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2.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 162(3): 35, 2020 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072530
3.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(4): 494-500, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents a preliminary report on the chest radiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a multi-institutional collaboration coordinated by the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology, we collected nine patients with COVID-19 infections who had undergone chest radiography and CT scans. We analyzed the radiographic and CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia at baseline. Fisher's exact test was used to compare CT findings depending on the shape of pulmonary lesions. RESULTS: Three of the nine patients (33.3%) had parenchymal abnormalities detected by chest radiography, and most of the abnormalities were peripheral consolidations. Chest CT images showed bilateral involvement in eight of the nine patients, and a unilobar reversed halo sign in the other patient. In total, 77 pulmonary lesions were found, including patchy lesions (39%), large confluent lesions (13%), and small nodular lesions (48%). The peripheral and posterior lung fields were involved in 78% and 67% of the lesions, respectively. The lesions were typically ill-defined and were composed of mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation or pure ground-glass opacities. Patchy to confluent lesions were primarily distributed in the lower lobes (p = 0.040) and along the pleura (p < 0.001), whereas nodular lesions were primarily distributed along the bronchovascular bundles (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea primarily manifested as pure to mixed ground-glass opacities with a patchy to confluent or nodular shape in the bilateral peripheral posterior lungs. A considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had normal chest radiographs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , República da Coreia , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 280-287, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766951

RESUMO

Delivering a cricket ball with a wrist-spin (WS) bowling technique is considered one of the game's most difficult skills. Limited biomechanical information exists for WS bowlers across skill levels. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical, isokinetic strength and anthropometric measures between elite (12) and pathway bowlers (eight). Data were collected using a motion analysis system, dynamometer and a level-two anthropometrist. A regression analysis identified that performance was best explained by increased wrist radial deviation torque and longitudinal axis rotational moments at the shoulder and wrist. From back foot impact (BFI) to ball release (BR), elite bowlers rotated their trunks less, experienced less trunk deceleration resulting in a more front-on position and increased pelvis rotation angular velocity. They also displayed an increased shoulder internal rotation moment as the upper arm moved from external into internal rotation and was a major contributor in the subsequent differences observed in the distal segments of the bowling limb. Anthropometric differences were observed at the wrist and finger joints and may be used to form the basis for talent identification programmes. This study highlights the important contribution to bowling performance of the musculature responsible for producing long axis rotations of the bowling limb.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pelve/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Rotação , Tórax/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190701, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate accuracy of virtual-non-contrast images (VNC) compared to true-unenhanced-images (TNC) for evaluation of liver attenuation acquired using spectral-detector CT (SDCT). METHODS: 149 patients who underwent multiphase transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement (TAVR) SDCT-examinations [unenhanced-chest (TNC), CT-angiography chest (CTA-chest, early arterial-phase) and abdomen (CTA-abdomen, additional early arterial-phase after a second injection of contrast media)] were retrospectively included. VNC of CTA-chest (VNC-chest) and CTA-abdomen (VNC-abdomen) were reconstructed and compared to TNC. Region of interest-based measurement of mean attenuation (Hounsfield unit, HU) was applied in the following regions: liver, spleen, abdominal aorta and paraspinal muscle. RESULTS: VNC accuracy was high in the liver, spleen, abdominal aorta and muscle for abdomen-scanning. For the liver, average attenuation was 59.0 ± 9.1 HU for TNC and 72.6 ± 9.5 HU for CTA-abdomen. Liver attenuation in VNC-abdomen (59.1 ± 6.4 HU) was not significantly different from attenuation in TNC (p > 0.05). In contrast, VNC was less accurate for chest-scanning: Due to the protocol, in CTA-chest no contrast media was present in the liver parenchyma as indicated by the same attenuation in TNC (59.0 ± 9.1 HU) and CTA-chest (58.8 ± 8.9 HU, p > 0.05). Liver attenuation in VNC-chest (56.2 ± 6.4 HU, p < 0.05) was, however, significantly lower than in TNC and CTA-chest implying an artificial reduction of attenuation. CONCLUSION: VNC performed well in a large cohort of TAVR-examinations yielding equivalent mean attenuations to TNC; however, application of this technique might be limited when no or very little contrast media is present in parenchyma, more precisely in an early arterial-phase of the liver. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study showed that VNC can be reliably applied in cardiac protocols when certain limitations are considered.


Assuntos
Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Abdome , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax , Realidade Virtual
7.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 274-275, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469426

RESUMO

A 29-year-old man died at the scene of an altercation from a stab wound to the left side of the neck. At autopsy, careful in situ examination of the common carotid artery did not reveal any evidence of hemorrhage or apparent vascular injury. However, applying pressure to the chest wall and underlying thoracic viscera (lungs and heart) resulted in filling of the collapsed vessel with blood causing hemorrhage from a small incision on the medial aspect of the common carotid artery. Release of pressure and drying of the dissection field enabled the artery to be opened and the small defect to be identified. This technique may be used to temporarily restore blood to a vessel to help identify a small bleeding point that may otherwise be difficult to detect.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Pressão , Tórax , Ferimentos Perfurantes/patologia , Adulto , Autopsia/métodos , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Exsanguinação/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(1): 129-144, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359147

RESUMO

Models of thoracic irradiation have been developed as clinicians and scientists have attempted to decipher the events that led up to the pulmonary toxicity seen in human subjects following radiation treatment. The most common model is that of whole thorax irradiation (WTI), applied in a single dose. Mice, particularly the C57BL/6J strain, has been frequently used in these investigations, and has greatly informed our current understanding of the initiation and progression of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). In this review, we highlight the sequential progression and dynamic nature of RILI, focusing primarily on the vast array of information that has been gleaned from the murine model. Ample evidence indicates a wide array of biological responses that can be seen following irradiation, including DNA damage, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and inflammation, all triggered by the initial exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and heterogeneously maintained throughout the temporal progression of injury, which manifests as acute pneumonitis and later fibrosis. It appears that the early responses of specific cell types may promote further injury, disrupting the microenvironment and preventing a return to homeostasis, although the exact mechanisms driving these responses remains somewhat unclear. Attempts to either prevent or treat RILI in preclinical models have shown some success by targeting these disparate radiobiological processes. As our understanding of the dynamic cellular responses to radiation improves through the use of such models, so does the likelihood of preventing or treating RILI.


Assuntos
Pneumonite por Radiação , Tórax/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Fibrose , Humanos , Pneumonite por Radiação/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 91-99, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825348

RESUMO

Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the utility of artificial intelligence in medicine. Radiology differs from other medical specialties with its high digitalization, so most software developers operationalize this area of medicine. The primary condition for machine learning is met because medical diagnostic images have high reproducibility. Today, the most common anatomic area for computed tomography is the thorax, particularly with the widespread lung cancer screening programs using low-dose computed tomography. In this regard, the amount of information that needs to be processed by a radiologist is snowballing. Thus, automatic image analysis will allow more studies to be interpreted. This review is aimed at highlighting the possibilities of machine learning in the chest computed tomography.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Computador/tendências , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/instrumentação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Previsões , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Cancer Imaging ; 19(1): 78, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A newly developed image processing technique fuses conventional windows into a single 'All-In-One' (AIO) window. This study aims to evaluate variability of CT measurement of lesions in thoracic oncology patients on this novel AIO-window. METHODS: Six radiologists with different levels of expertise measured 368 lesions of various size, origin and sharpness. All lesions were measured twice on the AIO-window and twice on the conventional window settings. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess intra- and interobserver variability. RESULTS: Overall intra-observer agreement for lesion diameters on the AIO-window and conventional window settings was 0.986 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.983-0.989) and 0.991 (95% CI 0.989-0.993) respectively. For interobserver agreement this was 0.982 (95% CI 0.979-0.985) (AIO) and 0.979 (95% CI 0.957-0.982) (conventional). For both the AIO and conventional windows, intra- and interobserver agreement were dependent on size, sharpness and reader experience. Measurement variability decreased with increasing lesion size. Regarding sharpness, inter- and intra-observer agreement ranged from 0.986-0.989 (AIO) and 0.985-0.992 (conventional) for well-defined lesions and from 0.978-0.983 (AIO) and 0.974-0.991 (conventional) for ill-defined lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Lesion diameters were consistently smaller on the AIO-window compared to conventional window settings. Overall intra- and interobserver variability rates were similar for the AIO-window and conventional window settings. We conclude that the AIO-window offers a reliable and reproducible alternative for measurement of thoracic lesions.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/normas , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(46): 3603-3607, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826579

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of acute histoplasmosis. Methods: The clinical and imaging data of 10 patients with acute histoplasmosis were studied. Their clinical and imaging characteristics were analyzed. All the patients returned from a South American republic in April 2019 and were treated at the Chongqing public health medical treatment center. Results: All the 10 patients were male, aged 30-56 years old, with an average age of 43.8 years old. Four of them were engaged in soil clearing, 2 in gas cutting, 2 in moving tools, and 2 in inspection. The disease in all the 10 patients was caused by inhaling a large amount of bacteria-bearing dust in a short time, with an incubation period of 9-13 days, and the main clinical manifestations were fever, insomnia, dizziness, headache, cough, poor appetite, rash and diarrhea. One patient's head CT showed extensive thickening and increased density of bilateral frontotemporal, parietal and occipital meninges, while the other 9 patients showed no obvious abnormalities. Chest CT findings were as follows: (1) Multiple nodular shadow: the chest CT findings of 4 patients were miliary nodular shadow with diffuse distribution in both lungs. Most of the nodules were less than 5 mm in diameter and distributed evenly or unevenly. CT findings of 6 cases showed scattered nodular shadows in both lungs, with diameters ranging from 2 to 15 mm, and obvious distribution in subpleural and inferior lobes of both lungs. (2) Consolidation shadow: in 2 cases, the size of the shadow was uneven and the density increased, mainly distributed in the subpleura and the lower lobe of both lungs. (3) Ground glass density shadow: mainly distributed around nodules, halo signs can be seen around some nodules. (4) Mediastinum and/or hilar lymph nodes were enlarged. (5) Pleural effusion: a small amount of pleural effusion was found in 4 cases. (6) Pericardial effusion in 3 cases. Abdominal CT showed splenomegaly in 8 cases and hepatomegaly in 1 case. Conclusions: Acute histoplasmosis has no specificity in clinical manifestations. However, there are still some features in CT manifestations, including multiple nodules in both lungs accompanied by halo, enlarged liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, and multiple serous cavity effusions.


Assuntos
Histoplasmose , Derrame Pleural , Adulto , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856165

RESUMO

Rib fractures represent the most common bone fracture, occurring in 10-20% of all blunt trauma patients and leading to concomitant injuries of the inner organs in severe cases. The purpose of this study was to identify specific serial rib fracture patterns after blunt chest trauma. 380 serial rib fracture cases were investigated. Fractures were assigned to five different locations within the transverse plane. Rib level, fracture type, and dislocation grades were recorded and related to the cause of accident. In total, 3735 rib fractures were identified (9.8 per patient). 54% of the rib fractures were detected on the left thorax. Rib fracture distribution exhibited a hotspot at rib levels 4 to 7 in the lateral and posterolateral segments. On average, most rib fractures occurred in crush/burying injuries (15.8, n = 13) and pedestrian accidents (12.8, n = 13), least in car/truck accidents (8.9, n = 75). In the car/truck accident group, 47% of all rib fractures were in the lateral segment, in case of frontal collision (n = 24) even 60%. Fall injuries (n = 141) entailed mostly posterolateral rib fractures (35%). In case of falls >3 m (n = 45), 48% more rib fractures were detected on the left thorax. In cardiopulmonary resuscitation related serial rib fractures (n = 33), 70% of all rib fractures were located anterolaterally. Infractions were the most observed fracture type (44%), followed by oblique (25%) and transverse (18%) fractures, while 46% of all rib fractures were dislocated (15% ≥ rib width). Serial rib fractures showed distinct fracture patterns depending on the cause of accident. When developing a serial rib fracture classification system, data regarding patterns, fracture types, dislocation grades, and associated fractures should be included.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Costelas , Tórax , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia
18.
Kyobu Geka ; 72(12): 1034-1037, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701917

RESUMO

A 21-year-old man was admitted with fever and back pain. Chest computed tomography(CT) showed a cystic mass of 7×6 cm in the right middle mediastinum. After 3 days, symptoms worsen, and chest X-ray revealed the enlargement of the cyst, and an emergent operation was performed. Since the tumor was severely adhered to the superior vena cava and the azygous vein, the cystic mass was partially resected. The pathological diagnosis was bronchogenic cyst.


Assuntos
Cisto Broncogênico , Cisto Broncogênico/cirurgia , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Mediastino , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e18088, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764844

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare the effects of paravertebral nerve block-propofol intravenous general anesthesia (PPA) and sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia (SGA) on the expression of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) in patients undergoing radical resection of lung cancer.Patients undergoing radical resection of lung cancer were divided into PPA group and SGA group. In PPA group, thoracic paraspinal nerve block was performed with 0.5% ropivacaine (2 mg/kg) before general anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with 2.5-3.5 µg/mL TCI of propofol. In SGA group, anesthesia was maintained with 1.0-1.5 MAC sevoflurane. The dosage of opioids during and 24 h after operation, the pain score at 2, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after operation, and the concentrations of serum VEGF and TGF-ß before and 24 h after operation were observed in the two groups.The intraoperative dosage of remifentanil in PPA group was significantly less than that in SGA group (P < 0.05). The dosage of sufentanil in SGA group was significantly less than that in SGA group at 24 h after operation (P < 0.05). The VAS score at 2, 8, and 24 h after operation was significantly lower than that in SGA group (P < 0.05). The serum VEGF and TGF-ß concentration in PPA group was significantly lower than that in SGA group (P < 0.05).Thoracic paravertebral nerve block-propofol intravenous general anesthesia can reduce the dosage of opioids, improve the effect of postoperative analgesia, and reduce the serum concentration of tumor angiogenesis-related factors in patients undergoing radical resection of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Paraespinais/inervação , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Propofol/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tórax
20.
Zootaxa ; 4586(2): zootaxa.4586.2.11, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716137

RESUMO

Amerikeroplatus dimorphicus n. gen. et n. sp. is described from Guatemala and compared with the similar Keroplatini genera Pseudochetoneura Sevcík and Asiokeroplatus Sevcík. The new genus is distinctive because it lacks the typical fusion of M and R (radiomedial fusion, RS+M) which is found in all but a few species-poor, and apparently unrelated, genera of keroplatids. Also unusual is the absence of vein R2+3 and the strong sexual dimorphism in the thorax; males are dark brown and females bright orange.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Guatemala , Masculino , Nematóceros , Tórax
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