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1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(2): 117-128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009078

RESUMO

The total syntheses of dimeric indole alkaloids, haplophytine, and T988s are described. These dimeric compounds comprising two structurally different indole units are ubiquitous in nature, and many possess pharmaceutically important activities. To realize an efficient chemical synthesis of these dimeric indole alkaloids, the establishment of convergent synthetic strategies and development of new coupling methods are indispensable. The linkage of two highly functionalized units at a late stage of the synthesis frequently induces synthetic problems such as chemoselectivity and steric repulsion. Moreover, although transition metal-catalyzed reactions are usually an effective method for the cross-coupling of two units, the application of these cross-coupling reactions to bond formation involving a sterically hindered C(sp3) is often difficult. Thus, even with precise modern synthetic methods, it is currently difficult to realize convergent syntheses of dimeric indole alkaloids possessing a quaternary carbon linking two units. To combat these synthetic problems, we developed a synthetic method to link two indole units using an Ag-mediated nucleophilic substitution reaction. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion of convergent synthetic strategies and coupling methods for dimeric indole alkaloids.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Alcaloides Indólicos/síntese química , Dimerização , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(2): 103-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009077

RESUMO

The merits of biogenetic considerations in the chemical syntheses of natural products have been emphasized by describing the total syntheses of Lycopodium alkaloids; lycodine, flabellidine, lycopodine, and flabelliformine, as well as monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; C-mavacurine, kopsiyunnanine K, koumine, and 11-methoxy-19R-hydroxygelselegine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Lycopodium/química , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/química
3.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 378(1): 16, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942682

RESUMO

The cooperation between two orthogonal catalytic events during the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds has emerged as an effective strategy for enantioselective chemical synthesis. In recent years, a number of pioneering investigations have described useful chemical synthesis methods whereby the reactivity or nucleophile-electrophile combinations can be fine-tuned or extended far beyond the effect and influence of a single catalyst. The recognition of this has had profound implications for the development cooperative catalysis as a field and has provided a foundation for the development of broadly useful chemical synthesis methods. This chapter focuses on the combination of tertiary amine Lewis base and transition metal catalysts, which the authors hope will simulate further developments and advances.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Bases de Lewis/química , Metais/química , Carbono/química , Catálise , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Elementos de Transição/química
4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(41): 9095-9123, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596305

RESUMO

The Stille coupling between organostannanes and organohalides is an effective catalytic method for organic synthesis. Despite the ample amount of published results in this area, finding the optimal conditions for this transformation is often not straightforward. It was observed that this reaction could be accelerated with improved efficiency by the addition of a Cu(i) salt and fluoride. This review summarises the application of this simple protocol in the synthesis of natural products, their analogues and other biologically active molecules, from 2004 to 2018.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Cobre/química , Fluoretos/química , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos
5.
Carbohydr Res ; 485: 107806, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526929

RESUMO

Fucoidan is a unique polysaccharide that has various biological activities partly owing to its capability to act as mimetics of natural ligands of protein receptors. However, its use is limited due to a number of reasons including those associated with molecular weight and composition variation in relation to an algae type and habitat, raw material collection time, extraction method and duration. The main problem which limits its application in therapy is high molecular weight and seasonal composition. To expand the scope of its application, it is necessary to develop a validated procedure of high-molecular-weight fucoidan depolymerization or synthesis of its oligomeric elements . Therefore, there is a need for the synthesis of polysaccharideoligomeric components and/or polymer mimetics which allow for the creation of chains with a certain degree of sulfation, molecular weight and yield. This paper presents the most commonly used methods of fucoidan homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide fragments synthesis as well as problems associated with their synthesis, including fucoidan analogues available in the form of glycopolymers that are obtained by using different methods of radical polymerization. These fucoidan mimetic glycopolymers have a biological activity similar to that of native fucoidans with high yield, which allows for their use as potential agents in the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Polimerização , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/síntese química , Peso Molecular
6.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492013

RESUMO

Hydroxytyrosol and two other polyphenols of olive tree, hydroxytyrosol acetate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, are known for a wide range of beneficial activities in human health and prevention from diseases. The inability to isolate high, pure amounts of these natural compounds and the difficult and laborious procedures for the synthesis of them led us to describe herein an efficient, easy, cheap, and scaling up synthetic procedure, from catechol, via microwave irradiation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Humanos , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/síntese química , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/química , Estrutura Molecular , Álcool Feniletílico/síntese química , Álcool Feniletílico/química
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3774, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484927

RESUMO

Light-induced alteration of macromolecular information plays a central role in biology and is known to influence health, aging and Darwinian evolution. Here, we report that light can also trigger sequence variations in abiotic information-containing polymers. Sequence-coded poly(phosphodiester)s were synthesized using four phosphoramidite monomers containing either photo-sensitive or photo-inert substituents. These monomers allow different sequence manipulations. For instance, using two light-cleavable monomers containing o-nitrobenzyl ether and o-nitroveratryl ether motifs, photo-erasable digital polymers were prepared. These polymers can be decoded by tandem mass spectrometry but become unreadable after UVA exposure. The opposite behavior, i.e. photo-revealable sequences, was obtained with polymers made of two isobaric monomers containing light-cleavable o-nitrobenzyl ether and light-inert p-nitrobenzyl ether substituents. Furthermore, when the latter two monomers were used in conjunction with a third monomer bearing a light-inert OH group, site-directed photo-mutations were induced in synthetic polymers. This was used herein to change the meaning of binary sequences.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/síntese química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Nat Protoc ; 14(10): 2972-2985, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541227

RESUMO

Although Csp2-Csp2 Suzuki-Miyaura couplings (SMCs) are widely used in small-molecule synthesis, related methods that allow the incorporation of Csp3-hybridized coupling partners, particularly in an asymmetric manner, are less developed. This protocol describes catalytic asymmetric SMC reactions that provide access to enantiomerically enriched cyclic allylic products. The method couples racemic allyl halide starting materials with sp2-hybridized boronic acid derivatives and is compatible with heterocyclic coupling partners. These reactions are catalyzed by a rhodium-ligand complex and typically display very high levels of enantioselectivity (>95% enantiomeric excess (ee)). In this protocol, we detail a procedure using a dihydropyridine-derived allyl chloride for the synthesis of (-)-(S)-tert-butyl-3-(4-bromophenyl)-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxylate, an intermediate in the synthesis of the anticancer drug niraparib. This procedure affords 1.17 g (86% yield) of the coupling product with 96% ee. The initial experimental setup of the reaction takes 45-50 min, and the reaction is complete within 4-5 h.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Ródio/química , Compostos Alílicos/química , Catálise , Indazóis/síntese química , Piperidinas/síntese química , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3555, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391472

RESUMO

Poly-substituted aromatic sulfur compounds are widely found in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and organic materials. However, the position that a sulfur moiety can be introduced to is largely restricted to a pre-functionalized site; otherwise, use of electronically biased substrates or auxiliary groups that direct catalysis is required. Here we report a general ortho thiolation of common aryl and heteroaryl iodides via palladium-norbornene cooperative catalysis. Using this approach, an aryl or alky sulfur moiety can be site-selectively introduced at the arene ortho position without using sterically or electronically biased substrates. The arene ipso functionalization is simultaneously achieved through Heck, Suzuki or Sonogashira termination. The reaction is enabled by a unique class of electrophiles in palladium-norbornene cooperative catalysis, which are sulfenamides derived from seven-membered lactams. The broad substrates scope and high chemoselectivity could make this method attractive for synthesis of complex sulfur-containing aromatic compounds.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Iodetos/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/síntese química , Amidas/química , Catálise , Norbornanos/química , Paládio/química , Enxofre/química
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3590, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399569

RESUMO

Organocatalysis is an important branch of catalysis for various organic transformations and materials preparation. Polymerizations promoted by organic catalysts can produce polymeric materials without any metallic residues, providing charming materials for high-value and sensitive domains such as biomedical applications, microelectronic devices and food packaging. Herein, we describe a fluorinated alcohol based catalytic system for polypeptide synthesis via catalytic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), fulfilling cocatalyst free, metal free, high rate and high selectivity. During polymerization, the fluorinated alcohol catalyst forms multiple dynamic hydrogen bonds with the initiator, monomer and propagating polymer chain. These cooperative hydrogen bonding interactions activate the NCA monomers and simultaneously protect the overactive initiator/propagating polymer chain-ends, which offers the whole polymerization with high activity and selectivity. Mechanistic studies indicate a monocomponent-multifunctional catalytic mode of fluorinated alcohol. This finding provides a metal free and fast approach to access well-defined polypeptides.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Peptídeos/síntese química , Polimerização , Aminoácidos/química , Catálise , Halogenação
11.
Biointerphases ; 14(4): 041006, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438685

RESUMO

New surface initiators for ARGET ATRP (activators regenerated by electron transfer atomic transfer radical polymerization) have been prepared by the plasma deposition of haloester monomers. Specifically, methyl 3-bromopropionate (M3BP), methyl 2-chloropropionate, and ethyl 2-fluoropropionate (E2FP) were plasma deposited onto glass discs using RF glow discharge plasma. This technique creates surface coatings that are resistant to delamination and rich in halogen species making them good candidates for surface initiators for ARGET ATRP. Of all the plasma polymerized surface coatings, M3BP showed the highest halogen content and was able to grow 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) polymer brushes on its surface via ARGET ATRP in as little as 15 min as confirmed by XPS. Surprisingly, E2FP, a fluoroester, was also able to grow HEMA polymer brushes despite fluorine being a poor leaving group for ARGET ATRP. The versatility of RF glow discharge plasma offers a clear advantage over other techniques previously used to immobilize ARGET ATRP surface initiators.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Gases em Plasma , Ondas de Rádio , Propriedades de Superfície , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Vidro , Propionatos/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111566, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401538

RESUMO

The worldwide increase of AIDS, an epidemic infection in constant development has an essential and still requires potent antiretroviral chemotherapeutic agents for reducing the integer of deaths caused by HIV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new anti-HIV drug candidates with increased strength, new targets, superior pharmacokinetic properties, and compact side effects. From this viewpoint, we first review present strategies of anti-HIV drug innovation and the synthesis of heterocyclic or natural compound as anti-HIV agents for facilitating the development of more influential and successful anti-HIV agents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Desenho de Drogas , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111572, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404859

RESUMO

The discovery and development of multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) is a promising strategy to find new therapeutic solutions for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently approved drugs for the clinical management of AD are based on a single-target strategy and focus on restoring neurotransmitter homeostasis. Finding disease-modifying therapies AD and other NDs remains an urgent unmet clinical need. The growing consensus that AD is a multifactorial disease, with several interconnected and deregulated pathological pathways, boosted an intensive research in the design of MTDLs. Due to this scientific boom, the knowledge behind the development of MTDLs remains diffuse and lacks balanced guidelines. To rationalize the large amount of data obtained in this field, we herein revise the progress made over the last 5 years on the development of MTDLs inspired by drugs approved for AD. Due to their putative therapeutic benefit in AD, MTDLs based on MAO-B inhibitors will also be discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Desenho de Drogas , Descoberta de Drogas , Animais , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Donepezila/análogos & derivados , Donepezila/síntese química , Donepezila/farmacologia , Dopaminérgicos/síntese química , Dopaminérgicos/química , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Indanos/síntese química , Indanos/química , Indanos/farmacologia , Memantina/análogos & derivados , Memantina/síntese química , Memantina/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/síntese química , Nootrópicos/química , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Rivastigmina/análogos & derivados , Rivastigmina/síntese química , Rivastigmina/farmacologia , Tacrina/análogos & derivados , Tacrina/síntese química , Tacrina/farmacologia
14.
Carbohydr Res ; 482: 107737, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325781

RESUMO

Synthetic analogues of the cytotoxic jaspine B and its stereochemical congeners have become an attractive target in the synthetic organic community owing to the search for novel therapeutic candidates with more potent anticancer activity, as cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. This review article provides insights into the different approaches and strategies available in the literature for the construction of jaspine B-related compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Esfingosina/síntese química , Esfingosina/química , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Nature ; 570(7760): 175-181, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190012

RESUMO

Organic chemistry has largely been conducted in an ad hoc manner by academic laboratories that are funded by grants directed towards the investigation of specific goals or hypotheses. Although modern synthetic methods can provide access to molecules of considerable complexity, predicting the outcome of a single chemical reaction remains a major challenge. Improvements in the prediction of 'above-the-arrow' reaction conditions are needed to enable intelligent decision making to select an optimal synthetic sequence that is guided by metrics including efficiency, quality and yield. Methods for the communication and the sharing of data will need to evolve from traditional tools to machine-readable formats and open collaborative frameworks. This will accelerate innovation and require the creation of a chemistry commons with standardized data handling, curation and metrics.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Difusão de Inovações , Disseminação de Informação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Diterpenos/síntese química , Halogenação , Publicação de Acesso Aberto
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 189-198, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201914

RESUMO

In this work, a simple method was developed for hydrogel preparation from 1,5-Diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chitosan (CS) through Diazotization reaction of CS as a selective adsorbent (DPCCS) for Cu(II) ions. CS was treated with sodium nitrate and subsequent crosslinking reaction with DPC for the preparation of DPCCS. Different techniques were used for characterization of DPCCS. Various parameters such as, temperature, pH, and concentration of Cu(II) were used for adsorption studies. Kinetics of Cu(II) ion on DPCCS follows the Pseudo second order and equilibrium of adsorption occurs in short time. The equilibrium data was best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of DPCCS was 185.505 mg g-1. Thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° suggested that the adsorption of Cu(II) ion on the surfaces of DPCCS was spontaneous, endothermic and randomness of Cu(II) ion in the solution was enhanced respectively. Regeneration of DPCCS and Cu(II) ion recovery were studied up to five cycles without the lost of the adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Quitosana/química , Cobre/química , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Difenilcarbazida/química , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Temperatura Ambiente , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água
17.
Methods Enzymol ; 622: 153-182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155051

RESUMO

The bioorthogonal reaction toolbox contains approximately two-dozen unique chemistries that permit selective tagging and probing of biomolecules. Over the past two decades, significant effort has been devoted to optimizing and discovering bioorthogonal reagents that are faster, fluorogenic, and orthogonal to the already existing bioorthogonal repertoire. Conversely, efforts to explore bioorthogonal reagents whose reactivity can be controlled in space and/or time are limited. The "activatable" bioorthogonal reagents that do exist are often unimodal, meaning that their reagent's activation method cannot be easily modified to enable activation with red-shifted wavelengths, enzymes, or metabolic-byproducts and ions like H2O2 or Fe3+. Here, we summarize the available activatable bioorthogonal reagents with a focus on our recent addition: modular caged cyclopropenes. We designed caged cyclopropenes to be unreactive to their bioorthogonal partner until they are activated through the removal of the cage by light, an enzyme, or another reaction partner. To accomplish this, their structure includes a nitrogen atom at the cyclopropene C3 position that is decorated with the desired caging group through a carbamate linkage. This 3-N cyclopropene system can allow control of cyclopropene reactivity using a multitude of already available photo- and enzyme-caging groups. Additionally, this cyclopropene scaffold can enable metabolic-byproduct or ion activation of bioorthogonal reactions.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/química , Animais , Biocatálise , Carbamatos/síntese química , Carbamatos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclopropanos/síntese química , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Indicadores e Reagentes , Luz , Nitrogênio/química
18.
Methods Enzymol ; 622: 29-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155057

RESUMO

Protein phosphatases act in concert with protein kinases to regulate and maintain the phosphoproteome. However, the catalog of chemical tools to directly monitor the enzymatic activity of phosphatases has lagged behind their kinase counterparts. In this chapter, we provide protocols for repurposing the phosphorylation-sensitive sulfonamido-oxine fluorophore known as Sox to afford direct activity probes for phosphatases. With validated activity probes in-hand, inhibitor screens can be conducted with recombinant enzyme and the role of phosphatases in cell signaling can be investigated in unfractionated cell lysates.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Oxiquinolina/análogos & derivados , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxiquinolina/síntese química , Oxiquinolina/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/análise , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
19.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(3): 16, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111247

RESUMO

Elemental sulfur is an abundant and inexpensive chemical feedstock, yet it is underused as a starting material in chemical synthesis. Recently, a process coined inverse vulcanization was introduced in which elemental sulfur is converted into polymers by ring-opening polymerization, followed by cross-linking with an unsaturated organic molecule such as a polyene. The resulting materials have high sulfur content (typically 50-90% sulfur by mass) and display a range of interesting properties such as dynamic S-S bonds, redox activity, high refractive indices, mid-wave IR transparency, and heavy metal affinity. These properties have led to a swell of applications of these polymers in repairable materials, energy generation and storage, optical devices, and environmental remediation. This article will discuss the synthesis of polymers by inverse vulcanization and review case studies on their diverse applications. An outlook is also presented to discuss future opportunities and challenges for further advancement of polymers made by inverse vulcanization.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Polimerização , Polímeros/síntese química , Compostos de Enxofre/síntese química , Enxofre/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Eletrodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Dispositivos Ópticos , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química
20.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(3): 13, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054016

RESUMO

Graphene-based carbocatalysts owing to numerous amazing properties such as large specific surface area, high intrinsic mobility, excellent thermal and electrical conductivities, chemical stability, ease of functionalization, simple method of preparation, effortless recovery and recyclability have gained a superior position amongst the conventional homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In this review, an endeavor has been made to highlight the syntheses of diverse heterocyclic compounds catalyzed by graphene-based catalysts. Further, the study also reveals that all the catalysts could be reused several times without significant loss in their catalytic activity. Additionally, most of the reactions catalyzed by graphene-based carbocatalysts were carried out at ambient temperature and under solvent-free conditions. Thus, the graphene-based catalysts do not merely act as efficient catalysts but also serve as sustainable, green catalysts. This review is divided into various sub-sections, each of which comprehensively describes the preparation of a particular heterocyclic scaffold catalyzed by graphene-derived carbocatalyst in addition to synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, functionalization, and structural features governing their catalytic properties. Synthesis of heterocycles catalyzed by graphene-based carbocatalysts.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Grafite/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Catálise , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química
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