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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516320

RESUMO

The ocular surface microbiome of veterinary species has not been thoroughly characterized using molecular-based techniques, such as next generation sequencing (NGS), as the vast majority of studies have utilized traditional culture-based techniques. To date, there is one pilot study evaluating the ocular surface of healthy dogs using NGS. Furthermore, alterations in the ocular surface microbiome over time and after topical antibiotic treatment are unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the bacterial composition of the ocular surface microbiome in clinically normal dogs, and to determine if microbial community changes occur over time or following topical antibiotic therapy. Topical neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment was applied to one eye each of 13 adult dogs three times daily for seven days, while contralateral eyes served as untreated controls. The inferior conjunctival fornix of both eyes was sampled via swabbing at baseline prior to antibiotic therapy (day 0), after 1 week of treatment (day 7), and 4 weeks after discontinuing treatment (day 35). Genomic DNA was extracted from the conjunctival swabs and primers targeting the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to generate amplicon libraries, which were then sequenced on an Illumina platform. Data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Molecular Ecology (QIIME 2.0). At baseline, the most relatively abundant phyla sequenced were Proteobacteria (49.7%), Actinobacteria (25.5%), Firmicutes (12%), Bacteroidetes (7.5%), and Fusobacteria (1.4%). The most common families detected were Pseudomonadaceae (13.2%), Micrococcaceae (12%), Pasteurellaceae (6.9%), Microbacteriaceae (5.2%), Enterobacteriaceae (3.9%), Neisseriaceae (3.5%), and Corynebacteriaceae (3.3%). Alpha and beta diversity measurements did not differ in both control and treatment eyes over time. This report examines the temporal stability of the canine ocular surface microbiome. The major bacterial taxa on the canine ocular surface remained consistent over time and following topical antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Primers do DNA , Cães/microbiologia , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Neomicina/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Polimixinas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008226, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After approximately 5 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement) interventions for trachoma, hyperendemic (trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) ≥30%) districts remained in Amhara, Ethiopia. This study's aim was to characterize the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and load among pre-school aged children living under the SAFE strategy. METHODS: Conjunctival swabs from a population-based sample of children aged 1-5 years collected between 2011 and 2015 were assayed to provide Ct infection data from 4 endemic zones (comprised of 58 districts). Ct load was determined using a calibration curve. Children were graded for TF and trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI). RESULTS: 7,441 children were swabbed in 4 zones. TF and TI prevalence were 39.9% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 37.5%, 42.4%), and 9.2% (95% CI: 8.1%, 10.3%) respectively. Ct infection prevalence was 6.0% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.2%). Infection was highest among children aged 2 to 4 years (6.6%-7.0%). Approximately 10% of infection occurred among children aged 1 year. Ct load decreased with age (P = 0.002), with the highest loads observed in children aged 1 year (P = 0.01) vs. aged 5 years. Participants with TF (P = 0.20) and TI (P<0.01) had loads greater than individuals without active trachoma. CONCLUSIONS: In this hyperendemic setting, it appears that the youngest children may contribute in meaningful ways towards persistent active trachoma.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/microbiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4353, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152391

RESUMO

Stevens - Johnson syndrome (SJS) has manifestation through the exfoliation of epidermis and mucosal tissue. Ocular surface is usually affected in acute and chronic stage. The patients are usually suffered from chronic ocular sequelae including symblepharon, limbal stem cell deficiency, etc. Furthermore, ocular microbiome may also be altered in SJS. This is prospective, age and sex matched analytical study which including 20 chronic SJS patients and 20 healthy subjects for specimen collection from inferior conjunctiva for microbiome analysis by conventional cultures and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. Significant higher proportion of positive-cultured specimen was demonstrated in SJS group (SJS group 60%, healthy 10%, p-value = 0.001). In addition, NGS which providing high-throughput sequencing has demonstrated the greater diversity of microbial species. The higher proportion of pathogenic microorganisms including Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. was shown in SJS group. Ocular surface in SJS is usually occupied by more diverse microorganisms with increased proportion of pathogenic species. This condition may affect chronic inflammation and opportunistic infections in SJS group. In order to prevent and treat infection in these patients, appropriate antibiotics based on bacterial examination should be considered as the first-line treatment in the SJS patients.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/complicações , Microbiota , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 47, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106294

RESUMO

Purpose: Microbial ecosystems interact with the human body and affect human health. The microbial community on the ocular surface remains an underexplored territory despite its importance as the first line of defense barrier that protects the eye and ultimately sight. We investigated how age and sex affected human ocular surface microbiome, and in the present study wanted to understand how geographic difference shaped the microbiome in the ocular surface. Methods: We collected conjunctival specimens of 172 eyes from 86 healthy volunteers living in three Chinese cities, namely, Guangzhou, Wenzhou, and Beijing. Using the direct metagenomic shotgun sequencing approach, we characterized how geographic difference affected the human ocular microbiome. Results: We surveyed the taxonomic composition and metabolic function of the microbiota on human ocular surface. We showed that the ocular surface microbiota was composed of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. A geographical difference in both composition and function of the conjunctival microbiome suggests that the environment people lived in shapes their conjunctival microbiome, especially the dominate species. Conclusions: Our study provides a reference catalog of the healthy conjunctival metagenome and raises a concern for environmental influences on the ocular surface microbiome.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fatores Etários , China , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Fúngico/análise , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 135-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare aerobic bacterial culture results between samples obtained from the corneal ulcer versus lower conjunctival fornix in eyes with presumed bacterial ulcerative keratitis. ANIMALS STUDIED: Fifty five client-owned dogs diagnosed with ulcerative keratitis. PROCEDURES: Ophthalmic examinations were performed on each dog including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Microbial swabs were collected by direct sampling of the infected corneal ulcer as well as the lower conjunctival fornix, of the same eye, using a sterile rayon-tipped swab. Samples were submitted to an outside reference laboratory for aerobic bacterial culture and sensitivity. RESULTS: One hundred twelve samples were obtained from 56 eyes (55 dogs). Sixty-eight samples yielded bacterial growth. Positive growth from both sites was obtained in 31 eyes (55%). Six eyes yielded bacterial growth from the conjunctival fornix but not from the cornea. No bacterial growth was obtained from either sampling site in 19 eyes. Overall, 31/56 (55%) corneal samples were positive and 37/56 (66%) conjunctival fornix samples were positive. Comparison of organisms isolated from the two collection sites of the same eye revealed an exact correlation in 42/56 (75%) eyes and differed in 14/56 (25%) eyes. Twenty different bacterial isolates were obtained from 68 positive samples. Gram-positive (71%) organisms were more common than Gram-negative (29%). The most commonly isolated organisms were Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (25%), beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. (23%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%). Methicillin-resistant organisms were isolated in 9% of samples. CONCLUSION: Sampling from the conjunctival fornix may be a suitable alternative to direct ulcer sampling in eyes with compromised corneal structural integrity.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/veterinária , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Animais , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 64(1): 37-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the possibility that preoperative topical antibiotics are not essential as long as iodine disinfection is performed during surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover equivalence trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 204 eyes of 102 patients who underwent routine bilateral cataract surgery, 1 eye was treated with intraoperative iodine, and the other, with preoperative topical antibiotics. For the intraoperative iodine eyes, 5 mL of 0.25% povidone-iodine was applied at 2 stages: (1) just after the placement of the speculum and (2) before intraocular lens (IOL) insertion. For the contralateral eyes, preoperative topical antibiotics were administered 3 days before surgery without intraoperative iodine. Conjunctival samples for culture were obtained at 3 time points: (a) presurgery, (b) beginning of surgery, and (c) postsurgery. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) samples were obtained at the beginning of surgery and before IOL insertion. Intracameral moxifloxacin was applied in all the cases. RESULTS: The respective positive bacterial culture rates for intraoperative iodine eyes and preoperative topical antibiotics eyes were 95.1% and 98.0% at (a), 7.8% and 5.9% at (b), and 60.8% and 62.7% at (c). A significant difference in the positive bacterial culture rate was not found at any time point. For the intraoperative iodine eyes, the bacterial DNA copy number at (b) was significantly lower than that for the preoperative topical antibiotics eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The cleanliness of the operative field without using topical antibiotics was revealed to be equivalent to that of the conventional method (using preoperative antibiotics without intraoperative iodine) as long as intraoperative iodine was used.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Desinfecção/métodos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Facoemulsificação , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Administração Oftálmica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Endoftalmite/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Eye Contact Lens ; 46(1): e1-e4, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724838

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To help clinicians diagnose and manage unilateral recalcitrant chronic bacterial conjunctivitis secondary to a retained soft contact lens and describe the first report of Gram-negative bacteria causing this condition. METHODS: Chart review of successive cases presenting with unilateral chronic conjunctivitis with positive cultures and a retained contact lens. RESULTS: Three cases were identified and described. Culturing of the retained contact lenses grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the first case, Achromobacter xylosoxidans in the second, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in the third. All three patients were successfully treated with removal of the retained lens and targeted antibiotic eyedrop therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral chronic recurrent or recalcitrant purulent papillary conjunctivitis is rare, and a retained contact lens should be suspected in patients with a history of wearing contact lenses. Careful examination with double eversion of the upper eyelid and sweeping of the fornices can recover the offending lens. Although only Gram-positive organisms have been isolated in previous reports, two of our three cultures grew Gram-negative organisms, highlighting the importance of broad-spectrum antibiotic usage for these cases.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana/etiologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18327, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798000

RESUMO

Infection of humans with Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterial pathogen with a unique intracellular replication cycle, may cause a variety of clinical manifestations. These are linked to various serovars of the pathogen; trachoma to serovars A-C, oculogenital infections to serovars D-K, and lymphogranuloma venereum to serovars L1-L3. Nineteen serovars are known as human pathogens. The aim of the study was to determine the serovars of 401 C. trachomatis DNA positive extracts from original clinical specimens of patients in Austria including cervical and urethral swabs, urine, genital secretions and conjunctival swabs - collected from 2014 to 2017. Sequence analysis of the omp1 gene, encoding major outer-membrane protein was performed on each sample. In 50.1% of samples serovar E was identified and serovars F, D/Da and G/Ga were found in 16.2%, 9.7% and 9.0%, respectively. Remaining serovars were J (6.0%), K (4.7%), H (2.7%), B/Ba (1.0%), and I/Ia (0.5%). In 19 patients follow up samples could be tested. The majority of C. trachomatis serovars were associated with urogenital tract infections (D-K), however, one of them - serovar B/Ba - is linked to both, ocular and genital tract infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 518, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Sudan first reported trachoma in the 1930s and has since been consistently endemic. Ocular C. trachomatis previously isolated from trachoma patients in Sudan in 1963 was antigenically identical to an isolate from Saudi Arabia (A/SA1). No contemporary ocular C. trachomatis whole genome sequences have been reported from Sudan. METHODS: This study sequenced twenty ocular C. trachomatis isolates to improve understanding of pathogen diversity in North-East Africa and examine for genomic variation specific to Sudan, possibly related to the persistence of trachoma in surveyed communities. High quality, whole genome sequences were obtained from 12/20 isolates. RESULTS: All isolates were serovar A and had tarP and trpA sequences typical of classical, ocular C. trachomatis isolates. The Sudanese isolates formed a closely related subclade within the T2-trachoma clade of C. trachomatis phylogeny distinct from geographically disparate ocular isolates, with little intra-population diversity. We found 333 SNPs that were conserved in Sudanese ocular isolates but rare compared to other ocular C. trachomatis populations, which were focused in two genomic loci (CTA0172-CTA0173 and CTA0482). CONCLUSIONS: Limited intra-population diversity and geographical clustering of ocular C. trachomatis suggests minimal transmission between and slow diversification within trachoma-endemic communities. However, diversity may have been higher pre-treatment in these communities. Over-representation of Sudan-specific SNPs in three genes suggests they may have an impact on C. trachomatis growth and transmission in this population.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Tracoma/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/química , Frequência do Gene , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sudão/epidemiologia , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia
10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4774-4783, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738825

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the composition and diversity of bacterial community on the ocular surface of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) via 16S rDNA sequencing. Methods: Forty-seven patients with MGD, who were divided into groups of mild, moderate, and severe MGD, and 42 sex- and age-matched participants without MGD (control group) were enrolled. Samples were collected from the upper and lower conjunctival sac of one randomly chosen eye of each participant. Through sequencing the hypervariable region of 16S rDNA gene obtained from samples, differences in the taxonomy and diversity between groups were compared. Results: Principle coordinate analysis showed significantly distinct clustering of the conjunctival sac bacterial community between the severe MGD group and the other groups. At the phylum level, the relative abundances of Firmicutes (31.70% vs. 19.67%) and Proteobacteria (27.46% vs. 14.66%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U), and the abundance of Actinobacteria (34.17% vs. 56.98%) was lower in MGD than controls (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U). At the genus level, the abundances of Staphylococcus (20.71% vs. 7.88%) and Sphingomonas (5.73% vs. 0.79%) in patients with MGD were significantly higher than the controls (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U), while the abundance of Corynebacterium (20.22% vs. 46.43%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U). The abundance of Staphylococcus was positively correlated with the meiboscores in patients with MGD (r = 0.650, P < 0.001, Spearman). Conclusions: Patients with MGD can have various degrees of bacterial microbiota imbalance in the conjunctival sac. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Sphingomonas may play roles in the pathophysiology of MGD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Disfunção da Glândula Tarsal/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Disfunção da Glândula Tarsal/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Exp Eye Res ; 189: 107848, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634477

RESUMO

Prophylaxis represents a keystone to reduce periocular skin and ocular conjunctiva bacterial load before surgical procedures. Despite many prophylactic agents are available the preferred perioperative ocular surface antimicrobial is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of preoperative liposomal ozone dispersion in reducing bacterial colonization from the conjunctival sac and periocular skin in dogs, in comparison with povidone-iodine and fluoroquinolone. Twenty-two owned dogs consisting with 44 eyes in total scheduled for ophthalmic surgical procedure were enrolled for the study and divided in four groups receiving either ozone dispersion or povidone iodine in eyelid and conjunctiva, fluoroquinolone or placebo. A swab was taken before and after the antisepsis protocol evaluating total microbial count, coagulase positive and negative staphylococci. Statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in colony forming units (CFU) for total microbial count, coagulase positive and negative staphylococci both for liposomal ozone dispersion and povidone iodine. No statistical differences were detected in median CFU for both one-day placebo and fluoroquinolone preoperative prophylactic topical therapy. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that liposomal ozone-dispersion is as effective as povidone iodine to reduce preoperative bacterial load in ocular surface.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Endoftalmite/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Aparelho Lacrimal/microbiologia , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Administração Tópica , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Endoftalmite/patologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/patologia , Feminino , Aparelho Lacrimal/patologia , Lipossomos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/patologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552195

RESUMO

Background: Trachoma, a neglected tropical disease, is the leading infectious cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Host responses to ocular chlamydial infection resulting in chronic inflammation and expansion of non-chlamydial bacteria are hypothesized risk factors for development of active trachoma and conjunctival scarring. Methods: Ocular swabs from trachoma endemic populations in The Gambia were selected from archived samples for 16S sequencing and host conjunctival gene expression. We recruited children with active trachoma and adults with conjunctival scarring, alongside corresponding matched controls. Findings: In children, active trachoma was not associated with significant changes in the ocular microbiome. Haemophilus enrichment was associated with antimicrobial responses but not linked to active trachoma. Adults with scarring trachoma had a reduced ocular bacterial diversity compared to controls, with increased relative abundance of Corynebacterium. Increased abundance of Corynebacterium in scarring disease was associated with innate immune responses to the microbiota, dominated by altered mucin expression and increased matrix adhesion. Interpretation: In the absence of current Chlamydia trachomatis infection, changes in the ocular microbiome associate with differential expression of antimicrobial and inflammatory genes that impair epithelial cell health. In scarring trachoma, expansion of non-pathogenic bacteria such as Corynebacterium and innate responses are coincident, warranting further investigation of this relationship. Comparisons between active and scarring trachoma supported the relative absence of type-2 interferon responses in scarring, whilst highlighting a common suppression of re-epithelialization with altered epithelial and bacterial adhesion, likely contributing to development of scarring pathology.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Microbiota , Tracoma/imunologia , Tracoma/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis , Cicatriz/genética , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/imunologia , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Feminino , Gâmbia , Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Interferon gama , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263683

RESUMO

High glucose represents a good environment for bacterial growth on the skin, on the ocular surface (OS) and in the tears of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, affecting the conjunctival bacterial community. This study aimed to investigate the OS bacterial flora of T2DM patients and healthy subjects using 16S rRNA sequencing-based bacterial identification. Among 23 healthy subjects (CON) and 31 T2DM patients, 54 eyes were examined to investigate the OS bacterial community. Factors potentially affecting the microbial growth were controlled. Results showed the OS microbiota presented higher diversity in the T2DM group than in the CON group. Bioinformatic analysis showed a lower abundance of Proteobacteria and a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes at the phyla level as well as a significantly increased abundance of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas at the genus level in the T2DM group. The difference in OS microbiota at taxonomic level was associated with Ocular Surface Disease Index and course of T2DM. These findings indicate the OS flora in T2DM patients is significantly different from that in healthy subjects, which may be closely associated with OS discomfort and course of T2DM.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Olho/microbiologia , Microbiota , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 63(4): 328-336, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the clinical manifestations, identification, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of ocular infections caused by Moraxella species. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients treated at the Departments of Ophthalmology of the Ogaki Municipal Hospital and the Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine for ocular infections caused by Moraxella species between January 2011 and June 2017 were examined. The stored Moraxella species isolated from ocular samples were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), molecular identification, and the biochemical properties. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients were treated for Moraxella ocular infections. The patients' median age was 72 years. A predisposing systemic or ocular condition was identified in 15 of the patients. Nine of the patients developed keratitis; four, conjunctivitis; and three, blebitis. M lacunata (6 eyes), M catarrhalis (6), M nonliquefaciens (3), and M osloensis (1) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, tobramycin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin. Twelve patients with keratitis or blebitis were treated with various topical antimicrobial combinations, and systemic antibiotics were used in 10 of the 12 patients. The mean time for the complete closure of the epithelial defects with keratitis was 24 days. The visual outcomes after treatment were favorable except in 1 keratitis patient who underwent enucleation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of duo-therapy with a combination of fluoroquinolone and cefmenoxime should be considered in cases nonresponsive to monotherapy, such as keratitis and bleb-associated infections. MALDI-TOF MS is useful for the identification of Moraxella to the species level.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Moraxella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Túnica Conjuntiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Conjuntivite/microbiologia , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e027036, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explored 6-month longitudinal changes in conjunctival colonisation and antibiotic resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) after cataract surgery with 1 month tobramycin treatment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study between 1 August 2012, and 31 July 2013. SETTING: A single medical centre in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 Taiwanese patients with 46.9% of male participants. INTERVENTIONS: Samples from the conjunctival sacs of both operation (OP) and non-OP eyes were obtained separately before cataract surgery and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Tobramycin (0.3%) treatment was applied four times daily for 1 month postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Identification of CNS isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility by using disk diffusion or E-test. RESULTS: CNS was detected in 24.2% of patients at baseline. During postoperative follow-up, the CNS colonisation rate did not decrease in either eye but showed an increasing trend in the OP eyes at 1 month (p=0.06). The colonisation rate showed no significant difference between the OP and non-OP eyes from baseline to a specific follow-up. We observed a significant increase (p<0.05) in resistance to tobramycin at 1 month and to ciprofloxacin at 3 months in the OP eyes and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at 1 month and 3 months and to oxacillin at 6 months in the non-OP eyes. CONCLUSIONS: During the 6-month postoperative follow-up, 0.3% tobramycin administration failed to reduce CNS colonisation but increased resistance to several antibiotics. Postoperative antibiotic treatment may be replaced by other evidence-endorsed prophylactic routines.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/efeitos adversos , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coagulase/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Tobramicina/efeitos adversos
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8424, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182732

RESUMO

To investigate the conjunctival microbiota and the association between the development of conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and dysbiosis, DNA samples were collected from 25 conjunctival MALT lymphoma patients and 25 healthy controls. To compare the microbiota, samples were collected from the following four body locations: conjunctiva, meibomian gland, periocular skin and hand. Extracted DNA was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequences, and libraries were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq sequencer. The differences in bacteria were characterized by using principal coordinate analysis of metagenomics data, and the differences in bacterial compositions were evaluated by linear discriminant analysis effect size. The conjunctival microbiota of MALT lymphoma patients was compositionally different from that of healthy controls. For the conjunctival MALT lymphoma patients, alterations in the microbial composition were detected, and a remarkable change was detected at the conjunctiva. Detailed analysis showed that a specific population of the microbiota, the genus Delftia, was significantly more abundant in conjunctival MALT lymphoma patients, and the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium were less abundant in the MALT lymphoma patients. A specific microbiota on the ocular surface in conjunctival MALT lymphoma patients was detected, and dysbiosis may play an important role in the pathophysiology of conjunctival MALT lymphoma.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Disbiose/complicações , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Lágrimas/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 142: 83-91, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195132

RESUMO

The management of ocular infections is challenging due to poor drug bioavailability and vehicle related adverse effects associated with current antibiotic eye drops. Semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) are reportedly well-tolerated on the ocular surface and can enhance ocular drug bioavailability. Therefore, an SFA-based azithromycin suspension (SFA-AZM) was prepared and its antibacterial efficacy was compared to that of marketed azithromycin eye drops by monitoring the growth of bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus in ex vivo ocular tissues. Corneal and conjunctival distribution of hydrophobic fluorescent dye particles from an SFA suspension (SFA-BODIPY) resulted in preferential dye localisation in the epithelial layers of both tissues. However, corneal dye absorption was significantly lower than conjunctival absorption, likely due to limited adhesion of suspended dye particles to the corneal compared to the conjunctival epithelium. In line with the dye distribution results, bacterial colonisation in the conjunctiva reduced significantly upon application of SFA-AZM with the efficacy being greater than or at least equal to the marketed azithromycin eye drops. In the cornea, all tested azithromycin eye drops reduced the rate of bacterial growth with similar efficacy. Overall, the SFA-AZM suspension tested here may provide a safe and effective alternative for the management of ocular infections by enhancing conjunctival drug absorption and thus drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Alcanos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Suspensões/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
19.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(1): 23-26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114120

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the ocular surface microbial flora in patients with chronic limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) due to Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and ocular chemical injury undergoing cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET). METHODS: Patients of SJS and chemical injury who had bilateral total LSCD planned for COMET were studied. Conjunctival swab was taken before surgery. Parameters evaluated were organism cultured, sensitivity pattern, frequency of positive culture, and clinical impact on management strategy. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included in which nine were males and four females. All patients had positive conjunctival swab culture. Most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The staphylococcal species isolated were sensitive to all the conventional antibiotics while Pseudomonas cultured showed resistance to cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Repeat conjunctival swab sent after a week of topical antibiotic therapy yielded positive culture of the same organism twice in 25% (3/12), thrice in 58.3% (7/12), and four times in 16.6% (2/12) of the patients. One patient had a polymicrobial flora with positive yield of S. aureus (thrice), S. epidermidis (twice), and P. aeruginosa (twice) in consecutive conjunctival swab culture in the absence of clinical infection. Two patients with persistent positive cultures had to undergo repeat oral mucosal harvesting as the transplantation of the cultivated explants had to be deferred. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface in LSCD patients yielded pathogenic organisms on culture. Poor ocular surface with absent tear film could be the contributing factors. It is important to perform the conjunctival swab culture before COMET surgery.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Doenças da Córnea/cirurgia , Células Epiteliais/transplante , Limbo da Córnea/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Células-Tronco/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Queimaduras Químicas/cirurgia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Doença Crônica , Queimaduras Oculares/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 191-198, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of donor-dependent factors on contamination rates of conjunctival swabs of human donor eyes. MATERIAL AND METHODS From July 2015 to September 2017 a total of 1008 conjunctival swabs from 504 consecutive human donor eyes were analyzed. Cross-tabulation, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the effect of donor-dependent factors on contamination rates of conjunctival swabs. RESULTS The mean conjunctival swabs contamination rate was 28.4%. Donors with the diagnosis of carcinoma or metastases were associated with an increased conjunctival swab contamination rate [odds ratio (OR)=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-2.6, p=0.007; OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.6, p=0.016; respectively]. However, the age, sex, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and donors who received chemotherapy did not significantly increase the conjunctival swab contamination risk. CONCLUSIONS Donors with the diagnosis of a carcinoma or metastases seemed to be predisposed to increased conjunctival swab contamination risk.


Assuntos
Córnea/microbiologia , Transplante de Córnea/efeitos adversos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Endoftalmite/etiologia , Bancos de Olhos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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