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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925191

RESUMO

Face mask use is a critical behavior to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to evaluate the association between social integration and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Data included 645 adults in the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) study, which was conducted after the first wave of the pandemic, between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in Utsunomiya City. Social integration before the pandemic was assessed by counting the number of social roles, based on the Cohen's social network index. Face mask use before and during the pandemic was assessed by questionnaire, and participants were categorized into consistent mask users, new users, and current non-users. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between lower social integration score and face mask use. To account for possible differential non-response bias, non-response weights were used. Of the 645 participants, 172 (26.7%) were consistent mask users and 460 (71.3%) were new users, while 13 (2.0%) were current non-users. Lower social integration level was positively associated with non-users (RRR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82). Social integration may be important to promote face mask use.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adulto , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Máscaras , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Integração Social , Tóquio
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049996, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether engagement in COVID-19-related work was associated with an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms among the staff members working in a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were obtained from a health survey conducted in July 2020 among the staff members of a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1228 hospital workers. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: Engagement in COVID-19-related work (qualitatively (ie, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or affiliation to related departments) as well as quantitatively (ie, working hours)) and job categories. OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms. RESULTS: There was no significant association between depressive symptoms and engagement in work with potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or affiliation to COVID-19-related departments. However, working for longer hours in March/April, when Japan witnessed a large number of infected cases, was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (≥11 hours/day: prevalence ratio (PR)=1.45, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.99, compared with ≤8 hours/day). Nurses were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than did doctors (PR=1.70, 95% CI=1.14 to 2.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or having an affiliation to related departments might not be linked with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among Japanese hospital workers; contrarily, long working hours appeared to increase the prevalence of depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807268

RESUMO

The 2020 summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo were postponed to July-September 2021 due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While COVID-19 has emerged as a monumental health threat for mass gathering events, heat illness must be acknowledged as a potentially large health threat for maintaining health services. We examined the number of COVID-19 admissions and the Tokyo rule for emergency medical care, in Tokyo, from March to September 2020, and investigated the weekly number of emergency transportations due to heat illness and weekly averages of the daily maximum Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) in Tokyo in the summer (2016-2020). The peak of emergency transportations due to heat illness overlapped the resurgence of COVID-19 in 2020, and an increase of heat illness patients and WBGT has been observed. Respect for robust science is critical for the decision-making process of mass gathering events during the pandemic, and science-based countermeasures and implementations for COVID-19 will be warranted. Without urgent reconsiderations and sufficient countermeasures, the double burden of COVID-19 and heat-related illnesses in Tokyo will overwhelm the healthcare provision system, and maintaining essential health services will be challenging during the 2021 summer Olympic and Paralympic Games.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tóquio/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801064

RESUMO

Healthcare workers have a high risk of burnout. This study aimed to investigate if the numbers of physical symptoms are associated with burnout among healthcare workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at a large university in Tokyo, Japan, in 2016. Participants were 1080: 525 faculties and 555 hospital workers. We investigated 16 physical symptoms perceived more than once per week and examined the association between the number of physical symptoms and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI); work-related (WBO), personal (PBO), and client-related (CBO) burnout. All CBI scores were higher among hospital workers than among faculties: WBO (43 vs. 29), PBO (50 vs. 33), CBO (33 vs. 29). Moreover, the higher the number of physical symptoms perceived, the higher the degree of burnout scores became (trend p-values < 0.001), except for CBO among faculties. Job strain (all except for CBO among hospital workers) and work-family conflict were associated with an increased risk of burnout. Being married (WBO and CBO among faculties), having a child (except for PBO and CBO among faculties), and job support (faculty and hospital workers with WBO and faculties with PBO) were associated with a decreased risk of burnout. Multiple physical symptoms might be useful for identifying high risk individuals for burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Docentes , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8380, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863960

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are highly exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The actual coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation, especially in regions that are less affected, has not yet been determined. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in HCWs working in a frontline hospital in Tokyo, Japan. In this cross-sectional observational study, screening was performed on consented HCWs, including medical, nursing, and other workers, as part of a mandatory health checkup. The screening test results and clinical characteristics of the participants were recorded. The antibody seroprevalence rate among the 4147 participants screened between July 6 and August 21, 2020, was 0.34% (14/4147). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between frontline HCWs with a high exposure risk and HCWs working in other settings with a low exposure risk. Of those seropositive for SARS-CoV-2, 64% (9/14) were not aware of any symptoms and had not previously been diagnosed with COVID-19. In conclusion, this study provides insights into the extent of infection and immune status in HCWs in Japan, which has a relatively low prevalence of COVID-19. Our findings aid in formulating public health policies to control virus spread in regions with low-intensity COVID-19.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12212, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) levels during work time between those who work from home (WFH) and at workplaces (no WFH), and by WFH subgroups. METHODS: This cross-sectional internet-based survey included 1239 workers (mean age [standard deviation], 44.7 [13.7] years; 59.2% men) living in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Time spent sitting (SB), standing (light-intensity PA; LPA), walking, and engaging in heavy labor (moderate-to-vigorous PA; MVPA) during work time was measured using the Work-related Physical Activity Questionnaire. Workers reported weekly WFH percentages (eg, 0% implies no WFH and 100% implies full WFH), and WFH percentages were categorized into no WFH (0% WFH) and WFH (1%-100% WFH) groups. The WFH group was further subcategorized into 1%-25%, 26%-50%, 51%-75%, and 76%-100% subgroups. RESULTS: Overall, 494 workers (39.9%) worked from home. During working hours, SB time was longer in the WFH group than in the no WFH group (mean minutes [% working-time SB]: 335.7 vs 224.7 min [74% vs 50%]). Significantly shorter LPA and MVPA times (%) were reported in the WFH group than in the no WFH group (LPA, 59.6 vs 122.9 min [14% vs 29%]; MVPA, 55.3 vs 91.9 min [13% vs 22%], all P < .001). Among the WFH subgroups, longer SB time and shorter LPA and MVPA times were observed in the highest WFH group (WFH 76%-100%) than in the WFH 1%-25% and 26%-50% subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Workers who telecommuted were less physically active and had longer sedentary during work time than those who worked at the workplaces.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670348

RESUMO

We investigated the internal contamination by radioactive cesium associated with the FDNPP accident, in the testes or uterus and ovaries of free-roaming cats (Felis silvestris catus), which were protected by volunteers in the Namie Town, Fukushima. A total of 253 samples (145 testes and 108 uterus and ovaries) obtained from adult cats and 15 fetuses from 3 pregnant female cats were measured. Free-roaming cats in Namie Town had a higher level of radioactive contamination in comparison to the control group in Tokyo, as the 134Cs + 137Cs activity concentration ranged from not detectable to 37,882 Bq kg-1 in adult cats. Furthermore, the radioactivity in the fetuses was almost comparable to those in their mother's uterus and ovaries. The radioactivity was also different between several cats protected in the same location, and there was no significant correlation with ambient dose-rates and activity concentrations in soil. Moreover, radioactive cesium levels in cats decreased with each year. Therefore, it is likely that decontamination work in Namie Town and its surroundings could affect radioactive cesium accumulation, and thus possibly reduce the internal radiation exposure of wildlife living in contaminated areas. It is hence necessary to continue radioactivity monitoring efforts for the residents living in Namie Town.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Animais , Gatos , Césio , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Feminino , Genitália/química , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Tóquio
9.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(1): 33-36, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658462

RESUMO

A LC-MS/MS simultaneous analytical method for screening 191 pesticide residues in limes had been developed and validated. Pesticides were extracted with acetonitrile from samples. Then mixed salts, which were anhydrous magnesium sulfate for dehydration, sodium carbonate for adjusting pH, and sodium chloride for salting out, were added to the sample. After centrifugation, supernatant was transferred to a tube. The sample solution was cleaned up using solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18/GC/PSA for the determination by LC-MS/MS. The developed method was improved the recovery rate of thiabendazole, which had a low recovery rate by the conventional method. Validation study, which was following the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, were carried out at 0.01 and 0.1 µg g-1 to evaluate the method. The results of 175 pesticides out of 191 were with satisfactory. A total of 19 imported lime samples sold in Tokyo was analyzed to evaluate the method, then 18 samples contained pesticide residues below MRLs. The developed method is applicable for detection of pesticide residues in lime.


Assuntos
Citrus aurantiifolia , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tóquio
10.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573054

RESUMO

Recently, we experienced an outbreak of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection between 2018 and 2020. Herein, we describe this male-dominant HAV infection outbreak observed among non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in the northern part of Tokyo, Japan. Clinical information was collected from patient interviews and from medical record descriptions. In the present study, 21 patients were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 90.4 and 33.3% of patients were males, and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. The total bilirubin levels and platelet counts tended to be lower in the MSM group than in the non-MSM group. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels tended to be higher in acute liver failure (ALF) patients than in non-ALF patients. Prolonged cholestasis was observed in one patient (4.8%). We also found that 18 HAV isolates belonged to HAV subgenotype IA/subgroup 13 (S13), which clustered with the HAV isolate (KX151459) that was derived from an outbreak of HAV infection among MSM in Taiwan in 2015. Our results suggest that the application of antivirals against HAV, as well as HAV vaccines, would be useful for the treatment and prevention of severe HAV infection.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tóquio/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 163, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the characteristics, inflammatory laboratory finding trends, and outcomes among critically ill Japanese patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single institution in the center of Tokyo. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 19 to April 30, 2020 were included. Trends for significant inflammatory laboratory findings were analyzed. In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included. Median age was 57.5 years, and 79% were male. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated to a median of 10.1 on admission and peaked on Day 10 of illness. Seventeen patients were intubated on Day 11 of illness and received mechanical ventilation. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The majority (88%) received systemic steroids, including 16 patients who received high dose methylprednisolone (500-1000 mg). Favipiravir was used in 38% of patients. Two patients, including 1 who refused intensive care, died. Eighteen patients were discharged. Median length of ICU and hospital stay for all patients was 6 and 22 days, respectively. Median length of ventilator dependency was 7 days. Four patients underwent a tracheostomy and received prolonged ventilation for more than 21 days. One patient receiving mechanical ventilation died. All survivors discontinued ventilator use. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was remarkably low in our single institutional study. Three survivors received mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. Trends of clinically significant laboratory markers reflected the clinical course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , /terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , /mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tóquio
12.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112059, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556826

RESUMO

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used to evaluate the pollution impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in urban rivers. Although water quality assessment with FIB has a long tradition, recent studies demonstrated that FIB have a low correlation with pathogens and therefore are not accurate enough for the assessment of potential human hazards in water. Consequently, new eligible and more specific indicators have to be identified, which was done in this study via sequencing of genetic markers from total community DNA. To identify potential microbiome-based indicators, microbial communities in samples from an urban river in Tokyo under different climatic conditions (dry and rainy) were compared with the influent and effluent of three domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by analyzing 16 S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. In the first part of this study, physicochemical parameters and FIB quantification with selective culture techniques facilitated the identification of samples contaminated with CSO, sewage, or both. This allowed the grouping of samples into CSO-contaminated and non-contaminated samples, an essential step prior to the microbiome comparison between samples. Increased turbidity, ammonia concentrations, and E. coli [up to (9.37 ± 0.95) × 102 CFU/mL after 11.5 mm of rainfall] were observed in CSO-contaminated river samples. Comparison of dry weather (including WWTP samples) and rainy weather samples showed a reduction in microbial diversity in CSO-contaminated samples. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest Bacteroides spp. as a novel indicator of sewage pollution in surface waters.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/química , Genes de RNAr , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esgotos/análise , Tóquio , Microbiologia da Água
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relationship between objective chewing ability and the nutritional status of Japanese community-dwelling elders. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 509 community-dwelling elders living in the Tokyo metropolitan area participated in a comprehensive survey conducted in October 2013. MEASUREMENTS: The basic characteristics were sex, age, and body mass index. Undernutrition was examined through serum albumin levels. Chewing ability was examined through color-changeable xylitol gum by evaluating the color changes in chewing gum. Nutritional intake was examined using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: In the poor chewing ability group, all nutrient intake levels were significantly low, except for carbohydrates, and intake levels for all food groups were significantly low, except for cereals, confectionery, sugars, seasonings, and spices. Additionally, after adjusting for covariates for sex, age, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, body mass index (BMI), stroke, number of functional teeth, energy intake, and protein intake, chewing ability was found to be significantly associated with undernutrition. CONCLUSION: We concluded that chewing ability was closely associated with nutrient and different food groups' intake, as well as undernutrition, among Japanese community-dwelling elders. Thus, to ensure comprehensive nutritional management, nutritionists and dentists should collaborate when treating the same patients.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Mastigação , Tóquio/epidemiologia
15.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 18(1): 7, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a public health issue that needs to be addressed strategically. The assessment of detailed infectious profiles is an important part of this effort. Household transmission data play a key role in estimating such profiles. We used diagnostic and questionnaire-based data on influenza patients at a Japanese clinic to estimate the detailed infectious period (as well as incubation period, symptomatic and infectious periods, and extended infectious period after recovery) and the secondary attack ratio (SAR) of influenza for households of various sizes based on a modified Cauchemez-type model. RESULTS: The data were from enrolled patients with confirmed influenza who were treated at the Hirotsu Clinic (Kawasaki, Japan) with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) during six northern hemisphere influenza seasons between 2010 and 2016. A total of 2342 outpatients, representing 1807 households, were included. For influenza type A, the average incubation period was 1.43 days (95% probability interval, 0.03-5.32 days). The estimated average symptomatic and infective period was 1.76 days (0.33-4.62 days); the extended infective period after recovery was 0.25 days. The estimated SAR rose from 20 to 32% as household size increased from 3 to 5. For influenza type B, the average incubation period, average symptomatic and infective period, and extended infective period were estimated as 1.66 days (0.21-4.61), 2.62 days (0.54-5.75) and 1.00 days, respectively. The SAR increased from 12 to 21% as household size increased from 3 to 5. CONCLUSION: All estimated periods of influenza type B were longer than the corresponding periods for type A. However, the SAR for type B was less than that for type A. These results may reflect Japanese demographics and treatment policy. Understanding the infectious profiles of influenza is necessary for assessing public health measures.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Características da Família , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Tóquio/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431724

RESUMO

Search and find methods*) such as cluster tracing1)-6) or large-scale PCR testing**) of those who exhibit no symptoms or only mild symptoms of COVID-19 is shown by data analysis to be a powerful means to suppress the spread of COVID-19 instead of, or in addition to, lockdown of the entire population. Here we investigate this issue by analyzing the data from some cities and countries and we establish that search and find method is as powerful as lockdown of a city or a country. Moreover, in contrast to lockdown, it neither causes inconvenience to citizens nor does it disrupt the economy. Generally speaking, it is advisable that both social distancing and increased test numbers be employed to suppress spread of the virus. The product of the total test number with the rate of positive cases is the crucial index.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , África/epidemiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , /transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Japão/epidemiologia , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 336-341, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respiratory failure is a major complication and its symptoms occur around one week after onset. The CURB-65, A-DROP and expanded CURB-65 tools are known to predict the risk of mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In this retrospective single-center retrospective study, we aimed to assess the correlations of the A-DROP, CURB-65, and expanded CURB-65 scores on admission with an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Performance of A-DROP, CURB-65, and the expanded CURB-65 scores were validated. In addition, we assessed whether there were any associations between an increase in oxygen requirement and known risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19, including elevation of liver enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytopenia, high D-dimer levels and the chest computed tomography (CT) score. RESULTS: The areas under the curve for the ability of CURB-65, A-DROP, and the expanded CURB-65 scores to predict an increase in oxygen requirement were 0.6961, 0.6980 and 0.8327, respectively, and the differences between the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Comorbid cardiovascular disease, lymphocytopenia, elevated CRP, liver enzyme and D-dimer levels, and higher chest CT score were significantly associated with an increase in oxygen requirement CONCLUSIONS: The expanded CURB-65 score can be a better predictor of an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Assuntos
/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , /mortalidade , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 1): 6, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high incidence, seasonal pattern and frequent outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) represent a threat for billions of children around the world. Detecting pre-outbreak signals of HFMD facilitates the timely implementation of appropriate control measures. However, real-time prediction of HFMD outbreaks is usually challenging because of its complexity intertwining both biological systems and social systems. RESULTS: By mining the dynamical information from city networks and horizontal high-dimensional data, we developed the landscape dynamic network marker (L-DNM) method to detect pre-outbreak signals prior to the catastrophic transition into HFMD outbreaks. In addition, we set up multi-level early warnings to achieve the purpose of distinguishing the outbreak scale. Specifically, we collected the historical information of clinic visits caused by HFMD infection between years 2009 and 2018 respectively from public records of Tokyo, Hokkaido, and Osaka, Japan. When applied to the city networks we modelled, our method successfully identified pre-outbreak signals in an average 5 weeks ahead of the HFMD outbreak. Moreover, from the performance comparisons with other methods, it is seen that the L-DNM based system performs better when given only the records of clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: The study on the dynamical changes of clinic visits in local district networks reveals the dynamic or landscapes of HFMD spread at the network level. Moreover, the results of this study can be used as quantitative references for disease control during the HFMD outbreak seasons.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos , Criança , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/transmissão , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tóquio/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440713

RESUMO

In Japan, the world's most rapidly aging country, urban farming is attracting attention as an infrastructure for health activities. In Tokyo, urban residents generally participate in two types of farming programs: allotments and experience farms. The availability of regular interaction among participants distinguishes these two programs. We quantitatively examined the difference in changes in self-reported health status between participants in these two types of urban farming. We obtained retrospective cross-sectional data from questionnaire surveys of 783 urban farming participants and 1254 nonparticipants and analyzed the data using ordinal logistic regressions. As a result, compared with nonparticipants, participants in both types of urban farming reported significantly improved self-rated health (SRH) and mental health (MH). After controlling for changes in their physical activity (PA), although participants in allotments did not report significant improvement in SRH and MH, those in experience farms did, suggesting that their health improvement was not only caused by an increase in PA but also by social interaction among participants. From the perspective of health promotion, public support is needed not only for the municipality's allotments but also for the experience farms operated by the farmers themselves.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tóquio
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