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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339409

RESUMO

Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.


Assuntos
Tabaco/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Composição de Bases , Tamanho do Genoma
2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, sept. 2022
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56435

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar la evolución de la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en Colombia en el período 1985- 2018 en la población de 35 años y más e identificar cambios en la tendencia. Métodos. Análisis de series temporales de mortalidad. Se calcularon las tasas específicas y estandarizadas por sexo y grupos de edad. Mediante la regresión joinpoint se estimó el porcentaje de cambio anual de las tasas y se identificaron puntos de cambio. Resultados. En el período 1985-2018 se registraron 105 553 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en la población de 35 años y más. Las tasas estandarizadas muestran una tendencia decreciente en el período 1985-2005, excepto en mayores de 64 años. Conclusiones. La tendencia de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón es decreciente en Colombia. Es necesario potenciar medidas de prevención primaria y secundaria sobre el consumo de tabaco y vigilar otros factores de riesgo como el radón residencial o la ocupación.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine lung cancer mortality trends in Colombia during the period 1985-2018 in the popula- tion aged 35 years and over and identify changes in the trend. Methods. Analysis of mortality time series. The specific standardized rates by sex and age group were cal- culated. Using joinpoint regression, the annual percentage change in the rates was estimated and points of change were identified. Results. During the period 1985-2018, 105 553 deaths from lung cancer were reported in the population aged 35 and over. The standardized rates exhibit a downward trend during the period 1985-2005, except in people over the age of 64. Conclusions. Lung cancer death rates in Colombia are trending downward. Primary and secondary preven- tion measures with respect to tobacco use need to be enhanced and other risk factors, such as residential radon or occupation, monitored.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar a evolução da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão na Colômbia no período de 1985 a 2018, na população com 35 anos de idade ou mais, e identificar mudanças na tendência. Métodos. Análise de séries temporais de mortalidade. Foram calculadas taxas específicas e padronizadas por sexo e faixa etária. Por meio da regressão joinpoint, estimou-se o percentual de variação anual das taxas e foram identificados os pontos de variação. Resultados. No período de 1985 a 2018, foram registradas 105.553 mortes por câncer de pulmão na popu- lação com 35 anos de idade ou mais. As taxas padronizadas demonstram tendência decrescente no período de 1985 a 2005, exceto para maiores de 64 anos. Conclusões. A tendência das taxas de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão na Colômbia é descendente. É necessário promover medidas de prevenção primária e secundária acerca do consumo de tabaco e monito- rar outros fatores de risco, como a exposição ao radônio residencial ou a ocupação.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Tabaco , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Registros de Mortalidade , Colômbia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Tabaco , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Registros de Mortalidade , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Registros de Mortalidade , Colômbia
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-09-12. (PAHO/NMH/RF/22-0024).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56409

RESUMO

These country profiles present the progress by country of the implementation of the MPOWER technical package during the period 2018-2021 and form a supplement to the Report on Tobacco Control for the Region of the Americas 2022. The country profile focuses on the status of implementation of the MPOWER package in each of the 35 Member States of the Pan American Health Organization. The data are presented in two summary sheets: MPOWER Summary sheet showing the most significant progress made with the six MPOWER measures, as well as classification of the country in each category; and the evolution of prices, taxes, and tax structure of the country. Collectively, 26 of the 35 Member States within the Region are implementing at least one measure of the MPOWER technical package at the highest level of application, accounting for 96% of the Region’s population being protected from the harms of tobacco.


Assuntos
Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Nicotina , Controle e Fiscalização de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Ambientes Livres de Fumo , América
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077222

RESUMO

Plant ARGONAUTES (AGOs) play a significant role in the defense against viral infection. Previously, we have demonstrated that AGO5s encoded in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana (PaAGO5s) took an indispensable part in defense against major viruses. To understand the underlying defense mechanism, we cloned PaAGO5s promoters (pPaAGO5s) and analyzed their activity in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana using ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene. GUS activity analyses revealed that during Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) infections, pPaAGO5b activity was significantly increased compared to pPaAGO5a and pPaAGO5c. Analysis of pPaAGO5b 5'-deletion revealed that pPaAGO5b_941 has higher activity during virus infection. Further, yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that the transcription factor NbMYB30 physically interacted with pPaAGO5b_941 to enhance its activity. Overexpression and silencing of NbMYB30 resulted in up- and downregulation of GUS expression, respectively. Exogenous application and endogenous measurement of phytohormones have shown that methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid respond to viral infections. NbMYB30 overexpression and its closest related protein, PaMYB30, in P. aphrodite subsp. formosana reduced CymMV accumulation in P. aphrodite subsp. formosana. Based on these discoveries, this study uncovers the interaction between virus-responsive promoter and the corresponding transcription factor in plants.


Assuntos
Potexvirus , Viroses , Plantas , Potexvirus/genética , Tabaco/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077301

RESUMO

Exposure to cigarette smoke represents the largest source of preventable death and disease in the United States. This may be in part due to the nature of the delayed harmful effects as well as the lack of awareness of the scope of harm presented by these products. The presence of "light" versions further clouds the harmful effects of tobacco products. While active smoking in expectant mothers may be reduced by educational and outreach campaigns, exposure to secondhand smoke is often involuntary yet may harm the developing embryo. In this study, we show that the main component of secondhand smoke, sidestream cigarette smoke, from several brands, including harm-reduction versions, triggered unsuccessful hatching at 3 dpf and reduced overall survival at 6 dpf in developing zebrafish. At non-lethal concentrations, craniofacial defects with different severity based on the cigarette smoke extract were noted by 6 dpf. All tested products, including harm-reduction products, significantly impacted cartilage formation and/or bone mineralization in zebrafish embryos, independent of whether the bones/cartilage formed from the mesoderm or neural crest. Together, these results in a model system often used to detect embryonic malformations imply that exposure of a woman to secondhand smoke while pregnant may lead to mineralization issues in the skeleton of her newborn, ultimately adding a direct in utero association to the increased fracture risk observed in children of mothers exposed to cigarette smoke.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Peixe-Zebra
6.
J UOEH ; 44(3): 269-275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089345

RESUMO

We investigated the probability of measuring the odor of thirdhand smoke using four odor-measuring monitors and three gas detector tubes. We measured the changes in tobacco odor on paper towels and cloth products over time. The results of the measurements were plotted against time to obtain an exponential approximation curve. The coefficient of x and the R2 values were calculated from this curve. The odor indicated by four types of odor-measuring monitors and three types of gas detector tubes decreased exponentially over time. The curves obtained from all measuring devices had coefficients of ex between -0.001 and -0.021, and R2 values of >0.8. The reproducibility of measuring relative odor levels through all measuring devices was high, suggesting a good capability of measuring thirdhand smoke odor. Two different odor-level standard gases can be used for the calibration of the regression curve for each monitor.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Odorantes/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(4): 984-989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149150

RESUMO

Context: Areca nut (AN) is a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. Oxidative stress-induced by chewing of AN can cause DNA damage leading to nuclear anomalies such as micronuclei (MN) and also alters antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to genomic instabilities and the development of oral cancer. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the correlation between the levels of glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells and the genotoxicity levels (MN count) in chronic AN chewers. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted with the approval of the Research Ethics Board in 60 individuals; 40 cases (Group I-20 raw AN chewers, Group II-20 dried areca with tobacco chewers), and 20 controls as Group III in the age group of 18-68 years who attended the outpatient department of our college. Estimation of SOD and GR and MN assessment was done using buccal exfoliated cells. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Antioxidant levels were found to be significantly reduced in both Group I and Group II in comparison to the control group. Group II showed significantly reduced level of GR in comparison to Group I. The MN count was significantly increased in Group II in comparison to Group I. The MN counts showed an inverse correlation to the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Greater activities of antioxidant enzymes correlated with decreased MN counts. Conclusions: Detection of MN in AN chewers with or without tobacco can be a useful biomarker for clinical screening procedures that may be used as a risk marker for oral cancer. It is important to increase the awareness programs to educate the public about the deleterious effects of AN chewing, emphasize on early intervention of AN chewing habit and thus prevent the development of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Areca , Neoplasias Bucais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes , Areca/efeitos adversos , Glutationa Redutase , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Nozes , Superóxido Dismutase , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15317, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097148

RESUMO

Soil organic matter (SOM) is of vital importance to soil health, and also plays a crucial role in the quality of the crops such as tobacco. However, the link between tobacco quality and SOM chemical compositions is still not well understood. To fill the information gap, we analyzed the quality of tobacco leaves and the corresponding SOM molecular compositions by electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), that were collected from six different sites in Bijie, Guizhou Province, China. The tobacco quality variedin six sites based on their chemical compositions. SOM compounds had a remarked impact on the quality of tobacco leaves and a distinct difference in SOM composition between low-quality and high-quality tobacco leaves was observed as well. Specifically, 105 common molecular formulas were detected in three SOM compounds of high-quality tobacco, which were more than those in low-quality samples. Although amino sugar, proteins, lipids, tannins, and carbohydrates had a collective influence on the chemical composition of tobacco leaves, the effect contributed by amino sugar and tannins was more prominent. In summary, fully understanding the association between tobacco chemical composition and SOM compounds can provide new insight into the regulation of tobacco quality and the sustainable development of agriculture.


Assuntos
Solo , Tabaco , Agricultura , Amino Açúcares , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Solo/química , Taninos
9.
Toxicology ; 479: 153318, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096319

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS) significantly contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Heated tobacco products (HTPs), newly developed cigarette products, have been proposed as an alternative for safe cigarette smoking. Although it is plausible to think that replacing traditional cigarettes with HTPs would lower the risks of COPD, this notion requires confirmation by further investigations from sources independent of the tobacco industry. COPD is characterized by an ongoing inflammatory process in the lungs, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) functions as a negative regulator of RAS and has been suggested as a cellular receptor for the causative agent of SARS-CoV-2. It has been shown that smoking is most likely associated with the negative progression and adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we found that cigarette smoke extracts from traditional cigarettes (CSE) caused higher cytotoxicity and higher oxidative stress levels than extracts from HTPs (HTPE) in two lung cell lines (Calu-3 and Beas-2B). CSE and HTPE induced RAS activation, MAPK activation, and NF-kB inflammatory pathway activation, resulting in the production of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CSE and a high dose of HTPE reduced tight junction proteins, including claudin 1, E-cadherin, and ZO-1, and disrupted lung epidermal tight junctions at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Finally, CSE and HTPE enhanced the spike protein S1-induced lung injury response. Together, these results suggest that HTPE induced similar lung pathogenesis relevant to COPD and SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury caused by CSE.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumopatias , Lesão Pulmonar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Produtos do Tabaco , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Angiotensinas , Caderinas , Claudina-1 , Citocinas , Pneumopatias/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/toxicidade
10.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 247, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The club cell secretory protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and low CC16 serum levels have been associated with both risk and progression of COPD, yet the interaction between smoking and CC16 on lung function outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: Utilizing cross-sectional data on United States veterans, CC16 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA and log transformed for analyses. Spirometry was conducted and COPD status was defined by post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7. Smoking measures were self-reported on questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were employed to examine associations between CC16 levels and COPD, and lung function with adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted Pearson correlations described relationships between CC16 level and lung function measures, pack-years smoked, and years since smoking cessation. RESULTS: The study population (N = 351) was mostly male, white, with an average age over 60 years. An interaction between CC16 and smoking status on FEV1/FVC ratio was demonstrated among subjects with COPD (N = 245, p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation among former smokers and negative correlation among current or never smokers with COPD. Among former smokers with COPD, CC16 levels were also positively correlated with years since smoking cessation, and inversely related with pack-years smoked. Increasing CC16 levels were associated with lower odds of COPD (ORadj = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.57, Padj < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status is an important effect modifier of CC16 relationships with lung function. Increasing serum CC16 corresponded to increases in FEV1/FVC ratio in former smokers with COPD versus opposite relationships in current or never smokers. Additional longitudinal studies may be warranted to assess relationship of CC16 with smoking cessation on lung function among subjects with COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Uteroglobina , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Broncodilatadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumaça , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Uteroglobina/metabolismo
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1388-1393, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117344

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the relapse status of smokers aged ≥15 years in China, and investigate the main factors influencing their relapse behavior. Methods: The data of this study cames from the 2018 China Adult Tobacco Survey, covering 400 committees or villages in 200 districts or counties in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China. The relevant data of smoking and relapsing in residents aged ≥15 years were collected by face-to-face interview. Software SAS 9.4 was used to clean and analyze the data, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for relapse rate. Results: A total of 19 376 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 91.50%. In 2018, 66.05% of smokers aged ≥15 years in China had smoking relapse, in whom 66.59% were males and 55.79% were females. In all age groups, the age group 15-24 years had the highest smoking relapse rate (82.63%). Multivariate analysis showed that the younger age 15-24 years (OR=4.618,95%CI:1.981-10.763), e-cigarette use (OR=9.782,95%CI:3.139-30.490), and tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in the past 30 days (OR=1.710,95%CI:1.291-2.265) were associated with higher smoking relapse rate. Compared with people who were allowed smoking at home or those without smoking limit, the smoking relapse rate in people who were not allowed to smoke at home (OR=0.562, 95%CI: 0.439-0.719) or those with smoking limit (OR=0.487, 95%CI: 0.366-0.647) was lower. Conclusion: The smoking relapse rate in Chinese smokers is high, especially in young people. It is suggested to conduct targeted intervention based on the results of this study to reduce the smoking relapse rate and help achieve the smoking control goal in Healthy China 2030.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumantes , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1408-1414, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117347

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the prevalence and trend of tobacco and e-cigarettes uses and identify the influencing factors for smoking behavior in junior middle school students in Shanghai, and provide data support and scientific basis for the development of tobacco control intervention strategy in adolescents. Methods: Multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select junior middle school students in 8 districts and 10 districts in Shanghai in 2013 and in 2019 respectively. Information about tobacco and e-cigarettes uses in the students were collected by using self-administrated questionnaire. The prevalence of tobacco and e-cigarettes uses were calculated, the difference between two years was compared with χ2 test. The influencing factors were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: In 2019, the current smoking rate was 0.6% in junior middle school students in Shanghai, and the smoking attempt rate was 2.9%, both were lower than the levels in 2013 (0.7% and 6.9%). The current use rate of e-cigarettes was 0.6% in 2019,with no significant change compared with 2013 (0.6%). The proportion of the students who had heard of e-cigarettes in 2019 (78.4%) was higher than that in 2013 (47.2%). In 2019, the second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure rate at home, in both indoor and outdoor public places and on public transportations was 72.5%, which was slightly lower than the level in 2013 (73.0%), the differences were all significant (P<0.05). In 2019, the students seeing close friend smoking (OR=27.381, 95%CI: 12.037-62.287), seeing someone smoking in school (OR=2.477, 95%CI: 1.155-5.312), believing that SHS may not be harmful (OR=8.471, 95%CI: 1.464-49.005) had higher possibility of smoking. Being aged ≥15 years (compared with being aged ≤12 years, OR=8.688, 95%CI: 1.922-39.266), exposure to SHS in outdoor public place (OR=8.608, 95%CI: 1.048-70.692), close friend smoking (OR=8.115, 95%CI: 1.754-37.545) were positively associated with e-cigarettes use, and believing that smoking results in uncomfortable social contact [compared with believing that smoking results in comfortable social contact (OR=0.105,95%CI: 0.018-0.615)] were negatively associated with e-cigarettes use, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco and e-cigarette uses in junior middle school students in Shanghai remained at a low level in recent years. The SHS exposure rate in junior middle school students is high. Smoking behavior of junior middle school students is closely related to personal attitude and awareness of tobacco, exposure to SHS, peer smoking and the situation of tobacco control in schools. Prevention and intervention should be carried out from multi-dimensions to effectively protect teenagers from tobacco hazards.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudantes , Tabaco
13.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(3): 321-329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) cigarette smoking prevalence is disproportionately high, especially in the northern United States. Tailored quitlines are needed to support AI/AN commercial tobacco users with quitting. OBJECTIVES: Obtain community feedback by working with trusted AI/AN partners; genuinely incorporate feedback into program design; collaboratively develop and implement culturally relevant quitline services for Minnesota's AI/AN community. METHODS: Working in partnership, AI/AN community input was gathered, and community partners were engaged to inform the development, training, implementation and monitoring of a tailored program within the existing state quitline. RESULTS: Findings suggest focusing on the commercial tobacco user/coach relationship, increased cultural understanding and program content adaptations could make quitlines more acceptable for AI/AN commercial tobacco users. CONCLUSIONS: The development and launch of the AI Quitline demonstrated the feasibility of collaboration among AI/AN organizations and community members, funders and providers to create a culturally relevant cessation service for AI/AN commercial tobacco users.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Índios Norte-Americanos , Tabagismo , Índios Norte-Americanos ou Nativos do Alasca , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078225

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection is associated with oral lesions which may be exacerbated by tobacco smoking or e-cigarette use. This study assessed the oral lesions associated with the use of e-cigarettes, tobacco smoking, and COVID-19 among adolescents and young people in Nigeria. A national survey recruited 11-23-year-old participants from the 36 States of Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Data were collected using Survey Monkey®. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Statistical significance was set at p-value less than 0.05. There were 2870 participants, of which 386 (13.4%) were tobacco smokers, 167 (5.8%) e-cigarette users, and 401 (14.0%) were both e-cigarette and tobacco users; and 344 (12.0%) had ever tested positive to COVID-19. Adolescents and young people who smoked tobacco had more than twice the odds of reporting gingival inflammation, oral ulcers, dry mouth, and changes in taste than those who did not smoke. Those who used e-cigarettes had 1.5 times higher odds of reporting oral lesions. Respondents who had COVID-19 infection had higher odds of reporting gingival inflammation and lower odds of reporting dry mouth than those who did not have COVID-19 infection. These findings were significant, and may help clinicians to screen for tobacco use and COVID-19 among adolescents and young people in Nigeria.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Úlceras Orais , Vaping , Xerostomia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fumar , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Vaping/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078242

RESUMO

Many novel tobacco products have been developed in recent years. Although many may emit lower levels of several toxicants, their risk in the long term remains unclear. We previously published a method for the exposure assessment of mixtures that can be used to compare the changes in cumulative exposure to carcinogens among tobacco products. While further developing this method by including more carcinogens or to explore its application to non-cancer endpoints, we encountered a lack of data that are required for better-substantiated conclusions regarding differences in exposure between products. In this special communication, we argue the case for more data on adverse health effects, as well as more data on the composition of the emissions from tobacco products. Such information can be used to identify significant changes in relevance to health using the cumulative exposure method with different products and to substantiate regulatory decisions.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Tabaco/toxicidade , Produtos do Tabaco/toxicidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078349

RESUMO

The use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including disposable e-cigarettes, has been prevalent. Existing chemical analyses of ENDS focused on e-liquids rather than aerosols and failed to consider particle sizes and aerosol respiratory deposition fractions, which are key factors for inhalation doses. This study investigated the organic chemical and metal constituents in size-segregated ENDS aerosol and assessed the deposited doses and health risks of these substances. Aerosol chemical analyses were conducted on two popular disposable ENDS products: Puff Bar (Grape) and Air Bar (Watermelon Ice). An ENDS aerosol was generated and delivered into a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor to collect size-segregated aerosol samples, in which organic chemicals and metals were analyzed. Daily and lifetime doses for each chemical were estimated. Cancer and non-cancer risk assessments were conducted based on the deposited doses. We found that e-cigarette aerosol contains certain harmful organic chemicals and metals documented to result in respiratory problems. Estimated respiratory cancer risks corresponding to chromium from both ENDS products and nickel from Air Bar (Watermelon Ice) were substantially above the conventionally acceptable risk. The method, findings, and implications can contribute to the extant literature of ENDS toxicity studies as well as inform tobacco regulation and future large-scale studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Aerossóis/análise , Metais/análise , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078553

RESUMO

Background: South Korea has made substantial progress on tobacco control, but cigarette smoking prevalence is still high. Previous studies were conducted before the use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) or heated tobacco products (HTPs) became popular. Thus, whether the concurrent use of NVPs or HTPs affects quit intentions among Korean smokers remains a question that needs to be explored. This study aims to identify predictors of quit intentions among cigarette-only smokers and concurrent users of cigarettes and NVPs or HTPs. Methods: Data were from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Korea Survey. Included in the analysis were 3778 adult cigarette smokers: 1900 at-least-weekly exclusive smokers and 1878 at-least-weekly concurrent smokers and HTP or NVP users. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: Quit intentions were reported by 66.4% of respondents. Factors significantly associated with quit intentions included younger age, having a spouse/partner, lower nicotine dependence, reporting a past quit attempt, regretting starting smoking, believing that smoking had damaged health, worrying that smoking will damage future health, and perceiving health benefits of quitting. Current use of NVPs or HTPs was not significantly associated with quit intentions. Conclusions: This study contributes the following to current literature: intrinsic health-related beliefs were more important than societal norms in shaping quit intentions. These findings should be considered in shaping future smoking cessation policies, such as reinforcing education programs that emphasize the benefits of quitting for personal health reasons, lowering nicotine dependence, and encouraging multiple quit attempts and successful quitting.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Adulto , Humanos , Intenção , Nicotina , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 2901-2906, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the proportion of tobacco-related head and neck cancer patients in need of nicotine de-addiction services at the time of diagnosis and factors associated with it. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care center. Tobacco-related head and neck cancer patients with a past and present history of tobacco usage registered in cancer clinic from March 2016 to February 2017 were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a pretested and semi-structured questionnaire to gather information on the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, and tobacco usage. Data were entered in EpiData v3.1 and analyzed using STATA v14. RESULTS: Among 220 participants recruited in the study, 83% were males, 47% were >60 years of age, and 40% had no formal education. Around 49% were smoking tobacco during the treatment period, 41% used smokeless tobacco, and 10% used both smoking and smokeless. The majority (56%) of them had stage T4 tumors. Around 71% of participants required de-addiction services. Those of age more than 70 years (aRR (95%CI) 1.43 (1.1-1.9)), currently employed (aRR (95%CI) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)), living alone (aRR (95%CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.5)) or in a nuclear family (aRR (95%CI) 1.5 (1.2-2)), who initiated tobacco use at a younger age (aRR (95%CI) 1.5 (1.0-2.2) were in higher need of de-addiction services. CONCLUSION: The majority of tobacco-related head and neck cancer patients required nicotine de-addiction treatment. Hence de-addiction services should be established as an integral unit of cancer clinics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Tabagismo , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nicotina , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/terapia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 2929-2935, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is on the rise with no improvement seen in survival rates. Tobacco consumption varies depending on geographic location, ethnicity and culture. The present case-controlled study aimed to determine the relative risk of OSCC for different tobacco consumption patterns in a selected Sri Lankan population. METHODS: One hundred five patients with histopathologically confirmed OSCC attending the National Cancer Institute of Sri Lanka and 210 age and gender-matched controls from the community responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding their smoking and betel-quid chewing (with/ without smokeless tobacco) habits. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall risk of OSCC increased 2.93-fold for smokers. Those smoking two packets of cigarettes or more per day (OR=5.56; 95% CI-2.822-10.984; p=0.000) had more than double the risk of OSCC than those smoking 1-2 packets per day. Smoking for more than 20 years had a 3.4-fold risk of OSCC. Consumption of betel quid containing tobacco (smokeless tobacco) had a 4.26-fold higher risk for OSCC (OR=4.26; 95% CI-2.21-8.21; p=0.000), and the risk increased when all four ingredients (betel leaf, slaked lime, areca nut, and tobacco) were consumed together (OR=4.26; 95% CI-2.34-7.74; p=0.000). The combined effect from concurrent smoking and betel chewing emerged as the highest risk for OSCC (OR=15.34) which significantly exceeded the risks evident for the two habits practised in isolation from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Use of smokeless tobacco, consumption of all four ingredients together, duration of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked per day and combined consumption of betel quid and smoking are significant risk factors in the development of OSCC among Sri Lankans.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Areca/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141847

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of smoking and e-cigarette use among primary care patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the frequency of minimal anti-tobacco interventions by family doctors. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2021 encompassing 896 patients over 18 years of age who used primary health care in the city of Lodz, Poland. In total, 21.2% of the respondents were smokers, 11.6% were e-cigarette users, and 7.3% dual users. In addition, 68.4% of smokers had been asked about smoking, while 62.9% of non-smokers and 33.7% of smokers were advised to quit smoking; furthermore, 71.1% of e-cigarette users and 72.3% of dual users were asked about tobacco use, and 17.3% and 21.5%, respectively, had been advised to quit smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found men and alcohol users to receive more minimal anti-tobacco advice than women and non-alcohol users (OR = 1.46; p < 0.05 and OR = 1.45; p < 0.05), socio-demographic and health correlates did not increase the chances of obtaining minimal anti-tobacco interventions among smokers. People with a medium level of education had a higher chance of receiving minimal anti-tobacco intervention from their family doctor when using e-cigarettes and when they were dual users (OR = 2.06; p < 0.05 and OR = 2.51; p < 0.05). Smokers were less likely to receive minimal anti-tobacco interventions than reported in previous studies. Measures should be implemented to increase the minimum interventions provided by GPs in their daily work among all patients, not only those who use tobacco. Non-smokers should be encouraged to abstain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco
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