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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429930

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To explore the ethical and legal complexities arising from the controversial issue of surrogacy, particularly in terms of how they affect fundamental rights of children and parents. Surrogacy is a form of medically-assisted procreation (MAP) in which a woman "lends" her uterus to carry out a pregnancy on behalf of a third party. There are pathological conditions, such as uterine agenesis or hysterectomy outcomes, that may prevent prospective mothers from becoming pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term; such patients may consider finding a surrogate mother. Many issues relating to surrogacy remain unresolved, with significant disagreements and controversy within the scientific community and public opinion. There are several factors called into play and multiple parties and stakeholders whose objectives and interests need to somehow be reconciled. First and foremost, the authors contend, it is essential to prioritize and uphold the rights of children born through surrogacy and heterologous MAP. Materials and methods: To draw a parallel between Italy and the rest of the world, the legislation in force in twelve European countries was analyzed, eleven of which are part of the European Union (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Lithuania, Czech Republic and Portugal) and three non-members of the same (United Kingdom, Ukraine and Russia), as well as that of twelve non-European countries considered exemplary (United States, Canada, Australia, India, China, Thailand, Israel, Nigeria and South Africa); in particular, legislative sources and legal databases were drawn upon, in order to draw a comparison with the Italian legislation currently in force and map out the evolution of the Italian case law on the basis of the judgments issued by Italian courts, including the Constitutional and Supreme Courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR); search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar were also used, by entering the keywords "surrogacy" and "surrogate motherhood", to find scientific articles concerning assisted reproduction techniques with a close focus on surrogacy. Results: SM is a prohibited and sanctioned practice in Italy; on the other hand, it is allowed in other countries of the world, which leads Italian couples, or couples from other countries where it is banned, to often contact foreign centers in order to undertake a MAP pathway which includes surrogacy; in addition, challenges may arise from the legal status of children born through surrogacy abroad: to date, in most countries, there is no specific legislation aimed at regulating their legal registration and parental status. Conclusion: With reference to the Italian context, despite the scientific and legal evolution on the subject, a legislative intervention aimed at filling the regulatory gaps in terms of heterologous MAP and surrogacy has not yet come to fruition. Considering the possibility of "fertility tourism", i.e., traveling to countries where the practice is legal, as indeed already happens in a relatively significant number of cases, the current legislation, although integrated by the legal interpretation, does not appear to be effective in avoiding the phenomenon of procreative tourism. Moreover, to overcome some contradictions currently present between law 40 and law 194, it would be appropriate to outline an organic and exhaustive framework of rules, which should take into account the multiplicity of interests at stake, in keeping with a fair and sustainable balance when regulating such practices.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Altruísmo , Austrália , Criança , Proteção da Criança/ética , Proteção da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Itália , Japão , Turismo Médico/ética , Turismo Médico/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Federação Russa , Problemas Sociais , Tailândia , Ucrânia , Estados Unidos
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(1): 154-160, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541283

RESUMO

Assisted reproductive technologies allow women to achieve pregnancy at ages beyond the limits of their natural reproductive lifespans. As women seek pregnancy later in life, physicians are challenged with balancing their professional autonomy against patient autonomy. Increased parental age increases risk to mother and fetus. Legal aspects of postmenopausal women desiring fertility services will vary by location. Ethically, the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice become important factors in a physician's evaluation process. This article aims to highlight current guidelines for postmenopausal women desiring fertility services and address medical, legal, and ethical concerns that may arise when assessing these patients.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Pós-Menopausa , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468475

RESUMO

In recent years, popular culture has been graced with countless news announcing novel developments in genome editing. While many experiments are still in their early stages, genome editing seems very promising. Often betraying a sensationalist and triumphant tone, news coverage focuses on the potentials that these developments will have for the advancement of the human species, i.e., the eradication of disease, the extension of life, the improvement of the body and its appearance, etc. The future looks hopeful and unproblematic according to these accounts. On the opposite end of the spectrum, some may wonder whether these developments pose a potential worsening of the human condition: Are these developments safe? What are the ethical implications? Who will benefit from these developments? Given today's social divisions and cultural conflicts, these voices predict a rather unpromising future and warn against the pursue of innovation at any cost.


Assuntos
Arte , Edição de Genes/ética , Edição de Genes/tendências , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/tendências , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos
5.
Clin Ter ; 171(3): e225-e228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323709

RESUMO

Medically assisted procreation and assisted reproductive techniques have made giant strides over the past decades, enabling countless couples to achieve parenthood. Still, the ethical and moral concerns that have come to the fore as a result of ART's rise pose a multi-faceted issue that lawmakers have struggled to keep up with; procedures such as heterologous fertilization are strictly regulated, and even banned, in several nations around the globe, among which Italy, where a controversial piece of legislation was passed in 2004; such a reform has been partly nullified by court decisions, among which the Italian Constitutional Court and even the European Court of Human Rights. Relevant scientific articles were identified from Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, through February 2020, by using the following keywords: "assisted reproductive techniques", "heterologous fertilization", "European rulings on ART", "reproductive damages". The rise of ART has laid bare a shortage of adequate legal tools for the purpose of guaranteeing the exercise of reproductive rights for all. Hence, the harmonization of regulations, at least at the European level, is greatly needed in order to ensure equality of parental opportunities for all.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética
6.
New Bioeth ; 26(1): 17-37, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090706

RESUMO

Biomedicine has opened up new possibilities for parenthood. Once resigned to remaining childless or pursuing adoption, infertile couples can now pursue options such as gamete donation, in-vitro fertilization, and uterine transplantation, as well as surrogacy. Muslim thinkers have viewed these strategies with both promise and caution given new types of kinship and parenthood result. By drawing upon leading medical fiqh academy resolutions this paper critically analyses Islamic normative views on the production of parenthood. We start with an overview of the Sunni rulings on gamete donation, gestational surrogacy and uterus transplantation, and the rationale and scriptural sources that undergird these moral assessments. Next, we discuss the contested relational bonds in light of larger discussions on genetics and the preservation of lineage. Finally, we comment on how scientific data, social imaginaries, and empirical gaps impact Islamic normativity regarding the production of parenthood so as to inform more holistic Islamic bioethical assessments.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/etnologia , Islamismo , Pais , Linhagem , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Órgãos/ética , Mães Substitutas , Útero/transplante
7.
Bioethics ; 34(1): 16-32, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877579

RESUMO

Potential applications of genome editing in assisted reproductive technology (ART) raise a vast array of strong opinions, emotional reactions and divergent perceptions. Acknowledging the need for caution and respecting such reactions, we observe that at least some are based on either a misunderstanding of the science or misconceptions about the content and flexibility of the existing legal frameworks. Combining medical, legal and ethical expertise, we present and discuss regulatory responses at the national, European and international levels. The discussion has an EU starting point and is meant as a contribution to the general international regulatory debate. Overall, this paper concludes that gene editing technologies should not be regulated autonomously. Rather, potential uses should be regulated under general, existing frameworks and where applicable by reference to sufficiently equivalent technologies and techniques already subject to specific regulation. To be clear, we do not argue for the hasty introduction of gene editing as a reproductive treatment option in the immediate future. We call for caution with regard to overreaching moratoria and prohibitions that will also affect basic research. We recommend flexible regulations that allow for further responsible research into the potential development of the technology. We call for an open and inclusive debate and argue that scientific communication should claim a more prominent role to counter the danger of widespread misinformation. A high level of transparency and accuracy should guide scientific communication while simultaneously global-scale responsibility and governance should be fostered by promoting cross-disciplinary thinking and multi-level stakeholder involvement in legal and regulatory processes.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Edição de Genes/legislação & jurisprudência , Células Germinativas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Difusão de Inovações , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , União Europeia , Edição de Genes/tendências , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/tendências
8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 244: 71-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760265

RESUMO

Social and legal equality for same-sex male couples continues to grow in many countries. Consequently, increasing numbers of same-sex male couples are seeking assisted reproductive technology to achieve parenthood. Fertility treatment for same-sex male couples is an undoubtedly complex issue and raises a variety of ethical concerns. Relevant considerations include ethical issues relating to the surrogate and a possible egg donor, the commissioning same-sex couple, the welfare of the child and the fertility clinic itself. This work analyses these arguments in the context of modern fertility services, providing reflection on the evidence present and what it means for clinicians today. Herein, we argue that fertility treatment for same-sex male couples via surrogacy agreements are acceptable, subject to considerations of each individual case, as in all assisted reproductive treatment. It is in the interest of open and equal access to health services that barriers to assisted reproductive technology for same-sex male couples should be minimised where possible.


Assuntos
Clínicas de Fertilização/ética , Homossexualidade Masculina , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Mães Substitutas , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Doadores de Tecidos
9.
Bioethics ; 34(1): 60-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448423

RESUMO

CRISPR is widely considered to be a disruptive technology. However, when it comes to the most controversial topic, germline genome editing (GGE), there is no consensus on whether this technology has any substantial advantages over existing procedures such as embryo selection after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Answering this question, however, is crucial for evaluating whether the pursuit of further research and development on GGE is justified. This paper explores the question from both a clinical and a moral viewpoint, namely whether GGE has any advantages over existing technologies of selective reproduction and whether GGE could complement or even replace them. In a first step, I review an argument of extended applicability. The paper confirms that there are some scenarios in which only germline intervention allows couples to have (biologically related) healthy offspring, because selection will not avoid disease. In a second step, I examine possible moral arguments in favour of genetic modification, namely that GGE could save some embryos and that GGE would provide certain benefits for a future person that PGD does not. Both arguments for GGE have limitations. With regard to the extended applicability of GGE, however, a weak case in favour of GGE should still be made.


Assuntos
Análise Ética , Edição de Genes/tendências , Células Germinativas , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/tendências , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Humanos , Status Moral
10.
Bioethics ; 34(1): 123-134, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617217

RESUMO

In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) might offer numerous research and clinical benefits. Some potential clinical applications of IVG, such as allowing opposite-sex couples experiencing infertility to have genetically related children, have attracted support. Others, such as enabling same-sex reproduction and solo reproduction, have attracted significantly more criticism. In this paper, we examine how different ethical principles might help us to draw lines and distinguish between ethically desirable and undesirable uses of IVG. We discuss the alleged distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic uses of assisted reproduction in the context of IVG, and show how it is both problematic to apply in practice and theoretically dubious. We then discuss how the ethical principles of reproductive justice and beneficence apply to IVG for opposite-sex reproduction, same-sex reproduction, and solo reproduction. We suggest that these principles generate strong reasons for the use of IVG for opposite-sex and same-sex reproduction, but not for solo reproduction.


Assuntos
Análise Ética , Gametogênese , Técnicas In Vitro/ética , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Pais , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Beneficência , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Redução do Dano/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/ética , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/psicologia , Risco
11.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 85, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past studies emphasized the possible cultural influence on attitudes regarding reprogenetics and reproductive risks among medical students who are taken to be "future physicians." These studies were crafted in order to enhance the knowledge and expand the boundaries of cultural competence. Yet such studies were focused on MS from relatively marginalized cultures, namely either from non-Western developing countries or minority groups in developed countries. The current study sheds light on possible cultural influences of the dominant culture on medical students in two developed countries, potentially with different dominant cultures regarding reprogenetics and reproductive risks: Israel and Croatia. METHODS: Quantitative-statistical analyses were employed, based on anonymous questionnaires completed by 150 first year medical students in Israel and Croatia. The questionnaires pertained to the knowledge and attitudes regarding genetics, reproduction and reproductive risks. These questionnaires were completed before the students were engaged in learning about these topics as part of the curriculum in their medical school. RESULTS: Substantial differences were revealed between the two groups of medical students. Israeli medical students were less tolerant regarding reproductive risks and more knowledgeable about genetics and reproductive risks than Croatian medical students. For example, while nearly all Israeli medical students (96%) disagreed with the idea that "Screening for reproductive risks in prospective parents is wrong," less than 40% of their Croatian counterparts shared a similar stance. Similarly, all (100%) Israeli medical students correctly observed that "A carrier of a recessive genetic disease actually has the disease" was wrong, as opposed to only 82% of Croatian students. CONCLUSIONS: By linking applicable theoretical literature to these findings, we suggest that they may reflect the hidden influence of the dominant culture in each country, disguised as part of the "culture of medicine." Acknowledging and learning about such influence of the dominant culture, may be an important addition to the training of medical students in cultural competence, and specifically their cultural awareness. Such an acknowledgement may also pave the road to drawing the attention of existing physicians regarding a less known yet an important aspect of their cultural competence, insofar as the cultural awareness component is concerned.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Pesquisa em Genética/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Conscientização , Croácia , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/ética , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/ética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 130-170, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722626

RESUMO

In many areas of innovation, the United States is a leader, but this characterization does not apply to the United States' position in assisted reproductive technology innovation and clinical use. This article uses a political science concept, the idea of the "democratic deficit" to examine the lack of American public discourse on innovations in ART. In doing so, the article focuses on America's missing public consultation in health care innovation. This missing discourse is significant, as political and ethical considerations may impact regulatory decisions. Thus, to the extent that these considerations are influencing the decisions of federal agency employees, namely those who work within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the public is unable to participate in the decision-making process. This lack of a public discourse undermines the goals of the administrative state, which include democratic participation, transparency, and accountability. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, has had a markedly divergent experience with assisted reproductive technology innovation. Instead of ignoring the various ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding assisted reproductive technology innovation, the United Kingdom engaged in a five-strand public consultation on the topic of mitochondrial transfer, a form of assisted reproductive technology that uses genetic modification in order to prevent disease transmission. This article argues that after a multi-decade standstill in terms of the public discourse related to ethical issues associated with assisted reproductive technology and germline modification, it is time for the United States to institute a more democratic inquiry into the scientific, ethical, and social implications of new forms of assisted reproductive technology and ultimately, forthcoming medical innovations that involve genetic modification.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Democracia , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Governo Federal , Fertilização In Vitro/ética , Fertilização In Vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Participação dos Interessados , Governo Estadual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Fertil Steril ; 112(6): 973-977, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703942

RESUMO

Add-on treatments are the new black. They are provided (most frequently, sold) to patients undergoing in vitro fertilization on the premise that they will improve the chances of having a baby. However, the regulation of add-ons is consistently minimal, meaning that they are introduced into routine practice before they have been shown to improve the live birth rate. Debate on the adequacy of this light-touch approach rages. Defenders argue that demands for a rigorous approval process are paternalistic, as this would delay access to promising treatments. Critics respond that promising treatments may turn out to have adverse effects on patients and their offspring, contradicting the clinician's responsibility to do no harm. Some add-ons, including earlier versions of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy, might even reduce the live birth rate, raising the prospect of desperate patients paying more to worsen their chances. Informed consent represents a solution in principle, but in practice there is a clear tension between impartial information and direct-to-consumer advertising. Because the effects of a treatment cannot be known until it has been robustly evaluated, we argue that strong evidence should be required before add-ons are introduced to the clinic. In the meantime, there is an imperative to identify methods for communicating the associated risks and uncertainties of add-ons to prospective patients.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/ética , Fertilização In Vitro/ética , Infertilidade/terapia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Fertilidade , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(311): 12-17, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757269

RESUMO

Medically assisted reproduction techniques are aimed at heterosexual couples, when both members are living, of reproductive age, consenting to acts of insemination or the transfer of embryos and presenting medically diagnosed infertility. The review of the law on bioethics could offer new perspectives for reproduction notably by allowing access to medically assisted reproduction (MAR) to all women, elective egg freezing, the lifting of gamete donor anonymity and the authorisation of post-mortem MAR.


Assuntos
Bioética , Infertilidade , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética
15.
AMA J Ethics ; 21(11): E988-995, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742548

RESUMO

Recent advances in uterus transplantation (UTx) suggest it is on a trajectory toward becoming an accepted clinical practice to treat absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). Additional uses have been envisioned but not studied. UTx programs thus far have relied largely on ethical frameworks associated with clinical research, surgical innovation, organ transplantation, and assisted reproductive technologies, as reflected in the Revised Montreal Criteria and the Indianapolis Consensus. This article argues that it is time to develop integrated guidelines that incorporate existing evidence, acknowledge and address tensions among the ethical frameworks that have informed judgments of UTx for AUFI thus far, identify and address ethical questions on which existing frameworks are silent, and anticipate future ethical issues in UTx research.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Útero/transplante , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Transplante de Órgãos/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética
16.
Acta Biomed ; 90(10-S): 58-61, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The studies of Nobel laureate Robert Geoffrey Edwards led to the first in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in 1978. Since then, reproductive medicine has made huge advances. Methods available to sterile couples now include: purchasing oocytes and sperm, uterus surrogacy, pre-implantation or pre-natal diagnosis, embryo/fetal selection. Here we highlight the fact that combinations of existing technologies could threaten the non-marketability of human life. METHODS: We searched PubMed and websites to find articles regarding assisted reproduction techniques. RESULTS: These methods, taken separately, provide support for natural fertilization, but when used together, they may lead to genuine "baby factories". In poor countries, such "factories" exist and often act illegally. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the need for deeper bioethical studies and better legislation regarding the combined use of medically-assisted reproductive techniques.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Medicina Reprodutiva/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
CRISPR J ; 2(5): 304-315, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599685

RESUMO

Germline genome editing (GGE) holds the potential to mitigate or even eliminate human heritable genetic disease, but also carries genuine risks if not appropriately regulated and performed. It also raises fears in some quarters of apocalyptic scenarios of designer babies that could radically change human reproduction. Clinical need and the availability of alternatives are key considerations in the ensuing ethical debate. Writing from the perspective of a fertility clinic, we offer a realistic projection of the demand for GGE. We lay out a framework proposing that GGE, hereditary genetic disorders, and in vitro fertilization are fundamentally entwined concepts. We note that the need for GGE to cure heritable genetic disease is typically grossly overestimated, mainly due to the underappreciated role of preimplantation genetic testing. However, we might still find applications for GGE in the correction of chromosomal abnormalities in early embryos, but techniques for that purpose do not yet exist.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/tendências , Edição de Genes/ética , Engenharia Genética/ética , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/ética , Engenharia Genética/tendências , Testes Genéticos , Células Germinativas/transplante , Humanos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/tendências
20.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(4): 6-7, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429967

RESUMO

The field of assisted reproduction is advancing rapidly and is ripe for regulation and guidance. In 2018, over four thousand frozen eggs and embryos were lost to approximately one thousand patients at Ahuja University Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, due to an accidental thaw of a cryopreservation tank. The precedent that will be set by the Ahuja class-action case is significant for both past events and future possibilities and is core to the discussion of policy involving the cryopreservation of gametes and embryos.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Criopreservação/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/psicologia , Estados Unidos
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