsequent measures to control virus transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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