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1.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2608-2615, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359596

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on performance, egg quality, tibia quality, and serum hormones concentration in laying hens reared under high stocking density. A total of 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were randomly allotted into a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of dietary 25-OH-D3 levels (0 and 69 µg/kg) and 2 rates of stocking densities [506 (low density) and 338 (high density) cm2/hen]. Laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. High stocking density decreased laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake compared with low stocking density (P < 0.01) during 1 to 8 wk and 1 to 16 wk. Overall, high stocking density increased eggshell lightness value and decreased shell redness and yellowness value, strength, thickness, and relative weight compared with low stocking density (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 reduced the value of the eggshell lightness and increased its yellowness and eggshells weight (P ≤ 0.05). The increase in eggshell thickness was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P < 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had lower ash content and calcium content in the tibia than layers under low stocking density (P = 0.04); dietary 25-OH-D3 increased tibia strength compared with no addition (P = 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had higher serum concentrations of 25-OH-D3, corticosterone (CORT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and osteocalcin (OC; P < 0.05), lower content of parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared with layers under low stocking density (P < 0.01). Dietary 25-OH-D3 increased serum concentration of 25-OH-D3, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and calcitonin (CT) (P < 0.01) and reduced corticosterone, lipopolysaccharide and osteocalcin concentration (P ≤ 0.05). The increase effect in PTH was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P = 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that high stocking density result in reducing production performance, shell color and quality, and tibia health, whereas dietary 25-OH-D3 was able to maintain tibia health and to mitigate the negative impact of high stocking density on productive performance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória
2.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2633-2644, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359599

RESUMO

This experiment studied the effect of broiler breeder nutritional strategies on uniformity, carcass traits, tibia parameters, and behavior during rearing and prebreeder periods (up to 22 wk of age). One-day-old pullets (n = 384) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial, with 2 fiber levels (control vs. fibrous diet, 15% diluted in AMEn and nutrient content) and 2 vitamin C feed inclusions (0 vs. 200 mg/kg). At 6, 15, and 22 wk, blood sampling was carried out (4 birds/replicate) to determine serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, and behavior was observed by visual scan sampling. At 22 wk, carcass traits, tibia parameters, and intestinal morphology were assessed (2 birds/replicate), and tail- and wing-feather integrity of all birds were scored. Fibrous diet did not modify BW uniformity, mortality, or tibia growth when compared with control diet. Pullets fed the fibrous diet had lower tibia breaking strength, elastic modulus, and ash content values (P < 0.05). They also had lower ALP serum level at 6 and 22 wk (P < 0.05), their breast muscle was less developed (18.5 vs. 19.8%, P < 0.05), and their abdominal fat deposition was higher (1.14 vs. 0.87%, P < 0.05). At 15 and 22 wk, they performed, on average, 97% less grasping feather pecking and 45% less non-food object pecking behaviors, and their wing-feather score was lower (P < 0.05) at 22 wk. Tail- and wing-feather scores of the control treatments were reduced by vitamin C inclusion (tail: 0.30 vs. 1.15, P < 0.05; wing: 0.98 vs. 1.26, P < 0.05) at 22 wk. In conclusion, fibrous diet improves carcass traits (reduces breast muscle and increases abdominal fat deposition), deteriorates bone mineral deposition and thus skeletal strength, and reduces stereotypic behaviors, improving wing-feather integrity. Vitamin C inclusion improves tail- and wing-feather integrity of lower in feed allowance.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Longevidade , Comportamento Estereotipado , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203558

RESUMO

Individuals with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of oxidative stress and are at a significantly higher risk of skeletal fracture. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in bone and compromise mechanical properties, are known to be driven in part by oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to study effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on reducing oxidative stress and improving various bone parameters, most specifically mechanical properties, in an animal model of progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ (CKD) rats and unaffected littermates were untreated (controls) or treated with NAC (80 mg/kg, IP) from 30 to 35 weeks of age. Endpoint measures included serum biochemistries, assessments of systemic oxidative stress, bone morphology, and mechanical properties, and AGE levels in the bone. CKD rats had the expected phenotype that included low kidney function, elevated parathyroid hormone, higher cortical porosity, and compromised mechanical properties. NAC treatment had mixed effects on oxidative stress markers, significantly reducing TBARS (a measure of lipid peroxidation) while not affecting 8-OHdG (a marker of DNA oxidation) levels. AGE levels in the bone were elevated in CKD animals and were reduced with NAC although this did not translate to a benefit in bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, NAC failed to significantly improve bone architecture/geometry/mechanical properties in our rat model of progressive CKD.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/efeitos adversos , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/sangue , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/etiologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Ratos , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(2): 461-471, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897668

RESUMO

Bones are often found in mass grave crime scene. To increase DNA identification success rates, a highly efficient DNA extraction method should be selected. Several DNA extraction methods for human bones have been published yet never been systematically compared, and some are time-consuming or complex. As such, a quick and highly efficient DNA extraction method was developed and compared with three published methods (Hi-Flow silica-based, total demineralization (TD) and PrepFiler BTA) using 70 fresh and 22 casework bones from different body parts. The highest median DNA concentrations were obtained from developed method (135.85 ng/µL and 0.224 ng/µL for fresh and casework bones, respectively). For residual PCR inhibitors, the threshold cycle (Ct) of the internal positive control (IPC) showed that developed method and PrepFiler BTA removed most PCR inhibitors. Similarly, 95.45% of casework STR profiles obtained using the developed protocol meet the standard requirements for Australian National Criminal Investigative DNA Database (NCIDD) entry, followed by 86.35% using TD, 81.82% using PrepFiler BTA, and 45.45% using Hi-Flow. Additionally, DNA extracts from seven different bones revealed that the 1st distal phalange of the hand contained the highest DNA concentration of 338.43 ng/µL, which was three times higher than the tibia and femur. Our findings suggest that developed method was highly efficient for casework bone analysis. It significantly reduced the extraction processing time down to 4 h and is two to four times cheaper compared with other methods. In practice, both the extraction method and the bone sampling must be considered by a forensic DNA analyst to increase the chances of successful identification.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Genética Forense/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Densidade Óssea , Fêmur/química , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/química , Humanos , Tíbia/química
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17974, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784631

RESUMO

Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are not often capable of directly visualizing tendons. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI can acquire high signal from tendons thus enabling quantitative assessments. Magnetization transfer (MT) modeling combined with UTE-MRI-UTE-MT-modeling-can indirectly assess macromolecular protons in the tendon. This study aimed to determine if UTE-MT-modeling is a quantitative technique sensitive to the age-related changes of tendons. The legs of 26 young healthy (29 ± 6 years old) and 22 elderly (75 ± 8 years old) female subjects were imaged using UTE sequences on a 3T MRI scanner. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all recruited subjects provided written informed consent. T1 and UTE-MT-modeling were performed on anterior tibialis tendons (ATT) and posterior tibialis tendons (PTT) as two representative human leg tendons. A series of MT pulse saturation powers (500-1500°) and frequency offsets (2-50 kHz) were used to measure the macromolecular fraction (MMF) and macromolecular T2 (T2MM). All measurements were repeated by three independent readers for a reproducibility study. MMF demonstrated significantly lower values on average in the elderly cohort compared with the younger cohort for both ATT (decreased by 16.8%, p = 0.03) and PTT (decreased by 23.0%, p < 0.01). T2MM and T1 did not show a significant nor a consistent difference between the young and elderly cohorts. For all MRI parameters, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was higher than 0.98, indicating excellent consistency between measurements performed by independent readers. MMF serving as a surrogate measure for collagen content, showed a significant decrease in elderly leg tendons. This study highlighted UTE-MRI-MT techniques as a useful quantitative method to assess the impact of aging on human tendons.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Colágeno/análise , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tendões/química , Tíbia/química , Adulto Jovem
6.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6552-6563, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392338

RESUMO

Nutrition is a crucial factor for growth and bone development in broiler chickens. Adjustments in dietary ingredients might affect bone development and consequently locomotion related problems. This study was designed to evaluate effects of dietary organic minerals (ORM), fish oil (FISH), and hydrolyzed collagen (COL) on growth performance and tibia characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of three hundred eighty four 1-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a complete randomized block design with 4 diet groups and 8 replicates per diet group. In the ORM diet, the inorganic macro and trace minerals were replaced by their organic varieties. In the FISH diet, palm oil and soybean oil were partly replaced by FISH. In the COL diet, soybean meal was partly replaced by COL. Results showed that the ORM and COL diet groups reached a higher body weight (BW) at 42 D of age than the FISH diet group, whereas the control group was in between. The feed conversion ratio between day 1 and 42 was lower in the ORM and COL diet groups than in both other diet groups. On day 28, 35, and 42, gait score (GS), Varus Valgus deformity, tibia length (TL), thickness, femoral and metatarsal head thickness (THT), mineral content (TMC), mineral density (TMD), breaking strength (TBS), stiffness (TSF), and energy to fracture (TEF) were measured (n = 3/replicate). The ORM diet group had higher TL at day 42, higher THT at day 28, higher TMC at day 42, higher TMD at day 28, 35, and 42, higher TBS at day 42, higher TSF at day 35 and 42, and higher TEF at day 42 compared to the FISH diet group, with the COL and control diet groups in between. It can be concluded that replacing dietary inorganic macro and trace minerals by their organic varieties seems to stimulate tibia dimensions, strength, and mineral content of broiler chickens. On the contrary, FISH appears to negatively affect tibia characteristics.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colágeno/administração & dosagem , Colágeno/química , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
7.
Physiol Meas ; 40(8): 085006, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lanthanum (La) and gadolinium (Gd) are known to deposit in bone of exposed populations, namely those who are orally administered lanthanum carbonate (LaC, La2(CO3)3) or are injected with Gd-based contrast agents, respectively. In this work, bone La and Gd concentrations from the environment and diet were measured using x-ray fluorescence in ten post-mortem human tibiae. As a secondary objective, bone barium (Ba) and iodine concentrations were estimated. APPROACH: Two calibration lines were produced for La and Gd and the minimum detection limits (MDLs) of the system were determined using a 180° irradiation-detection geometry. MAIN RESULTS: The MDLs of the system were 0.4 µg La g-1 bone mineral and 0.5 µg Gd g-1 bone mineral. The mean concentrations were -0.02 ± 0.1 µg La g-1 bone mineral and 0.1 ± 0.2 µg Gd g-1 bone mineral in tibiae. The average Ba and iodine concentrations estimated from the experimental La calibration line and Monte-Carlo derived sensitivity factors were determined to be 3.4 ± 0.8 µg Ba g-1 bone mineral and -0.5 ± 0.3 µg iodine g-1 bone mineral. Since it was discovered that four donors previously received an iodine-based contrast agent, the mean concentrations in these donors was 27.8 ± 28.4 µg iodine g-1 bone mineral. SIGNIFICANCE: The XRF system has determined baseline concentrations of these four heavy metals in trace quantities from natural exposure pathways (with the exception of iodine in four donors). This indicates that the system can measure low levels in ex vivo tibiae samples and can potentially be further developed for in vivo studies involving live subjects who are directly exposed to these metals.


Assuntos
Bário/análise , Gadolínio/análise , Iodo/análise , Lantânio/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Tíbia/química , Autopsia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4369-4372, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298295

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to perform quantitative genetic analyses of tibia and foot ash traits, which might serve as proxy traits to improve phosphorus utilization (PU) in a breeding program. Additionally, data for ash concentration in tibia and foot were compared with data for total amount of ash. Heritabilities for bone ash traits and genetic and phenotypic correlations between bone ash traits and PU were estimated. A total of 887 F2 birds, established from 2 Japanese quail lines divergently selected on social reinstatement behavior, were provided a P deficient diet. In a metabolic study, feed consumption was measured and total excreta collected for each bird separately. Afterwards, birds were euthanized, the bones obtained and incinerated. Bone ash data showed a heritability of 0.230 (amount of tibia ash) to 0.342 (amount of foot ash), which was higher than estimated for PU, P retention, calcium utilization (0.120-0.174), and performance traits (0.088-0.114). The strongest genetic and phenotypic correlations between PU and bone ash traits were detected for the amount of foot ash with 0.549 and 0.527, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were stronger between PU and ash amount than between PU and ash percentage, irrespective of bone. Therefore, ash amount was considered a better trait than ash percentage to reflect PU. Strong genetic and phenotypic correlations were detected between the amount of foot and tibia ash (0.887 and 0.901, respectively). Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ash amount and PU or calcium utilization were almost identical, irrespective of bone. Foot ash is as suitable as tibia ash, but easier to determine. Bone ash data, especially the amount of foot ash, seem to be suitable indirect selection criteria for P efficiency breeding.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Coturnix/genética , Coturnix/metabolismo , Ossos do Pé/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cruzamento , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais/química
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3611-3616, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321433

RESUMO

Laying hen skeletal health continues to be an industry priority. Bone ash and bone Ca quantification in laying hen long bones provides valuable information on skeletal health. Unfortunately, these measurements can only be accomplished by sacrificing hens, thus making longitudinal measurements on the same hen impossible. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), used with a calcium hydroxyapatite phantom, has been used to determine bone density of wings and legs as well as live hens throughout the production cycle by scanning with a calcium hydroxyapatite phantom. QCT has also been used to scan live hens throughout the production cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine how QCT calculated bone mineral content (QCT BMC) corresponds to analytical bone Ca and bone ash. Wing and leg quarters from 72-wk-old W-36 hens were QCT scanned along with a QCT Phantom. After scanning, humeri, femurs, and tibias were cleaned, divided into epiphysis (E) and diaphysis (D), fat extracted, ashed, and digested under nitric acid, and Ca was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine E, D, and whole bone Ca. Four bones/type were used for E and D, while 6 bones/type were used for whole bone measurements. A second set of bones were prepared to determine correlation of BMC to bone ash. QCT scans were analyzed with Mimics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) to calculate bone volume and density in Hounsfield units. Utilizing the QCT phantom and bone volume, BMC was calculated for E, D, and whole bone. Data were analyzed with regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were determined. Analytical Ca was correlated to QCT BMC for E (R = 0.84, P < 0.01), D (R = 0.99, P < 0.01), and whole bone (R = 0.97, P < 0.01). Whole bone ash was highly correlated to QCT BMC for femur (N = 47, R = 0.97, P < 0.001), tibia (N = 50, R = 0.94, P < 0.001), and keel (N 50, R = 0.94, P < 0.001). Whole bone ash and QCT BMC values of femur and tibia were not different (P = 0.39 and 0.22 respectively). Based on this information, QCT could provide relative quantitative assessment of total bone mineral in live birds proving useful in long-term studies.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/análise , Animais , Feminino , Fêmur/química , Úmero/química , Esterno/química , Tíbia/química , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
10.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 965-970, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early childhood lead exposures have been associated with reduced weight in infants and young children, while studies that have examined such associations in children during peripubescence are rare. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations of prenatal and early-life exposure to lead with indices of adiposity in peripubertal children living in Mexico City. METHODS: Maternal bone lead (as a proxy for cumulative fetal exposure) was assessed at 1 month postpartum. Blood samples were obtained from children annually from 1 to 4 years. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between each lead biomarker and BMI z-score, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds and body fat percentage in 248 children aged 8-16 years. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, maternal patella lead was associated with lower child BMI z-score (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: 0.03, -0.01, p = 0.004), waist circumference (ß = -0.12 cm, 95% CI: 0.22, -0.03, p = 0.01), sum of skinfolds (ß = -0.29 mm, 95% CI: 0.50, -0.08, p = 0.007) and body fat percentage (ß = -0.09%, 95% CI: 0.17, -0.01, p = 0.03). No significant associations were detected from the postnatal exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant and inverse association of prenatal lead exposure with body composition in Mexican children, suggesting the potential role of early lead exposure in the fetal programming of child growth. Further research on the biological mechanisms underlying these associations is needed.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , México , Patela/química , Gravidez , Tíbia/química , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088624

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22:6n-3) enhances bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood and during aging, however the effects during and after sexual maturation are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response of BMC, BMD and microarchitectural properties of bone to dietary DHA in healthy growing female rats during acquisition of peak bone mass (PBM). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/diet) were randomized to receive a control diet (AIN-93 M, 60 g soybean oil/kg diet) or an experimental diet containing 0.1, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% DHA (w/w of total diet) for 10 weeks. Dietary DHA increased the whole body, lumbar spine and long bone BMC compared to the control, in addition to higher aBMD and also BMD. Additionally, an increase in cortical bone microarchitecture parameters of lumbar spine as well as peak force were observed in dietary DHA diet groups. Dietary DHA contributes to PBM when consumed during and after sexual maturation, however higher doses of DHA do not provide further benefits.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Feminino , Fêmur/química , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Vértebras Lombares/química , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(10): 1716-1723, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical loads exerted by soccer-specific actions increase bone remodeling activity. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between plantar pressure and bone structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare bone geometry and strength between soccer players who exhibited different maximum values of the average pressures (MP) when performing a combination of soccer-specific tasks. METHODS: Forty male adolescent soccer players (mean age 13.2±0.5 years) and 13 controls (mean age 13.1±0.9 years) participated in this study. Biofoot® system was used to measure MP at the non-dominant foot during a circuit of soccer-specific tasks. Cluster analysis was performed to classify players into groups of similar MP profiles resulting two different groups as follows: 15 players with high MP (SOC-HP; mean MP: 392.7±68.2 kPa) and 25 with low MP (SOC-LP; mean MP: 261.0±49.6 kPa). Total and cortical volumetric bone mineral content (Tt.BMC/Ct.BMC), cross-sectional area (Tt.Ar/Ct.Ar), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), fracture load in X-axis, and polar strength index (SSIp) were measured at 38% of the non-dominant tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone geometry and strength comparisons between SOC-HP and SOC-LP were performed using analyses of covariance controlling by weight and tibia length. RESULTS: Greater Tt.BMC, Ct.BMC and Tt.Ar. were found in SOC-HP compared to CG (Tt.BMC: 3.22vs2.95 g, Ct.BMC: 2.95vs2.68 g, Ct.Ar: 280vs253 mm2; P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant bone geometry and strength differences were found between soccer groups and between SOC-LP and CG (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Developing high MP when training and playing soccer might be favorable to bone development.


Assuntos
Futebol/fisiologia , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650584

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of autologous umbilical cord blood cells (USSC) on bone regeneration and biomechanical stability in an ovine tibial bone defect. Ovine USSC were harvested and characterized. After 12 months, full-size 2.0 cm mid-diaphyseal bone defects were created and stabilized by an external fixateur containing a rigidity measuring device. Defects were filled with (i) autologous USSC on hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold (test group), (ii) HA scaffold without cells (HA group), or (iii) left empty (control group). Biomechanical measures, standardized X-rays, and systemic response controls were performed regularly. After six months, bone regeneration was evaluated histomorphometrically and labeled USSC were tracked. In all groups, the torsion distance decreased over time, and radiographies showed comparable bone regeneration. The area of newly formed bone was 82.5 ± 5.5% in the control compared to 59.2 ± 13.0% in the test and 48.6 ± 2.9% in the HA group. Labeled cells could be detected in lymph nodes, liver and pancreas without any signs of tumor formation. Although biomechanical stability was reached earliest in the test group with autologous USSC on HA scaffold, the density of newly formed bone was superior in the control group without any bovine HA.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Osteogênese , Tíbia/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento Celular , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Projetos Piloto , Ovinos , Tíbia/patologia , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 161-167, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence showed that lead exposure increased the risk of child attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Epidemiologic studies have typically used the blood-lead as a biomarker of lead exposure; blood-lead levels mostly reflect recent lead exposure. However, few studies have examined the relationship between bone-lead, a biomarker of cumulative exposure, and ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to compare the associations of bone-lead vs blood-lead levels with child ADHD symptoms and comorbidities. METHODS: A total of 164 children aged 3-15 years were enrolled during 2014-2015. The Vanderbilt-ADHD-Diagnostic-Parent-Rating Scale (VADPRS) was used to evaluate the children's ADHD symptoms and comorbidities. Children's blood and bone lead concentrations were assessed, the latter using a non-invasive K-X-ray-fluorescence technique. According to blood-lead levels, children were classified into high (blood-lead ≥ 10.0 µg/dL) and low (blood-lead < 10.0 µg/dL) blood-lead groups. According to bone-lead levels, children were classified into high (bone-lead ≥ 2.66 µg/g) and low (bone-lead < 2.66 µg/g) bone-lead groups. We associated blood/bone lead with VADPRS data using multi-variable binary logistic regression models. RESULTS: Children in the high blood-lead group had higher hyperactivity/impulsivity (P = 0.02) scores than the corresponding low blood-lead group. Children in the high bone-lead group had higher hyperactivity/impulsivity (P = 0.02) and oppositional-defiant-disorder (ODD) (P = 0.03) scores than the corresponding low bone-lead group. After adjusting for relevant confounders, children in the high bone-lead group were more likely to have ODD-behavior than the low group (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 1.2-36.5). However, no adjusted association was observed between blood-lead and any ADHD-domain score. CONCLUSION: High levels of cumulative lead exposure in children may be an independent risk factor of ODD-behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Chumbo/sangue , Tíbia/química , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906039

RESUMO

Gadus morhua eggs contain several nutrients, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin and glycoproteins. A novel sialoglycopeptide from the eggs of G. morhua (Gm-SGPP) was extracted with 90% phenol and purified by Q Sepharose Fast Flow (QFF) ion exchange chromatography, followed by S-300 gel filtration chromatography. Gm-SGPP contained 63.7% carbohydrate, 16.2% protein and 18.6% N-acetylneuraminic acid. High-performance size exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that Gm-SGPP is a 7000-Da pure sialoglycopeptide. ß-elimination reaction suggested that Gm-SGPP contained N-glycan units. Amino acid N-terminal sequence analysis indicated the presence of Ala-Ser-Asn-Gly-Thr-Gln-Ala-Pro amino acid sequence. Moreover, N-glycan was connected at the third Asn location of the peptide chain through GlcNAc. Gm-SGPP was composed of D-mannose, D-glucuronic acid and D-galactose. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and methylation analysis were performed to reveal the structure profile of Gm-SGPP. In vitro results showed that the proliferation activity of MC3T3-E1 cells was significantly promoted by Gm-SGPP. In vivo data revealed that Gm-SGPP increased the calcium and phosphorus content of tibias and promoted longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.


Assuntos
Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/química , Sialoglicoproteínas/farmacologia , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Fósforo/análise , Ratos , Sialoglicoproteínas/química , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(1): 366-372, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184139

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the effects of methionine hydroxy analog chelate zinc on the tibia quality, mineral deposit, apparent retention of nutrients, and liver metallothionein (MT) expression level of aged laying hens. A total of 960 layers (Hy-Line Grey, 57 wk old) were randomly assigned into 4 groups, and each group had 8 replicates of 30 hens. During the first 2 wk, groups were fed a basal diet without extra zinc (Zn: 35.08 mg/kg). During the ensuing 14 wk, 4 levels of Zn (inorganic Zn: 80 mg/kg; organic Zn: 20, 40, 80 mg/kg) were added to the diet. The results indicated that both the Zn source and level did influence tibia strength and calcium (Ca) and Zn concentrations of tibia (P < 0.05), whereas there were no differences in the copper (Cu) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of the tibia and the tibia length (P > 0.05). Moreover, dietary supplementation with 40 or 80 mg/kg of organic Zn showed higher Zn and Ca concentrations in the tibia and higher tibia strength. The Cu concentration in the liver showed no difference among the 4 treatments, whereas the Zn concentration in the liver increased with the increasing Zn level. The apparent retention of P, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) was not affected by the Zn level or source (P > 0.05). However, the organic Zn group increased the apparent retention of Cu, Zn, Ca, crude protein (CP), and energy, and the group supplemented with 40 or 80 mg/kg of organic Zn obtained significant effects (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary supplementation with 40 or 80 mg/kg organic Zn increased the MT mRNA expression of the liver at week 72, whereas 20 mg/kg of organic Zn decreased it (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggested that an optimum dietary (40 mg/kg) organic Zn level plays a key role in promoting the apparent retention of minerals and nutrients, trace element deposit, and MT mRNA expression.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Zinco/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Cobre/análise , Feminino , Fígado/química , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/administração & dosagem
17.
Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 9-21, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370888

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplemental vitamin D3 (VD3) on P absorption and utilisation as well as its related mechanisms in the small intestine of broilers. A total of 384 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were assigned randomly into four treatments following a completely randomised design with a 2 (dietary non-phytate P (NPP) contents: 0·43 and 0·22 %)×2 (dietary VD3 supplemental levels: 0 and 87·5 µg/kg) factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted for 22 d. The results showed that P contents in serum from the hepatic portal vein and tibia ash of broilers were higher (P<0·05) for 0·43 % NPP than for 0·22 % NPP. The type IIb Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NaP-IIb) protein expressions in the duodenum and ileum were higher (P<0·05) also for 0·43 % NPP than 0·22 % NPP. Supplementation of VD3 enhanced (P<0·05) tibia P retention rate and type III Na-dependent phosphate cotransporter (PiT)-1 protein expression in the duodenum of all broilers. Moreover, VD3 supplementation decreased (P<0·002) mortality and increased (P<0·02) serum P content from the hepatic portal vein after 4 h of feeding, tibia ash content, tibia ash P content and protein expressions of NaP-IIb and PiT-1 in the jejunum of broilers fed diet with 0·22 % NPP. Thus, dietary supplemental VD3 promoted intestinal P absorption and bone P utilisation, and this effect might be associated with enhanced PiT-1 levels in the duodenum and PiT-1 and NaP-IIb levels in the jejunum respectively when dietary NPP is limiting.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Fósforo/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Duodeno/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Fósforo/sangue , Fósforo/farmacocinética , Veia Porta , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIb/genética , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/metabolismo
18.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 30(1): 1-10, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Innovative approaches capable to improve peri-implant bone repair are relevant in the presence of smoking, a risk factor for healing around implants. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol (RESV) on peri-implant repair, and its influence on bone-related markers in rats submitted to cigarette smoking inhalation (CSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One titanium implant was inserted in each tibiae of rats assigned to CSI+RESV (n:18); CSI+placebo (n:18); and non-CSI (n:18). One implant was removed for counter torque, and the peri-implant tissue was collected for mRNA quantification of BMP-2, OPN, Runx2, Lrp-5, Osx, ß-catenin, Dkk1, OPG, and RANKL. The other tibia was submitted to microCT to measure: bone volume, bone porosity, trabecular spacing, trabecular thickness, and bone-implant contact (BIC). RESULTS: No differences were detected between counter torque in CSI+RESV and non-CSI group (p > 0.05), whereas CSI+placebo group presented lower values when compared to the others (p < 0.05). RESV improved the BIC in CSI rats without differences when compared to non-CSI group (p > 0.05), whereas CSI+placebo showed reduced BIC when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). RESV reduced RANKL/OPG and Lrp-5 levels and increased ß-catenin in CSI rats when compared to CSI+placebo (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although further investigations should be considered using oral models of dental implants, within the limits of the present study, it was concluded that RESV reverses the negative effects of smoking in the peri-implant repair, benefiting the modulation of bone-related markers.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Medicamento , Amplificação de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Titânio , Torque , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 11(4): 1172-1181, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406893

RESUMO

Bone fragility, despite relatively high BMD values, is an important complication related to insulin resistance and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus type 1. The present study aimed to compare the effects of soy milk (SM), soy milk containing Lactobacillus casei (PSM), and soy milk enriched with Lactobacillus casei and omega-3 (OPSM) on the stereology of the tibia and vertebra, and antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Sixty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 13 animals each. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg); two control groups (non-diabetic: CN and diabetic: CD) were selected and then fed with 1 mL of distilled water. Three treatment groups were fed 1 ml of SM, PSM, and OPSM via intragastric gavage for 60 days. Treatment with SM, PSM, and OPSM significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the number of the osteoclasts in both tibia and L5 vertebra, and plasma alkaline phosphatase level. Also, the osteoblast number, calcium level, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity were increased in the SM, PSM, and OPSM groups compared to the STZ group. OPSM had the greatest effects on the stereological and biochemical parameters compared to the SM and PSM groups. Soy milk combination with Lactobacillus casei and omega-3 can ameliorate the stereological changes in the tibia and vertebra. In addition, this combination increased the antioxidant activity and improved the redox homeostasis in diabetic rats. These results suggest the potential role of soy milk containing Lactobacillus casei enriched with omega-3 in preventing and delaying osteoporosis in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Tíbia/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/sangue , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/química , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Probióticos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Leite de Soja/química , Tíbia/química
20.
NMR Biomed ; 32(1): e4021, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376203

RESUMO

The glycerol methylene proton resonances (4-4.5 parts per million, ppm), which arise from the triglyceride backbone, are relevant to fat composition assessment and can be measured with proton MRS. The purpose of the presented work is to determine long TE (echo time) point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) values at 3 T to resolve the glycerol resonances from that of overlapping water. The response of the glycerol methylene protons of nine edible oils as a function of PRESS and STEAM TE (mixing time, TM = 20 ms) was investigated. In addition, high resolution NMR spectra of the oils were acquired at 16.5 T. Long TE values where J-coupling losses were lowest were selected, namely a TE of 180 ms for PRESS (first echo time 17 ms) and a TE of 100 ms for STEAM (mixing time 20 ms). Oil olefinic (≈5.4 ppm) to glycerol ratios were calculated from the long TE spectra and correlated with 16.5 T ratios. The two techniques yielded olefinic/glycerol ratios that correlated with 16.5 T ratios (R2  = 0.79 for PRESS and 0.90 for STEAM). The efficacy of the sequences in resolving the glycerol resonance from that of water was verified in vivo on tibial bone marrow of four healthy volunteers. In addition, the potential for using the glycerol methylene signal normalized to the methyl signal (≈0.9 ppm) to assess changes in free fatty acid content was demonstrated by measuring differences in spectra acquired from a triglyceride peanut oil phantom and from a phantom composed of a mixture of peanut oil and free fatty acid oleic acid.


Assuntos
Alcenos/análise , Glicerol/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Prótons , Triglicerídeos/análise , Adulto , Medula Óssea/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tíbia/química , Adulto Jovem
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