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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2836-2844, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472301

RESUMO

It has been reported that ODB genes play an important role in homologous recombination-directed DNA repair, suggesting their potential applications in plant breeding. To analyze the expression characteristics of tobacco NtODB gene, the cDNA sequence of NtODB was obtained using in silico cloning technique. The physicochemical properties, signal peptide, and advanced structures of the predicted protein were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the NtODB gene has a 579-bp open reading frame which encodes a protein with 192 amino acid residues. The protein NtODB is predicted to be alkaline and hydrophilic. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that NtODB was constitutively expressed in different tissues. Subcellular localization showed that NtODB was mainly expressed in cell membrane and chloroplast. These results may help us to better understand and elucidate the roles of ODB genes in the homologous recombination-directed DNA repair.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Tabaco , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Simulação por Computador , DNA Complementar , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Tabaco/genética
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2845-2855, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472302

RESUMO

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Assuntos
Amido , Tabaco , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
4.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 436-441, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522410

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the stages of lung tissue damage caused by exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) smoke. The negative health effects of e-cigarettes remain debatable. Several studies have shown the adverse effects, but others opine that e-cigarettes are safer to use than their tobacco counterparts. There is, however, a possibility that the long-term health effects, such as respiratory and even kidney function impairment, are presently not obvious. The amounts of increased free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines from e-cigarettes result in various physiological disorders, which trigger cell damage and even cell death in the body. Methods: An experimental study was conducted between March and September 2019 in Airlangga University using a control and an experimental group of male Wistar rats to assess the levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotein-8 and type-2 collagen. The results were obtained using immunohistochemical staining methods on alveolar macrophages through Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Results: The results showed that exposure to e-cigarette smoke caused an increase in free radicals, triggered an inflammatory process and degraded the type-2 collagen present in the lung tissue. Conclusion: Exposure to e-cigarette smoke can cause cell damage in lung tissues.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tabaco
6.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107073, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use among US youth has raised concerns that their use may increase conventional cigarette smoking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data from two large nationally representative samples of US youth were drawn from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and Monitoring the Future (MTF). Students from grade 6-12 of the NYTS (N = 98,454-132,003) and students from grade 12 of the MTF (N = 17,870-30,981) were included in the analyses. Trends in smoking behavior, intention to smoke in the future and perceived smoking harms among youth who do and do not use ECs were estimated from 2014 to 2020 using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. RESULTS: The prevalence for regular smoking decreased among youth who regularly use ECs. For example, among regular EC users, smoking prevalence decreased from 27.8% to 6.7% (-21%; 99.67% CI:[-32.3%, -9.9%]) in the NYTS between 2014 and 2020 and from 31.8% to 10.6% (-21.2%, 99.67% CI:[-35.0%, -7.3%]) in the MTF between 2014 and 2018. Intent to smoke in the future and perceiving smoking as harmless decreased or remained unchanged during the same period. For example, among regular EC users, there was no significant change in intention to smoke next year in the NYTS between 2014 and 2018; intention to smoke in the next 5 years decreased significantly from 30.7% to 11.2% (-19.5%, 99.67% CI:[-37.7%, -1.3%]) in the MTF. CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of US youth, smoking prevalence declined by a sizeable relative percentage. Intent to smoke in the future and harm perceptions of smoking declined or remained unchanged while EC use increased. Results provide little evidence that EC use has increased conventional cigarette smoking among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445105

RESUMO

In grafted plants, the movement of long-distance signals from rootstocks can modulate the development and function of the scion. To understand the mechanisms by which tolerant rootstocks improve scion responses to osmotic stress (OS) conditions, mRNA transport of osmotic responsive genes (ORGs) was evaluated in a tomato/potato heterograft system. In this system, Solanum tuberosum was used as a rootstock and Solanum lycopersicum as a scion. We detected changes in the gene expression levels of 13 out of the 21 ORGs tested in the osmotically stressed plants; of these, only NPR1 transcripts were transported across the graft union under both normal and OS conditions. Importantly, OS increased the abundance of StNPR1 transcripts in the tomato scion. To examine mRNA mobility in transgrafted plants, StNPR1 and StDREB1 genes representing the mobile and non-mobile transcripts, respectively, were overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants indicated that overexpression of these genes enhanced the growth and improved the physiological status of transgenic plants growing under OS conditions induced by NaCl, mannitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG). We also found that transgenic tobacco rootstocks increased the OS tolerance of the WT-scion. Indeed, WT scions on transgenic rootstocks had higher ORGs transcript levels than their counterparts on non-transgenic rootstocks. However, neither StNPR1 nor StDREB1 transcripts were transported from the transgenic rootstock to the wild-type (WT) tobacco scion, suggesting that other long-distance signals downstream these transgenes could have moved across the graft union leading to OS tolerance. Overall, our results signify the importance of StNPR1 and StDREB1 as two anticipated candidates for the development of stress-resilient crops through transgrafting technology.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Osmose/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Tabaco/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transgenes/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445241

RESUMO

Global warming leads to a progressive rise in environmental temperature. Plants, as sessile organisms, are threatened by these changes; the male gametophyte is extremely sensitive to high temperature and its ability to preserve its physiological status under heat stress is known as acquired thermotolerance. This latter can be achieved by exposing plant to a sub-lethal temperature (priming) or to a progressive increase in temperature. The present research aims to investigate the effects of heat priming on the functioning of tobacco pollen grains. In addition to evaluating basic physiological parameters (e.g., pollen viability, germination and pollen tube length), several aspects related to a correct pollen functioning were considered. Calcium (Ca2+) level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant systems were investigated, also to the organization of actin filaments and cytoskeletal protein such as tubulin (including tyrosinated and acetylated isoforms) and actin. We also focused on sucrose synthase (Sus), a key metabolic enzyme and on the content of main soluble sugars, including UDP-glucose. Results here obtained showed that a pre-exposure to sub-lethal temperatures can positively enhance pollen performance by altering its metabolism. This can have a considerable impact, especially from the point of view of breeding strategies aimed at improving crop species.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Termotolerância , Tabaco/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Tabaco/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 401, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timing is everything when it comes to the fitness outcome of a plant's ecological interactions, and accurate timing is particularly relevant for interactions with herbivores or mutualists that are based on ephemeral emissions of volatile organic compounds. Previous studies of the wild tobacco N. attenuata have found associations between the diurnal timing of volatile emissions, and daytime predation of herbivores by their natural enemies. RESULTS: Here, we investigated the role of light in regulating two biosynthetic groups of volatiles, terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which dominate the herbivore-induced bouquet of N. attenuata. Light deprivation strongly suppressed terpenoid emissions while enhancing GLV emissions, albeit with a time lag. Silencing the expression of photoreceptor genes did not alter terpenoid emission rhythms, but silencing expression of the phytochrome gene, NaPhyB1, disordered the emission of the GLV (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. External abscisic acid (ABA) treatments increased stomatal resistance, but did not truncate the emission of terpenoid volatiles (recovered in the headspace). However, ABA treatment enhanced GLV emissions and leaf internal pools (recovered from tissue), and reduced internal linalool pools. In contrast to the pattern of diurnal terpenoid emissions and nocturnal GLV emissions, transcripts of herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) biosynthetic genes peaked during the day. The promotor regions of these genes were populated with various cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light-, stress-, phytohormone- and circadian regulation. CONCLUSIONS: This research provides insights into the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of HIPV bouquets, a mechanistic complexity which rivals the functional complexity of HIPVs, which includes repelling herbivores, calling for body guards, and attracting pollinators.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Luz , Tabaco/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Fitocromo B/genética , Fitocromo B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452461

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has rapidly spread to more than 222 countries and has put global public health at high risk. The world urgently needs cost-effective and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, antiviral, and therapeutic drugs to control it. In this study, we engineered the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and produced it in the plant Nicotiana benthamiana in a glycosylated and deglycosylated form. Expression levels of both glycosylated (gRBD) and deglycosylated (dRBD) RBD were greater than 45 mg/kg fresh weight. The purification yields were 22 mg of pure protein/kg of plant biomass for gRBD and 20 mg for dRBD, which would be sufficient for commercialization of these vaccine candidates. The purified plant-produced RBD protein was recognized by an S protein-specific monoclonal antibody, demonstrating specific reactivity of the antibody to the plant-produced RBD proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 RBD showed specific binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. In mice, the plant-produced RBD antigens elicited high titers of antibodies with a potent virus-neutralizing activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that mice immunized with plant-produced deglycosylated RBD form elicited high titer of RBD-specific antibodies with potent neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, obtained data support that plant-produced glycosylated and in vivo deglycosylated RBD antigens, developed in this study, are promising vaccine candidates for the prevention of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glicosilação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Engenharia de Proteínas , Estabilidade Proteica , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Células Vero
12.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54607

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Se describe el estado actual y los avances en la aplicación de las medidas de control del tabaco contenidas en la Estrategia y Plan de Acción para Fortalecer el Control del Tabaco en la Región de las Américas 2018-2022 y se identifican los logros alcanzados entre los años 2016 y 2020 y los retos que aún se deben enfrentar para cumplir las metas previstas. Para ello se utilizaron los datos del Informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sobre la Epidemia Mundial de Tabaquismo de los años 2015, 2017 y 2019, así como las normativas nacionales para determinar su consistencia con los criterios de la OMS. Se constatan importantes avances en la aplicación del Convenio Marco de la OMS para el Control del Tabaco en las Américas. Al 2020, la mayoría de los países contaban con normativas sobre ambientes 100% libres de humo en lugares cerrados públicos y de trabajo, y el transporte público, y advertencias sanitarias gráficas grandes en los paquetes de tabaco. Desde el 2016 se duplicó el número de países que prohíben la publicidad, la promoción y el patro-cinio del tabaco y que aplican impuestos al tabaco al nivel mínimo recomendado por la OMS. Sin embargo, aún no se ha alcanzado la meta prevista al 2022 para ninguna de esas medidas ni para la ratificación de los tratados internacionales en el tema. Aunque se ha avanzado en la Región, el avance no ha sido uniforme, y a menos que el ritmo de aplicación de las medidas de control del tabaco contenidas en la Estrategia y Plan de Acción se acelere, es poco probable que se logren las metas establecidas. La interferencia de la industria tabacalera se mantiene como uno de los principales retos.


[ABSTRACT]. This report describes the current status of the tobacco control measures contained in the Strategy and Plan of Action to Strengthen Tobacco Control in the Region of the Americas 2018-2022 (Pan American Health Organization) and the advances made in its application, identifying achievements from 2016 to 2020 and challenges that still need to be addressed in order to reach the expected goals. This analysis relied on data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic from 2015, 2017, and 2019, and national regulations were analyzed to determine their consistency with WHO criteria. Significant progress has been made in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Americas. By 2020, most countries had regulations on 100% smoke-free environments in indoor public places, workplaces, and public transport, and large graphic health warnings on tobacco packaging. The number of countries that ban tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship and that tax tobacco at the minimum level recommen-ded by WHO has doubled since 2016. However, the 2022 targets have not yet been reached for any of these measures or for ratification of the relevant international agreements. Although progress has been made in the Region, it has not been uniform. Unless the pace of application of the tobacco control measures contained in the Strategy and Plan of Action accelerates, it is unlikely that its targets will be met. Tobacco industry interference remains one of the main challenges.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo descreve a situação atual e o progresso na implementação das medidas para o controle do tabagismo prescritas na Estratégia e plano de ação para fortalecer o controle do tabagismo na Região das Américas 2018-2022, reconhece as conquistas realizadas no período entre 2016 e 2020, e identifica os desafios a serem enfrentados para alcançar as metas planejadas. A análise se baseou em dados obtidos do Relatório da OMS sobre a Epidemia Global do Tabaco, publicado em 2015, 2017 e 2019, e em regulamentações nacionais para determinar o cumprimento dos critérios da OMS. Observam-se avanços na implementação da Convenção-Quadro da OMS para o Controle do Tabaco nas Américas. Em 2020, a maior parte dos países dispunha de regulamentações para ambientes 100% livres da fumaça do tabaco em locais públicos fechados, locais fechados de trabalho e meios de transporte público, e advertências sanitárias com ilustrações gráficas grandes nas embalagens dos produtos de tabaco. O número de países que proíbem publicidade, promoção e patrocínio do tabaco e adotaram impostos sobre os produtos do tabaco no padrão mínimo recomendado pela OMS dobrou desde 2016. No entanto, as metas planejadas para 2022 ainda não foram atingidas – tanto em relação a estas medidas quanto à ratificação dos respectivos tratados internacio-nais. Apesar dos avanços, o progresso na Região não é uniforme. Se as medidas para o controle do tabaco prescritas na Estratégia e plano de ação não forem implementadas em um ritmo acelerado, as metas dificilmente serão alcançadas. A interferência da indústria do tabaco continua sendo um dos maiores desafios.


Assuntos
Legislação como Assunto , Tabaco , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Política de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , COVID-19 , América , Legislação como Assunto , Tabaco , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Política de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , América , Legislação como Assunto , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Política de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , América
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440946

RESUMO

Recent studies have explored improvements in smoking prevention and cessation to reduce smoking prevalence, however, in Europe, only Finland has already set a date to become nicotine free. Studies reporting on central, eastern and southern Europe have mostly focused on combustible cigarettes up to now. In young people, correlations were found between traditional smoking, the "vaping" of e-cigarettes, experimentation with alcohol intoxication, and the use of illicit drugs. Prevention and cessation should include strategies against active and passive exposures to new nicotine products. This is a prerequisite for a successful public health policy and a future end-game against the business interests of the tobacco industry and its allies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , Nicotina , Tabaco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444487

RESUMO

This study's objective was to describe the relationship between the main risk factors for oral cancer, including tobacco (in the form of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), secondhand smoking (SS)), alcohol, and betel quid (BQ), and the occurrence of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). A community-based case-control study was conducted with a population of 1448 adults aged 40 years or above in northeastern Thailand. Patients aged 60 years or above (OR 1.79, p < 0.001) and female patients (OR 2.17, p < 0.001) had a significant chance of having OPMDs. Our multivariate analysis showed that the most potent risk factor for OPMDs occurrence was betel quid (BQ) (adjusted OR 4.65, p < 0.001), followed by alcohol (OR 3.40, p < 0.001). Even former users were at risk of developing OPMDs. The synergistic effect between these main risk factors was significantly shown in the group exposed to SLT, SS, BQ, and alcohol. The most potent synergistic effect was found in the group exposed to SLT, BQ and alcohol with the OR = 20.96.


Assuntos
Areca , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto , Areca/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Tabaco
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How cigarette smoke (CS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and severity is controversial. We investigated the effects of COPD and CS on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in vivo in COPD patients and controls and in CS-exposed mice, and the effects of CS on SARS-CoV-2 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We quantified: (1) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA, and both ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 mRNA levels by RT-qPCR in two independent human cohorts; and (2) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA in C57BL/6 WT mice exposed to air or CS for up to 6 months. The effects of CS exposure on SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated after in vitro infection of Calu-3 cells and differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), respectively. RESULTS: ACE2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in peripheral airways from COPD patients versus controls but similar in central airways. Mice exposed to CS had decreased ACE2 protein levels in their bronchial and alveolar epithelia versus air-exposed mice. CS treatment decreased viral replication in Calu-3 cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining for replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and western blot for viral N protein. Acute CS exposure decreased in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication in HBECs, as determined by plaque assay and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 levels were decreased in both bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells from COPD patients versus controls, and from CS-exposed versus air-exposed mice. CS-pre-exposure potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. These findings urge to investigate further the controversial effects of CS and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/enzimologia , Fumar Cigarros/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fumaça , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Brônquios , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Alvéolos Pulmonares , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Tabaco , Replicação Viral
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045476, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite a long-term downward trend in smoking prevalence, tobacco remains the number one risk factor for death and disability in Sweden. Globally, tobacco use generates a substantial economic burden for health systems and is also a major driver of socioeconomic inequalities in health. This article describes the planned cost-effectiveness and health equity impact evaluation of a multicomponent school-based programme to prevent the onset of tobacco use in adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cost-effectiveness of the multicomponent Tobacco-Free Duo programme will be evaluated against the educational component of the same programme only. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) will be calculated in terms of the cost per case prevented using the trial primary outcome and within-trial payer costs. If the ICER is negative, an incremental net benefit ratio will be calculated. Robustness of the results will be assessed through one-way sensitivity analyses. The slope index of inequality will be computed to assess the potential impact of the Tobacco-free Duo programme on education-related inequalities in the onset of smoking and in adult smoking cessation, comparing the two trial arms. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Ethics Review Board, Umeå (registration number 2017/255-31). The Public Health Agency of Sweden commissioned the study. The findings will be disseminated internationally within academia and to national and local policy-makers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN52858080; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444045

RESUMO

Cyber-victimization, tobacco and alcohol use are all prominent public health problems among adolescents throughout the world. Against this background, this study examined the association between cyber-victimization and tobacco and alcohol use, as well as the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation and the potential age differences among elementary, middle, and high school students. A survey conducted among 1488 school students (aged 9-19 years, consisting of 702 elementary school students, 318 middle school students, and 468 high school students) found that cyber-victimization was positively correlated with tobacco and alcohol use among students of all stages. However, the moderating mechanism was different. Among elementary school students, deviant peer affiliation played a positive moderating role. For individuals with high deviant peer affiliation, this association was stronger. Among middle school students, the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation was insignificant. Among high school students, deviant peer affiliation played a negative moderating role; this association was significant for individuals with low deviant peer affiliation. The results of this study clarify the relationship between cyber-victimization and tobacco and alcohol use by examining the moderating role of deviant peer affiliation and age differences, providing intervention guidance for reducing the negative influences of cyber-victimization on children and adolescents with respect their use of tobacco and alcohol.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tabaco
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 947, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373580

RESUMO

Land plant genomes carry tens to hundreds of Resistance (R) genes to combat pathogens. The induction of antiviral R-gene-mediated resistance often results in a hypersensitive response (HR), which is characterized by virus containment in the initially infected tissues and programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells. Alternatively, systemic HR (SHR) is sometimes observed in certain R gene-virus combinations, such that the virus systemically infects the plant and PCD induction follows the spread of infection, resulting in systemic plant death. SHR has been suggested to be the result of inefficient resistance induction; however, no quantitative comparison has been performed to support this hypothesis. In this study, we report that the average number of viral genomes that establish cell infection decreased by 28.7% and 12.7% upon HR induction by wild-type cucumber mosaic virus and SHR induction by a single-amino acid variant, respectively. These results suggest that a small decrease in the level of resistance induction can change an HR to an SHR. Although SHR appears to be a failure of resistance at the individual level, our simulations imply that suicidal individual death in SHR may function as an antiviral mechanism at the population level, by protecting neighboring uninfected kin plants.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes vpr/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Cucumovirus/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444240

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the differences in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, mood and bullying between adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of Northern Spain (one in Galiza and four in central Catalonia) that share similar socioeconomic characteristics and encompass around 10,000 inhabitants each. Students living in Burela, Galiza (N = 71) were compared to those of Central Catalonia (N = 193). The independent variable was the municipality of residence. The dependent variables encompassed: weekly available pocket money, Family Affluence Scale, self-classified academic qualification, place of origin, alcohol consumption, tobacco and cannabis smoking, negative mood and bullying. The mean age and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of participants were similar between the regions (Burela: 15.90 years (15.68-16.13) and Central Catalonia: 15.36 years (15.28-15.44)). More than half of the participants were females (Burela, Galiza (53.5%) and Catalonia (54.9%)). Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression models. In comparison with adolescents from Burela (Galiza), those living in Central Catalonia had higher prevalence of diverse academic levels (adjusted PR = 3.92 (1.78-8.66)), tobacco consumption (adjusted PR = 2.41 (1.47-3.97)) and negative mood (adjusted PR = 5.97 (3.05-11.70)). Even when dealing with regions with similar socioeconomic characteristics and number of inhabitants, differences exist in terms of the socioeconomic level, tobacco consumption, mood and bullying, as reported by adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6381-6393, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415390

RESUMO

Synthetic dsRNA are valuable tools for reverse genetics research and virus silencing applications. Its synthesis can be performed both in vivo or in vitro. Whilst the latter presents the drawback of high production cost, the former has the advantage of being less expensive and suitable for scalable production. In general, dsRNAs are obtained in vivo from Escherichia coli heterologous systems that require the gene for the T7 RNA polymerase inducible by IPTG. The (ds)RNAs for gene of interest are then synthesized under the T7 promoter. In this work, we present a reliable vector system that includes the insulated promoter proD for the constitutive expression of dsRNA in E. coli that does not require any inducer and that renders elevated dsRNA yield. In tandem, the T7 and proD promoters render the highest dsRNA yield. The accumulation of dsRNA in this system entails a high metabolic cost for the cell. Bacterial RNA extractions that included dsRNAs homologous to the m5GFPer gene and derived from both the synthetic and constitutive promoters induce silencing of GFP expression in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c.Key points• A vector system that includes a constitutive promoter and a T7 promoter in tandem for maximizing dsRNA synthesis.• The metabolic cost for bacteria is maximum when the two promoters are operating simultaneously and results from the accumulation of dsRNA.• Bacterial RNA extractions from both the induced and constitutive systems that include a mGFP5er-derived dsRNA are capable of silencing the GFP expression in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c plants.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Escherichia coli/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Tabaco
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