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3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 69(3): 1-18, set.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-901257

RESUMO

En el marco del 80 aniversario del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, se exponen en apretada síntesis, las actividades más relevantes en el campo del diagnóstico, la investigación y la docencia desarrolladas hasta el momento por el Laboratorio de Micología de la referida institución. A 38 años de su creación, este sigue siendo uno de los pocos lugares en Cuba que se desempeña en este campo y que se reconoce por los logros científico-técnicos alcanzados. Sin lugar a duda, estos responden básicamente al cuadro de salud nacional, sin descuidar el entorno regional y mundial. Todos los resultados que se exponen, se encuentran sustentados por más de 100 publicaciones y otras obras científicas, lo que avala la calidad y rigor del trabajo desplegado. Sirva este artículo para homenajear al fundador del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí y a todos los científicos que en el transcurso de estos años contribuyeron a engrandecer su nombre(AU)


In the framework of the 80th anniversary of Pedro Kouri Tropical Medicine Institute, a succinct presentation is provided of the most relevant activities in the fields of diagnosis, research and teaching so far performed by the Mycology Laboratory at the Institute. Thirty-eight years after its founding, the Laboratory continues to be one of the few places in Cuba devoted to this field and recognized for its scientific and technical achievements, which no doubt essentially respond to the national health status, without neglecting the regional and global environment. All the results presented are endorsed by over 100 publications and scientific works, which is evidence of the quality and rigor of the work done. May this paper be a tribute to the founder of Pedro Kouri Tropical Medicine Institute and all the scientists who have brought prestige to its name throughout these years(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Medicina Tropical/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Micologia/história , Micoses/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
7.
Int J STD AIDS ; 28(11): 1143-1149, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186463

RESUMO

Making a prompt and accurate diagnosis of genital tract infections is the key to instituting appropriate treatment and the linchpin of sexually transmitted infection control. We present a brief history, not covering syphilis, of diagnostic events for each of six bacteria and one protozoan from the time of discovery up to the molecular revolution. The latter is touched upon but its impact will form the substance of a further presentation. Here, hindsight is helpful in understanding the way in which progress was made over 135 years, often when microbiology, not even seen as a distinct discipline, had a difficult time in providing what was required in terms of dependable diagnostic techniques. Gram-staining, growth on artificial media, growth in cultured cells, enzyme immunoassays, metabolic and immunofluorescence tests have all had their place and some still do despite the avalanche of the molecular era. Serology to determine the existence of organism-specific antibodies has been important in managing syphilis, but has only sometimes been helpful in supporting a diagnosis for other infections and has rarely been the primary deciding factor.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico/história , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/microbiologia , Trichomonas vaginalis
10.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 24(1): 25-30, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24627712

RESUMO

In the 70ies of the last century, ther term "preanalytical phase" was introduced in the literature. This term describes all actions and aspects of the "brain to brain circle" of the medical laboratory diagnostic procedure happening before the analytical phase. The author describes his personal experiences in the early seventies and the following history of increasing awareness of this phase as the main cause of "laboratory errors". This includes the definitions of influence and interference factors as well as the first publications in book, internet, CD-Rom and recent App form over the past 40 years. In addition, a short summary of previous developments as prerequesits of laboratory diagnostic actions is described from the middle age matula for urine collection to the blood collection tubes, anticoagulants and centrifuges. The short review gives a personal view on the possible causes of missing awareness of preanalytical causes of error and future aspects of new techniques in regulation of requests to introduction of quality assurance programs for preanalytical factors.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Manejo de Espécimes/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
12.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(1): 89-92, ene.-mar. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-56340

RESUMO

A través del tiempo, el surgimiento y desarrollo de nuevos métodos analíticos se han visto unidos a la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y a su incorporación al trabajo diagnóstico e investigativo del laboratorio clínico. En los últimos años, los indicadores de exactitud y precisión de los procedimientos en el laboratorio de hematología se han elevado extraordinariamente gracias a la llegada de los sistemas automatizados de conteo y caracterización de células sanguíneas.Desde principios de la segunda mitad del pasado siglo, la continúa fabricación de diversos modelos de contadores hematológicos por parte de las compañías proveedoras y firmas comerciales, ha nutrido el mercado internacional de distintas series de estos equipos. La combinación de principios de detección tales como la impedancia eléctrica, la radiofrecuencia, las medidas de dispersión y absorción de la luz halógena o láser en diversos ángulos y la citometría de flujo, como bases del conteo y caracterización de las poblaciones celulares hemáticas, ha hecho posible el surgimiento de autoanalizadores hematológicos de mayor costo y complejidad.Como fruto de los avances de esta tecnología y su aplicación al laboratorio de hematología, el hemograma o biometría hemática, como indicación de primera línea en la evaluación clínica de los desórdenes y respuestas del sistema hematopoyético, es hoy día una de las pruebas más accesibles y solicitadas al laboratorio clínico.1,2Esta técnica ha sido objeto de infinidad de variaciones en aspectos tales como la forma automatizada o manual de su realización, el número de parámetros que la componen, la manera de interpretarlos y la elevación de los indicadores de exactitud y precisión de sus..(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Testes Laboratoriais/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Hematócrito/métodos
13.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(1): 89-92, ene.-mar. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-705668

RESUMO

A través del tiempo, el surgimiento y desarrollo de nuevos métodos analíticos se han visto unidos a la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y a su incorporación al trabajo diagnóstico e investigativo del laboratorio clínico. En los últimos años, los indicadores de exactitud y precisión de los procedimientos en el laboratorio de hematología se han elevado extraordinariamente gracias a la llegada de los sistemas automatizados de conteo y caracterización de células sanguíneas.Desde principios de la segunda mitad del pasado siglo, la continúa fabricación de diversos modelos de contadores hematológicos por parte de las compañías proveedoras y firmas comerciales, ha nutrido el mercado internacional de distintas series de estos equipos. La combinación de principios de detección tales como la impedancia eléctrica, la radiofrecuencia, las medidas de dispersión y absorción de la luz halógena o láser en diversos ángulos y la citometría de flujo, como bases del conteo y caracterización de las poblaciones celulares hemáticas, ha hecho posible el surgimiento de autoanalizadores hematológicos de mayor costo y complejidad.Como fruto de los avances de esta tecnología y su aplicación al laboratorio de hematología, el hemograma o biometría hemática, como indicación de primera línea en la evaluación clínica de los desórdenes y respuestas del sistema hematopoyético, es hoy día una de las pruebas más accesibles y solicitadas al laboratorio clínico.1,2Esta técnica ha sido objeto de infinidad de variaciones en aspectos tales como la forma automatizada o manual de su realización, el número de parámetros que la componen, la manera de interpretarlos y la elevación de los indicadores de exactitud y precisión de sus..


Assuntos
Humanos , Hematologia/métodos , Testes Laboratoriais/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Hematócrito/métodos
15.
Rev. lab. clín ; 6(3): 128-131, jul.-sept. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-115469

RESUMO

Según la moderna teoría metrológica la exactitud se define mediante la incertidumbre de medida y la trazabilidad. La incertidumbre de medida es una expresión numérica del grado de inexactitud del resultado y la trazabilidad relaciona el resultado con referencias establecidas, permitiendo su reproducibilidad en el tiempo y entre laboratorios. Para relacionar el resultado de una medida con referencias establecidas se precisa una cadena de comparaciones (de trazabilidad) que se establece en forma de una jerarquía descendente, desde la referencia metrológica más elevada hasta el resultado de la muestra del paciente. La historia de la metrología en el laboratorio clínico está principalmente relacionada con el establecimiento o la preparación de procedimientos de medida de referencia y de materiales de referencia. Diversas organizaciones relacionadas con la metrología de carácter nacional, regional o internacional han desempeñado un papel destacado en la implementación de los principios metrológicos en los laboratorios clínicos(AU)


The modern theory of metrology defines the accuracy by means of the measurement uncertainty and the traceability. The measurement uncertainty is a numerical expression of the inaccuracy associated to a measurement result, and the traceability relates the result with established references, thus allowing reproducibility over time, and between laboratories. A chain of comparisons (of traceability) is required to associate a measured result with established references. The chain is established in the form of a descendent hierarchy, from the highest metrological reference to the result of the patient sample. The history of metrology in the clinical laboratory is mainly associated with the establishment or preparation of reference measurement procedures and reference materials. Several regional, national and international organizations associated with metrology have played an important role in the adoption of the metrology principles by the clinical laboratories(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/história , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/educação , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/normas , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/tendências
16.
Virol J ; 10: 239, 2013 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23870415

RESUMO

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to acute or chronic hepatitis. HBV infections were previously much more frequent but there are still 240 million chronic HBV carriers today and ca. 620,000 die per year from the late sequelae liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B was recognized as a disease in ancient times, but its etiologic agent was only recently identified. The first clue in unraveling this mystery was the discovery of an enigmatic serum protein named Australia antigen 50 years ago by Baruch Blumberg. Some years later this was recognized to be the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Detection of HBsAg allowed for the first time screening of inapparently infected blood donors for a dangerous pathogen. The need to diagnose clinically silent HBV infections was a strong driving force in the development of modern virus diagnostics. HBsAg was the first infection marker to be assayed with a highly sensitive radio immune assay. HBV itself was among the first viruses to be detected by assay of its DNA genome and IgM antibodies against the HBV core antigen were the first to be selectively detected by the anti-µ capture assay. The cloning and sequencing of the HBV genome in 1978 paved the way to understand the viral life cycle, and allowed development of efficient vaccines and drugs. Today's hepatitis B vaccine was the first vaccine produced by gene technology. Among the problems that still remain today are the inability to achieve a complete cure of chronic HBV infections, the recognition of occult HBV infections, their potential reactivation and the incomplete protection against escape mutants and heterologous HBV genotypes by HBV vaccines.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Hepatite B/história , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos
19.
Bull Hist Med ; 87(1): 63-85, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603529

RESUMO

One of the most heatedly contested disease entities in turn-of-the-century medicine was "latent gonorrhea," a condition first discussed in an 1872 paper published by the German-born gynecologist Emil Noeggerath. Although none of the bacteriological discoveries of the next few decades-including the isolation of the gonococcus in 1879-provided much evidence of its existence, by the 1890s most Western physicians and medical scientists had nonetheless come to believe that latent gonorrhea was a real, diagnosable disease. While in the wake of its resolution, leading gynecologists contended that laboratory science had cleared up the controversy over latent gonorrhea, in reality it was through more "traditional" diagnostic methods (especially the taking of case histories) that Noeggerath's once-debatable theory gained acceptance. As such, this episode challenges the idea that turn-of-the-century Western medicine witnessed a "laboratory revolution," and that with the rise of bacteriology "the clinic" no longer informed the processes by which doctors defined and diagnosed disease.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Gonorreia/história , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Ginecologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/fisiologia , América do Norte
20.
J Med Biogr ; 21(1): 41-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23610228

RESUMO

In 1977 the Haemophilia Society presented the first RG Macfarlane Award to Katharine Dormandy for her outstanding contribution towards the social and physical wellbeing of people with haemophilia and related disorders. In 1978 Rosemary Biggs was the second recipient of the Award given for similarly outstanding personal contributions. Dr Biggs worked under Dr RG Macfarlane at Oxford and in 1952 devised a laboratory test that identified two forms of haemophilia. Macfarlane realized the potential for replacement therapy which subsequently transformed the lives of haemophiliacs in the UK. Dr Biggs was director of the Oxford Haemophilia Centre (1967-77) and instrumental in documenting the increase in incidence of jaundice with the import of concentrates for infusion. Katharine Dormandy, Consultant Haematologist at the Royal Free Hospital in London, set up one of the country's foremost haemophilia centres, pioneered home treatment for haemophilic children and with Rosemary Biggs was involved in the social and educational welfare of affected families.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Transfusão de Sangue/história , Hematologia/história , Hemofilia A/história , Hemofilia B/história , Animais , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/história , Hemofilia A/diagnóstico , Hemofilia A/terapia , Hemofilia B/diagnóstico , Hemofilia B/terapia , História do Século XX , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/história , Hospitais/história , Humanos , Icterícia/etiologia , Icterícia/história , Londres , Reino Unido
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