Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.408
Filtrar
1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(4): 328-331, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379708

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is novel corona virus infection outbreak that has gone global in 2020. Current prevention policies consist of hand hygiene and social distancing. Emergencies overloaded health services and shocked the logistics chains in many countries, especially Italy and China. Having more than a quarter of its population being elderly, Japan is at high risk for COVID-19 induced morbidity and mortality. This situation cancelled schedules of all routine group exercise activities for the seniors in Japan. While the outbreak is ongoing, staying at home is safe. However, successive days of being house-ridden and limited movement can lead to excessive physical inactivity. Some elderly who are not moving much can lose a significant amount of muscle strength, flexibility and aerobic capacity. It can accelerate the frailty and dependency of the seniors, and subsequently, claiming of care and health services. Moreover, existing and new evidences showed that physical activity can promote antiviral immunity. An alternative to usual group exercise activities is crucial to keep seniors active without affecting social distancing. While staying at home for long, functional exercises maintaining basic level of physical activity and movements are urgently required to be introduced to the seniors in Tokyo and around the world to prevent functional decline. Home exercise is a practical option. Therefore, we made a home-version of the functional training exercise video with different sets of 10-minutes exercise for 7 days a week. This breakthrough alternative may sustain health promotion for the elderly persons to preserve their active aging and maintain optimal health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina , Tóquio
3.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 96(3): 122-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161210

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) particles cause adverse health effects and contribute to the heating of the atmosphere by absorbing visible solar radiation. Efforts have been made to reduce BC emissions, especially in urban areas; however, long-term measurements of BC mass concentration (MBC) are very limited in Japan. We report MBC measurements conducted in Tokyo from 2003 to 2017, showing that MBC decreased by a factor of 3 from 2003 to 2010 and was stable from 2010 to 2017. Fine particulate concentrations (PM2.5) decreased by a much smaller factor during 2003-2010. The diurnal variations of BC size distributions suggest that the BC in Tokyo originates mainly from local sources, even after 2010. Our three-dimensional model calculations show that BC from the Asian continent contributes a small portion (about 20%) of the annual average MBC in the Kanto region of Japan, which includes Tokyo. This indicates that continued reduction of BC emissions inside Japan should be effective in further decreasing MBC.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública , Tóquio
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184129

RESUMO

Our recommendation, as experts who have monitored health hazards at the Hajj for over 15 years, especially if the situation with COVID-19 continues to escalate globally is that Hajj 2020 will be at risk of being suspended and a means for Muslims to fulfill their rights in the future either personally or even by proxy need to be announced. The same holds true for the Summer 2020 Olympics in Japan and for many other MGs and large gatherings. Decisions in the time of COVID-19 will be closely followed and will be a blueprint for other mass gatherings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aglomeração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Viagem , Betacoronavirus , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Islamismo , Arábia Saudita , Esportes , Tóquio
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110806, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056600

RESUMO

PCBs and PBDEs in microplastics and zooplankton collected in surface water at 27 locations in the Pacific Ocean and around the coast of Japan were investigated. Both PCBs and PBDEs were observed in buoyant microplastics, even in smaller particles of 0.315-1 mm. Concentrations of Σ13 PCBs were 0.04-124 ng/g, and were higher in urban bay areas such as Tokyo Bay. Sporadic moderate to high concentrations of PBDEs were observed in both urban-offshore and rural-offshore locations, consisting mostly of higher-brominated congeners. From the latter, BDE 209 ranged from not detected to 2158 ng/g. The microplastic-to-zooplankton abundance ratio threshold was 0.6 for PCBs and 0.08 for PBDEs, above which exposure would be greater from microplastics than from zooplankton.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton , Animais , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Plásticos , Tóquio
8.
Mutat Res ; 849: 503137, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087853

RESUMO

The International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) meets every four years to obtain consensus on unresolved issues associated with genotoxicity testing. At the 2017 IWGT meeting in Tokyo, four sub-groups addressed issues associated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline TG471, which describes the use of bacterial reverse-mutation tests. The strains sub-group analyzed test data from >10,000 chemicals, tested additional chemicals, and concluded that some strains listed in TG471 are unnecessary because they detected fewer mutagens than other strains that the guideline describes as equivalent. Thus, they concluded that a smaller panel of strains would suffice to detect most mutagens. The laboratory proficiency sub-group recommended (a) establishing strain cell banks, (b) developing bacterial growth protocols that optimize assay sensitivity, and (c) testing "proficiency compounds" to gain assay experience and establish historical positive and control databases. The sub-group on criteria for assay evaluation recommended that laboratories (a) track positive and negative control data; (b) develop acceptability criteria for positive and negative controls; (c) optimize dose-spacing and the number of analyzable doses when there is evidence of toxicity; (d) use a combination of three criteria to evaluate results: a dose-related increase in revertants, a clear increase in revertants in at least one dose relative to the concurrent negative control, and at least one dose that produced an increase in revertants above control limits established by the laboratory from historical negative controls; and (e) establish experimental designs to resolve unclear results. The in silico sub-group summarized in silico utility as a tool in genotoxicity assessment but made no specific recommendations for TG471. Thus, the workgroup identified issues that could be addressed if TG471 is revised. The companion papers (a) provide evidence-based approaches, (b) recommend priorities, and (c) give examples of clearly defined terms to support revision of TG471.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênese , Testes de Mutagenicidade/normas , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos/provisão & distribução , Escherichia coli/genética , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Mutagênicos/classificação , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Tóquio
9.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(1): 53-60, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074588

RESUMO

An extremely rare case of fibrolipoma in the hard palate is presented and discussed with reference to the literature. An 85-year-old woman visited the Tokyo Dental College Chiba hospital in September 2016 with the chief complaint of a mass in the hard palate. The patient had first become aware of this mass several years earlier. An examination at another hospital in June 2009 resulted in a clinical diagnosis of lipoma. Regular examinations followed every 6 months until September 2014, at which time she stopped attending these appointments because there was no change. In August 2016, however, the patient realized that the tumor was increasing in size. Although there was no pain, awareness of a foreign body in the oral cavity when eating or talking was increasing, so she decided to visit our clinic for detailed examination and treatment. At this point, the mass extended from the center to the left side of the hard palate. It measured 15 mm along the major axis, and had a clear border; nearly spherical, its surface was smooth and glossy, and was of a slightly yellowish color. The mass was painless, elastic, and soft. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumorous lesion. Based on a clinical diagnosis of lipoma, it was subsequently excised under general anesthesia in January 2017. The tumor lay under the palatal mucosa, extending from the center to the left side of the hard palate. It was surrounded by a single-layered membranous structure, and had not adhered to the surrounding tissues. Healthy palatal mucosa and periosteum were also removed en bloc with the tumor within a safety margin of approximately 5 mm. No pressure absorption of palatine bone was seen. Histopathologically, proliferation of mature adipose tissue was observed. This was surrounded by a thin, single-layer membrane within the subepithelial connective tissue, which was covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Proliferation of fibrotic connective tissue was seen between the adipocytes. The final diagnosis was fibrolipoma. To date, at 18 months postoperatively, no recurrence has been observed and progress has been satisfactory.


Assuntos
Lipoma , Palato Duro , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tóquio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(1): 37-42, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074589

RESUMO

Maintaining dental and oral health and increasing healthy life expectancy are important issues for Japan as it deals with the rapid aging of its population. The purpose of this study was to determine effective dental health measures aimed at increasing the number of present teeth in the elderly. Change in the number of present teeth was determined based on data obtained from the 2009 and 2014 "Good Teeth Tokyo (Ii-ha Tokyo)" surveys carried out by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The number of present teeth and percentile curves were compared between these two time points. The number only showed a significant increase in individuals aged 60 years in 2014 (p<0.05). This may have been due to the establishment of a national public insurance system. The number of present teeth showed an increase in 2014 in the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile curves. In the 75th and 90th percentile curves, tooth loss accelerated when the number of present teeth was fewer than 25. This finding is consistent with studies reporting that tooth loss itself is a risk for tooth loss. Tooth loss showed a slight acceleration between the ages of approximately 20 and 45 years in the 90th percentile curve. These results indicate that dental check-ups at universities and companies, periodontal disease check-ups performed by local governments, and health instruction at these check-ups are necessary to increase the number of present teeth in the elderly. They further suggest that implementing measures to promote periodic visits to dental clinics and providing incentives to undergo treatment for tooth defects are necessary in high-risk individuals. In conclusion, dental check-ups, health instruction, and strategies for high-risk individuals in their 20s and 40s are necessary to increase the number of present teeth in the elderly.


Assuntos
Perda de Dente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113469, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902538

RESUMO

Both surface and satellite observations have shown a decrease in NOx emissions in East Asian countries in recent years. In order to reflect the recent NOx emission reduction and to investigate its impact on surface O3 concentrations in Asian megacities, we adjusted two bottom-up regional emission inventories of which base years are 2006 (E2006) and 2010 (E2010), respectively. We applied direct and relative emission adjustments to both E2006 and E2010 to constrain NOx emissions using OMI NO2 vertical column densities. Except for the relative emission adjustment with E2006, modeling results with adjusted emissions exhibit that NOx emissions over East Asian megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, and Tokyo) in the bottom-up inventories are generally overestimated. When the direct emission adjustment is applied to E2006, model biases in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea are reduced from 24 ppb to 2 ppb for NOx (=NO+NO2) and from -9 ppb to 0 ppb for O3. In addition, NO2 model biases in Beijing and Shanghai in China are reduced from 8 ppb to 18 ppb-0 ppb and 1 ppb, respectively. Daily maximum 8-h average O3 model biases over the same places are decreased by 8 ppb and 14 ppb. Further analyses suggest that the reduction in domestic South Korean NOx emissions plays a significant role in increasing O3 concentrations in SMA. We conclude that the current strong drive to reduce NOx emissions as part of the strategy to lower particulate matter concentrations in South Korea can account for increased O3 concentrations in recent years and suggest that more aggressive NOx emissions will be necessary soon.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Pequim , China , República da Coreia , Seul , Tóquio
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 159: 107987, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycemic variability has been suggested to be related to some unfavorable outcomes, but malignancy development has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of glycemic variability with malignancy development among the population without diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a large teaching hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from 2005 to 2016. We included all participants without diabetes who underwent voluntary health check-ups. Our outcome was the development of any malignancy. As a measure of glycemic variability, we calculated the quotient of CV in HbA1c and categorized subjects into quartile groups. A Cox proportional hazard model was applied, adjusting for patient demographics and social and family histories. RESULTS: A total of 42,731 participants were included in this study; the mean age was 53.8 and 48.3% were male. During the median follow up of 2639 (interquartile range (IQR):1787-3662) days, 2435 participants (5.7%) developed malignancies. Participants who had larger glycemic variability (CV in HbA1c; hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI):1.02-0.31 for the second quartile group; HR 2.20, 95%CI:1.95-2.48 for the third quartile group, HR 4.66, 95%CI:4.16-5.21 for the fourth quartile group, compared to first quartile group) had a significantly higher risk of malignancies. CONCLUSION: We found an association between large glycemic variability and a high risk of future malignancies in a dose-dependent manner among people without diabetes. This finding suggests that maintaining a constant level of glucose may have favorable effects on cancer prevention in people without diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tóquio/epidemiologia
14.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): E1-E5, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presenteeism, the act of going to work while sick, is associated with increases in medication errors, patient falls, diminished quality of care, and higher costs. To date, presenteeism has not been described among nursing students. PURPOSE: This study described presenteeism in nursing students from 3 different international nursing programs. METHOD: A self-administered survey with open-ended responses was used. RESULTS: While nearly all student respondents believed going to class and clinical experiences put their classmates and patients at risk, the overall presenteeism rate was 85.5% for class and 69.5% for clinical experiences. Although there were significant differences between universities for reasons for presenteeism, a lack of opportunity for making up missed lecture or clinical time predominated. CONCLUSION: Nursing students in 3 culturally different cities reported going to class and clinical experiences while sick despite recognizing the safety risk.


Assuntos
Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hawaii , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Segurança do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Seul , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113673, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862581

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are common pollutants in coastal waters. To investigate the estrogen risk of EDCs in the coastal areas of Japan, the Japanese common goby, which is a commonly observed species in these waters, was used as the target fish. Plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) levels were analyzed and the gonads of fish collected from the Taira River (northern Nagasaki, reference site), Nagasaki Port, and two sites in Tokyo Bay were observed. Abnormal levels (>150 ng/mL, p < 0.05) of plasma VTG and high levels of plasma E2 were detected in the fish from Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay, whereas the levels of both were low in the fish from the Taira River. The target EDCs, including natural estrogen [estrone (E1), and E2] and alkylphenols [4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), and bisphenol-A (BPA)] in water samples were quantified using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), respectively. It was observed that the E2-equivalent (EEQ) in Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay, which was calculated from the actual EDC measurement value, were almost 20- and 150-fold higher, respectively, than that at the reference site (Taira River, 0.021 ng/L). The EEQs mostly comprised natural estrogen in the sampling sites, although there was some influence of alkylphenols. There was an association between the EEQ and the E2 in environmental water, suggesting a high estrogen risk in Japan coastal waters. Moreover, the results indicated that abnormal VTG synthesis was induced by environmental estrogen (EE) pollution in Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Peixes/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Japão , Rios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tóquio
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(4): 265-273, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852852

RESUMO

In Japan, some measles outbreaks were initiated by a tourist from oversea and foreign workers recently. Moreover, rubella outbreak emerged since July 2018 mainly in the South Kanto, and the outbreak is currently ongoing in 2019. It is important to maintain a high measles-rubella combined vaccine (MR) coverage for measles-rubella control. Vaccination coverage for the second dose of MR (MR2) is 90.8% in Tokyo in 2016, which was the third worst among all prefectures in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify determinant factors of vaccination coverage for MR2 in Tokyo. Data were obtained for 49 wards and cities in Tokyo in 2016. We regressed vaccination coverage of MR2 on the times of notification by mail, the proportion of households receiving welfare payments, and the proportion of non-Japanese elementary school students. In addition to the simplest specification, five factors were included separately as explanatory variables: the proportion of public health nurses; the ratio of the number of pediatric medical facilities to the number of preschool and elementary school children; the moving-in rate; the proportion of households with a single parent; and the proportion of households with husband and wife both working. Results show that a high proportion of households receiving welfare payments, notification by two or more letters, and moving-in rate or a lower proportion of non-Japanese elementary school students improve coverage. In conclusion, the health authorities can exert efforts to reduce burden of time spent for vaccination and provide sufficient information to improve coverage.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/imunologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847195

RESUMO

Ambient conditions may change rapidly and notably over time in urban areas. Conventional indices, such as the heat index and wet bulb globe temperature, are useful only in stationary ambient conditions. To estimate the risks of heat-related illness, human thermophysiological responses should be followed for ambient conditions in the time domain. We develop a computational method for estimating the time course of core temperature and water loss by combining micrometeorology and human thermal response. We firstly utilize an urban micrometeorology prediction to reproduce the environment surrounding walkers. The temperature elevations and sweating in a standard adult and child are then estimated for meteorological conditions. With the integrated computational method, we estimate the body temperature and thermophysiological responses for an adult and child walking along a street with two routes (sunny and shaded) in Tokyo on 7 August 2015. The difference in the core temperature elevation in the adult between the two routes was 0.11 °C, suggesting the necessity for a micrometeorology simulation. The differences in the computed body core temperatures and water loss of the adult and child were notable, and were mainly characterized by the surface area-to-mass ratio. The computational techniques will be useful for the selection of actions to manage the risk of heat-related illness and for thermal comfort.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Sudorese , Caminhada , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Tóquio , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1442, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the relationship between community social capital and cognitive impairment, with a focus on the buffering role of community social capital in the association between educational disadvantage and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. METHODS: We used data from two population-based, cross-sectional surveys targeting people aged ≥65 years in a suburban city of the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 897; 49.8% men; average age = 74.4 years). Social capital included social support (emotional and instrumental support) and the strength of social networks (neighborly ties). To create district-level social capital indicators, we aggregated individual responses on social capital within each district. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Japanese version was used for the assessment of cognitive function. RESULTS: Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found that lower amounts of district-level emotional and instrumental support were associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment among men. For women, district-level emotional support was associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment. Additionally, a strong district-level social network buffered the relationship between low education and cognitive impairment in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Community social capital appears to have a protective role in determining cognitive function in old age. Our findings may facilitate the development of new community-based strategies to combat dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Tóquio/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA