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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4393, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879321

RESUMO

Rcr3 is a secreted protease of tomato that is targeted by fungal effector Avr2, a secreted protease inhibitor of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. The Avr2-Rcr3 complex is recognized by receptor-like protein Cf-2, triggering hypersensitive cell death (HR) and disease resistance. Avr2 also targets Rcr3 paralog Pip1, which is not required for Avr2 recognition but contributes to basal resistance. Thus, Rcr3 acts as a guarded decoy in this interaction, trapping the fungus into a recognition event. Here we show that Rcr3 evolved > 50 million years ago (Mya), whereas Cf-2 evolved <6Mya by co-opting the pre-existing Rcr3 in the Solanum genus. Ancient Rcr3 homologs present in tomato, potato, eggplants, pepper, petunia and tobacco can be inhibited by Avr2 with the exception of tobacco Rcr3. Four variant residues in Rcr3 promote Avr2 inhibition, but the Rcr3 that co-evolved with Cf-2 lacks three of these residues, indicating that the Rcr3 co-receptor is suboptimal for Avr2 binding. Pepper Rcr3 triggers HR with Cf-2 and Avr2 when engineered for enhanced inhibition by Avr2. Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) is a natural null mutant carrying Rcr3 and Pip1 alleles with deleterious frame-shift mutations. Resurrected NbRcr3 and NbPip1 alleles were active proteases and further NbRcr3 engineering facilitated Avr2 inhibition, uncoupled from HR signalling. The evolution of a receptor co-opting a conserved pathogen target contrasts with other indirect pathogen recognition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Solanum , Tabaco , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/metabolismo , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 16043-16054, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571919

RESUMO

In the indeterminate nodules of a model legume Medicago truncatula, ∼700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides with conserved cysteine signature are expressed. NCR peptides are highly diverse in sequence, and some of these cationic peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding their structural architecture, antifungal activity, and modes of action against plant fungal pathogens. Here, the three-dimensional NMR structure of the 36-amino acid NCR044 peptide was solved. This unique structure was largely disordered and highly dynamic with one four-residue α-helix and one three-residue antiparallel ß-sheet stabilized by two disulfide bonds. NCR044 peptide also exhibited potent fungicidal activity against multiple plant fungal pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea and three Fusarium spp. It inhibited germination in quiescent spores of B. cinerea In germlings, it breached the fungal plasma membrane and induced reactive oxygen species. It bound to multiple bioactive phosphoinositides in vitro. Time-lapse confocal and superresolution microscopy revealed strong fungal cell wall binding, penetration of the cell membrane at discrete foci, followed by gradual loss of turgor, subsequent accumulation in the cytoplasm, and elevated levels in nucleoli of germlings. Spray-applied NCR044 significantly reduced gray mold disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogen B. cinerea in tomato and tobacco plants, and postharvest products. Our work illustrates the antifungal activity of a structurally unique NCR peptide against plant fungal pathogens and paves the way for future development of this class of peptides as a spray-on fungistat/fungicide.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Simbiose , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Botrytis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Pichia/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479550

RESUMO

Promoters are very important for transcriptional regulation and gene expression, and have become invaluable tools for genetic engineering. Owing to the characteristics of obligate biotrophs, molecular research into obligate biotrophic fungi is seriously lagging behind, and very few of their endogenous promoters have been developed. In this study, a WY7 fragment was predicted in the genome of Oidium heveae Steinmann using PromoterScan. Its promoter function was verified with transient transformations (Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, ATMT) in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. The analysis of the transcription range showed that WY7 could regulate GUS expression in both monocots (Zea mays Linn and Oryza sativa L. spp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare) and dicots (N. tabacum and Hylocereus undulates Britt). The results of the quantitative detection showed that the GUS transient expression levels when regulated by WY7 was more than 11.7 times that of the CaMV 35S promoter in dicots (N. tabacum) and 5.13 times that of the ACT1 promoter in monocots (O. sativa). GUS staining was not detected in the T1 generation of the WY7-GUS transgenic N. tabacum. This showed that WY7 is an inducible promoter. The cis elements of WY7 were predicted using PlantCARE, and further experiments indicated that WY7 was a low temperature- and salt-inducible promoter. Soluble proteins produced by WY7-hpa1Xoo transgenic tobacco elicited hypersensitive responses (HR) in N. tabacum leaves. N. tabacum transformed with pBI121-WY7-hpa1Xoo exhibited enhanced resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The WY7 promoter has a lot of potential as a tool for plant genetic engineering. Further in-depth studies will help to better understand the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of O. heveae.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fungos/patogenicidade , Genoma Fúngico , Hevea/genética , Hevea/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/microbiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Transformação Genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia
4.
Gene ; 751: 144776, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428700

RESUMO

Rice false smut (RFS), caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is one of the most detrimental rice fungal diseases and pose a severe threat to rice production and quality. Effectors in U. virens often act as a set of essential virulence factors that play crucial roles in the interaction between host and the pathogen. Thus, the functions of each effector in U. virens need to be further explored. Here, a conserved small secreted hypersensitive response-inducing protein (hrip) was named UvHrip1. Functional validation was investigated to prove that UvHrip1 suppressed cell death symptom and ROS accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered by Burkholderia glumae. We performed transgenic technology to demonstrate UvHrip1 remarkably inhibited pathogen-associated molecular pattern-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis seedlings and plants, including the expression of defense-response genes. Furthermore, disease progression caused by the type III secretion system-defective mutant from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was strongly facilitated in transgenic Arabidopsis ectopic expressing UvHrip1. Our data demonstrated UvHrip1 suppresses plant innate immunity and promoting disease multiplication in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hypocreales/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Burkholderia , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
5.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(7): 972-981, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240066

RESUMO

RsgA plays an important role in maturation of 30S subunit in many bacteria that assists in the release of RbfA from the 30S subunit during a late stage of ribosome biosynthesis. Here, we genetically characterized functional roles of RsgA in Ralstonia solanacearum, hereafter designated RsRsgA. Deletion of R. solanacearum rsgA or rbfA resulted in distinct deficiency of 16S ribosomal RNA, significantly slowed growth in broth medium, and diminished growth in nutrient-limited medium, which are similar as phenotypes of rsgA mutants and rbfA mutants of Escherichia coli and other bacteria. Our gene-expression studies revealed that RsRsgA is important for expression of genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) (a pathogenicity determinant of R. solanacearum) both in vitro and in planta. Compared with the wild-type R. solanacearum strain, proliferation of the rsgA and rbfA mutants in tobacco leaves was significantly impaired, while they failed to migrate into tobacco xylem vessels from infiltrated leaves, and hence, these two mutants failed to cause any bacterial wilt disease in tobacco plants. It was further revealed that rsgA expression was highly enhanced under nutrient-limited conditions compared with that in broth medium and RsRsgA affects T3SS expression through the PrhN-PrhG-HrpB pathway. Moreover, expression of a subset of type III effectors was substantially impaired in the rsgA mutant, some of which are responsible for R. solanacearum GMI1000 elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves, while RsRsgA is not required for HR elicitation of GMI1000 in tobacco leaves. All these results provide novel insights into understanding various biological functions of RsgA proteins and complex regulation on the T3SS in R. solanacearum.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Virulência
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9613-9620, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284406

RESUMO

In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are intracellular immune sensors that recognize and eliminate a wide range of invading pathogens. NLR-mediated immunity is known to be modulated by environmental factors. However, how pathogen recognition by NLRs is influenced by environmental factors such as light remains unclear. Here, we show that the agronomically important NLR Rpi-vnt1.1 requires light to confer disease resistance against races of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans that secrete the effector protein AVRvnt1. The activation of Rpi-vnt1.1 requires a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein, glycerate 3-kinase (GLYK), implicated in energy production. The pathogen effector AVRvnt1 binds the full-length chloroplast-targeted GLYK isoform leading to activation of Rpi-vnt1.1. In the dark, Rpi-vnt1.1-mediated resistance is compromised because plants produce a shorter GLYK-lacking the intact chloroplast transit peptide-that is not bound by AVRvnt1. The transition between full-length and shorter plant GLYK transcripts is controlled by a light-dependent alternative promoter selection mechanism. In plants that lack Rpi-vnt1.1, the presence of AVRvnt1 reduces GLYK accumulation in chloroplasts counteracting GLYK contribution to basal immunity. Our findings revealed that pathogen manipulation of chloroplast functions has resulted in a light-dependent immune response.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/imunologia , Luz , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Animais , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Inativação Gênica , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas NLR/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176712

RESUMO

Fungi in the genus Cercospora cause crop losses world-wide on many crop species. The wide host range and success of these pathogens has been attributed to the production of a photoactivated toxin, cercosporin. We engineered tobacco for resistance to Cercospora nicotianae utilizing two strategies: 1) transformation with cercosporin autoresistance genes isolated from the fungus, and 2) transformation with constructs to silence the production of cercosporin during disease development. Three C. nicotianae cercosporin autoresistance genes were tested: ATR1 and CFP, encoding an ABC and an MFS transporter, respectively, and 71cR, which encodes a hypothetical protein. Resistance to the pathogen was identified in transgenic lines expressing ATR1 and 71cR, but not in lines transformed with CFP. Silencing of the CTB1 polyketide synthase and to a lesser extent the CTB8 pathway regulator in the cercosporin biosynthetic pathway also led to the recovery of resistant lines. All lines tested expressed the transgenes, and a direct correlation between the level of transgene expression and disease resistance was not identified in any line. Resistance was also not correlated with the degree of silencing in the CTB1 and CTB8 silenced lines. We conclude that expression of fungal cercosporin autoresistance genes as well as silencing of the cercosporin pathway are both effective strategies for engineering resistance to Cercospora diseases where cercosporin plays a critical role.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Engenharia Genética , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Tabaco/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perileno/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transformação Genética , Transgenes
8.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(7): 996-1006, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196398

RESUMO

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection can causes serious damage to tobacco crops. To explore the approach of preventing TMV infection of plants, two tobacco cultivars with different resistances to TMV were used to analyze transcription profiling before and after TMV infection. The involvement of biological pathways differed between the tolerant variety (Yuyan8) and the susceptible variety (NC89). In particular, the plant-virus interaction pathway was rapidly activated in Yuyan8, and specific resistance genes were enriched. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis detected large quantities of antiviral substances in the tolerant Yuyan8. A novel Nicotiana tabacum leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (NtLRR-RLK) gene was identified as being methylated and this was verified using bisulfite sequencing. Transient expression of TMV-green fluorescent protein in pRNAi-NtLRR-RLK transgenic plants confirmed that NtLRR-RLK was important for susceptibility to TMV. The specific protein interaction map generated from our study revealed that levels of BIP1, E3 ubiquitin ligase, and LRR-RLK were significantly elevated, and all were represented at node positions in the protein interaction map. The same expression tendency of these proteins was also found in pRNAi-NtLRR-RLK transgenic plants at 24 h after TMV inoculation. These data suggested that specific genes in the infection process can activate the immune signal cascade through different resistance genes, and the integration of signal pathways could produce resistance to the virus. These results contribute to the overall understanding of the molecular basis of plant resistance to TMV and in the long term could identify new strategies for prevention and control virus infection.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/patogenicidade , Tabaco/genética , Proteínas de Transporte , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/microbiologia
9.
Microbiol Res ; 235: 126427, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109688

RESUMO

Pectobacterium is a diverse genus of phytopathogenic species from soil and water that cause infection either to restricted or multiple plant hosts. Phylogenetic analysis and metabolic fingerprinting of large numbers of genomes have expanded classification of Pectobacterium members. Pectobacterium brasiliense sp. nov has been elevated to the species level having detached from P. carotovorum. Here we present two P. brasiliense strains BF20 and BF45 isolated in Mexico from Opuntia and tobacco, respectively, which cluster into two different groups in whole genome comparisons with other Pectobacterium. We found that BF20 and BF45 strains are phenotypically different as BF45 showed more severe and rapid symptoms in comparison to BF20 in the host models celery and broccoli. Both strains produced similar levels of the main autoinducers, but BF45 shows an additional low abundant autoinducer compared to strain BF20. The two strains had different levels of c-di-GMP, which regulates the transition from motile to sessile lifestyle. In contrast to BF45, BF20 had the highest levels of c-di-GMP, was more motile (swarming), non-flocculant and less proficient in biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production. Genomic comparisons revealed that differences in c-di-GMP accumulation and perhaps the associated phenotypes might be due to unique c-di-GMP metabolic genes in these two strains. Our results improve our understanding of the associations between phenotype and genotype and how this has shaped the physiology of Pectobacterium strains.


Assuntos
GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , Genoma Bacteriano , Pectobacterium/genética , Pectobacterium/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Genômica , México , Movimento , Opuntia/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Tabaco/microbiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005395

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation plays a vital role in the response of plants to pathogens. Although the microRNA397 family has been implicated in physiological processes as an important regulator, little is known about its function in the resistance of plants to pathogens. Here, Malus hupehensis miR397, which was induced by Botryosphaeria dothidea infection, was identified to directly target M. hupehensis Laccase7 (MhLAC7). The expression analysis of mature Mh-miR397 and MhLAC7 revealed their partly opposite expression patterns. The coexpression of Mh-miR397b in MhLAC7 overexpressing Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed the accumulation of exogenous MhLAC7 and endogenous NbLAC7, which led to decreased lignin content and reduced plant resistance to Botrytis cinerea. As reflected by increasing disease severity and pathogen growth, overexpression of miR397b in both the resistant M. hupehensis and susceptible M. domestica 'Gala' resulted in an increased sensitivity to B. dothidea infection, owing to reduced LAC7 expression and lignin content; however, the inhibition of miR397 had opposite effects. MicroRNA397 functions as a negative regulator in the resistance of Malus to B. dothidea by modulating the LAC7 expression and lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Malus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 167, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932662

RESUMO

Free calcium ions are common second messengers in plant cells. The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) is a special calcium sensor that plays an important role in plant growth and stress response. In this study, we obtained three CBL genes (GenBank accession nos. KX013374, KX013375, and KX013376) from sugarcane variety ROC22. The open reading frames of ScCBL genes ranged from 642 to 678 base pairs in length and encoded polypeptides from 213 to 225 amino acids in length. ScCBL2-1, ScCBL3-1, and ScCBL4 were all located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. ScCBL2-1 and ScCBL3-1 expression was up-regulated by treatment with salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium chloride (NaCl), or copper chloride (CuCl2). ScCBL4 expression was down-regulated in response to all of these stresses (abscisic acid (ABA), SA, MeJA, and NaCl) except for H2O2, calcium chloride (CaCl2), PEG, and CuCl2. Expression in Escherichia coli BL21 cells showed that ScCBLs can enhance tolerance to NaCl or copper stress. Overexpression of ScCBLs in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves promoted their resistance to infection with the tobacco pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from the present study facilitate further research regarding ScCBL genes, and in particular, their roles in the response to various stresses in sugarcane.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Calcineurina/genética , Secas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Saccharum/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(4): 641-655, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the plant transformation process, marker genes play a vital role in identifying transformed cells from non-transformed cells. However, once transgenic plants have been obtained, the presence of marker genes may provoke public concern about environmental or biosafety issues. In our previous study, a double T-DNA vector system has been developed to obtain marker-free transgenic plants, but the T-DNA left border (LB) and right border (RB) of the vector showed an RB-LB-RB-LB pattern and led to high linkage integration between the selectable marker gene (SMG) and the gene of interest (GOI). To improve this double T-DNA vector system, we inverted the first T-DNA direction such that a LB-RB-RB-LB pattern resulted to avoid transcriptional read-through at the LB and the subsequent linkage transfer of the SMG and GOI. RESULTS: We separately inserted the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene as the GOI and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene as the SMG in both optimized and original vectors and carried out Agrobacterium-mediated tobacco transformation. Statistical analysis revealed that the linkage frequency was 25.6% in T0 plants transformed with the optimized vector, which is a 42.1% decrease compared with that of the original vector (44.2%). The frequency of obtaining marker-free transgenic plants was 66.7% in T1 plants transformed with the optimized vector, showing a 33.4% increase compared with that of the original vector (50.0%). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the optimized double T-DNA binary vector system is a more effective, economical and time-saving approach for obtaining marker-free transgenic plants.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Canamicina Quinase/genética , Canamicina Quinase/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Transformação Genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928670

RESUMO

Light modulates almost every aspect of plant physiology, including plant-pathogen interactions. Among these, the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants to pathogens is characterized by a rapid and localized programmed cell death (PCD), which is critical to restrict the spread of pathogens from the infection site. The aim of this work was to study the role of light in the interaction between Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) and non-host tobacco plants. To this end, we examined the HR under different light treatments (white and red light) by using a range of well-established markers of PCD. The alterations found at the cellular level included: i) loss of membrane integrity and nuclei, ii) RuBisCo and DNA degradation, and iii) changes in nuclease profiles and accumulation of cysteine proteinases. Our results suggest that red light plays a role during the HR of tobacco plants to Pto DC3000 infection, delaying the PCD process.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Tabaco/efeitos da radiação
14.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(2): 309-316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758615

RESUMO

Plant immunity is regulated by a huge phytohormone regulation network. Ethylene(ET) and brassinosteroids (BRs) play critical roles in plant response to biotic stress; however, the relationship between BR and ET in plant immunity is unclear. We used chemical treatments, genetic approaches and inoculation experiments to investigate the relationship between ET and BR in plant defense against Pst DC3000 in Nicotiana benthamiana. Foliar applications of ET and BR enhanced plant resistance to Pst DC3000 inoculation, while treatment with brassinazole (BRZ, a specific BR biosynthesis inhibitor) eliminated the ET induced plant resistance to Pst DC3000. Silencing of DWARF 4(DWF4, a key BR biosynthetic gene), BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, aBR receptor) and BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALING KINASE 1 (BSK1, downstream of BRI1) also neutralised the ET-induced plant resistance to Pst DC3000. ET can induce callose deposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation to resistPst DC3000, BRZ-treated and gene-silenced were completely eliminate this response. Our results suggest BR is involved in ET-induced plant resistance, the involvement of ET in plant resistance is possibly by the induction of callose deposition and ROS accumulation, in a BR-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides , Resistência à Doença , Etilenos , Tabaco , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/microbiologia
15.
Microbiol Res ; 230: 126347, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586859

RESUMO

Biocontrol has emerged in recent years as an alternative to pesticides. Given the importance of environmental preservation using biocontrol, in this study two antagonistic bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi were isolated and evaluated. These bacterial strains, identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa NMA1017 and Burkholderia cenocepacia CACua-24, inhibited (70 to 80%) the development of two phytopathogens of economic importance: the fungus Rhizoctonia solani RhCh-14, isolated from chili pepper, and the oomycete Pythium ultimum PyFr-14, isolated from tomato. The spectrum was not limited to the previous pathogens, but also to other phytopathogenic fungus, some bacteria and other oomycetes. Fungi-bacteria microcultures observed with optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed hyphae disintegration and pores formation. The antifungal activity was found also in the supernatant, suggesting a diffusible compound is present. Innocuous tests on tobacco leaves, blood agar, bean seed germination and in Galleria mellonella larvae showed that strain NMA1017 has the potential to be a biocontrol agent. Greenhouse experiments with bean plants inoculated with P. polymyxa exhibited the efficacy to inhibit the growth of R. solani and P. ultimum. Furthermore, P. polymyxa NMA1017 showed plant growth promotion activities, such as siderophore synthesis and nitrogen fixation which can contribute to the crop development.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Burkholderia cenocepacia/química , Paenibacillus polymyxa/química , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Burkholderia cenocepacia/metabolismo , Paenibacillus polymyxa/metabolismo , Pythium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pythium/fisiologia , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/microbiologia
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(1): 70-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283085

RESUMO

The effects of elevated glutathione levels on defence responses to powdery mildew (Euoidium longipes) were investigated in a salicylic acid-deficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NahG) and wild-type cv. Xanthi plants, where salicylic acid (SA) contents are normal. Aqueous solutions of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its synthetic precursor R-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) were injected into leaves of tobacco plants 3 h before powdery mildew inoculation. SA-deficient NahG tobacco was hyper-susceptible to E. longipes, as judged by significantly more severe powdery mildew symptoms and enhanced pathogen accumulation. Strikingly, elevation of GSH levels in SA-deficient NahG tobacco restored susceptibility to E. longipes to the extent seen in wild-type plants (i.e. enhanced basal resistance). However, expression of the SA-mediated pathogenesis-related gene (NtPR-1a) did not increase significantly in GSH or OTC-pretreated and powdery mildew-inoculated NahG tobacco, suggesting that the induction of this PR gene may not be directly involved in the defence responses induced by GSH. Our results demonstrate that artificial elevation of glutathione content can significantly reduce susceptibility to powdery mildew in SA-deficient tobacco.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Glutationa , Ácido Salicílico , Tabaco , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Tabaco/química , Tabaco/microbiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795135

RESUMO

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants, we transiently expressed R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and evaluated their ability to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22. Out of the 61 effectors tested, 11 strongly and five moderately suppressed the flg22-triggered ROS burst. Among them, RipE1 shared homology with the Pseudomonas syringae cysteine protease effector HopX1. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified jasmonate-ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which are transcriptional repressors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants, as RipE1 interactors. RipE1 promoted the degradation of JAZ repressors and induced the expressions of JA-responsive genes in a cysteine-protease-activity-dependent manner. Simultaneously, RipE1, similarly to the previously identified JA-producing effector RipAL, decreased the expression level of the salicylic acid synthesis gene that is required for the defense responses against R. solanacearum. The undecuple mutant that lacks 11 effectors with a strong PTI suppression activity showed reduced growth of R. solanacearum in Nicotiana plants. These results indicate that R. solanacearum subverts plant PTI responses using multiple effectors and manipulates JA signaling at two different steps to promote infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Tabaco/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ralstonia solanacearum/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878275

RESUMO

The situation of drug resistance has become more complicated due to the scarcity of plant resistance genes, and overcoming this challenge is imperative. Isatis indigotica has been used for the treatment of wounds, viral infections, and inflammation for centuries. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in all classes of life ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. To identify AMPs, I. indigotica was explored using a novel, sensitive, and high-throughput Bacillus subtilis screening system. We found that IiR515 and IiR915 exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against a variety of bacterial (Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, Clavibacter michiganensis, and C. fangii) and fungal (Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea) pathogens. Scanning electron microscope and cytometric analysis revealed the possible mechanism of these peptides, which was to target and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. This model was also supported by membrane fluidity and electrical potential analyses. Hemolytic activity assays revealed that these peptides may act as a potential source for clinical medicine development. In conclusion, the plant-derived novel AMPs IiR515 and IiR915 are effective biocontrol agents and can be used as raw materials in the drug discovery field.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isatis/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/isolamento & purificação , Biotecnologia , Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Tabaco/microbiologia
19.
Planta ; 251(1): 13, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776675

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Phenolic oxidative coupling protein (Hyp-1) isolated from Hypericum perforatum L. was characterized as a defense gene involved in H. perforatum recalcitrance to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation Hypericum perforatum L. is a reservoir of high-value secondary metabolites of increasing interest to researchers and to the pharmaceutical industry. However, improving their production via genetic manipulation is a challenging task, as H. perforatum is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Here, phenolic oxidative coupling protein (Hyp-1), a pathogenesis-related (PR) class 10 family gene, was selected from a subtractive cDNA library from A. tumefaciens-treated H. perforatum suspension cells. The role of Hyp-1 in defense against A. tumefaciens was analyzed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Lactuca sativa overexpressing Hyp-1, and in Catharanthus roseus silenced for its homologous Hyp-1 gene, CrIPR. Results showed that Agrobacterium-mediated expression efficiency greatly decreased in Hyp-1 transgenic plants. However, silencing of CrIPR induced CrPR-5 expression and decreased expression efficiency of Agrobacterium. The expression of core genes involved in several defense pathways was also analyzed in Hyp-1 transgenic tobacco plants. Overexpression of Hyp-1 led to an ample down-regulation of key genes involved in auxin signaling, microRNA-based gene silencing, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, phenylpropanoid pathway and PRs. Moreover, Hyp-1 was detected in the nucleus, plasma membrane and the cytoplasm of epidermal cells by confocal microscopy. Overall, our findings suggest Hyp-1 modulates recalcitrance to A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation in H. perforatum.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/fisiologia , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Hypericum/metabolismo , Catharanthus/microbiologia , Hypericum/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717281

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with the non-culturable bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in the United States. The virulence mechanism of CaLas is largely unknown, partly because of the lack of a mutant library. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) were used for large-scale screening of the virulence factors of CaLas. Agroinfiltration of 60 putative virulence factors in N. benthamiana led to the identification of four candidates that caused severe symptoms in N. benthamiana, such as growth inhibition and cell death. CLIBASIA_05150 and CLIBASIA_04065C (C-terminal of CLIBASIA_04065) could cause cell death in the infiltrated leaves at five days post infiltration. Two low-molecular-weight candidates, CLIBASIA_00470 and CLIBASIA_04025, could inhibit plant growth. By converting start codon to stop codon or frameshifting, the four genes lost their harmful effects to N. benthamiana. It indicated that the four virulence factors functioned at the protein level rather than at the RNA level. The subcellular localization of the four candidates was determined by confocal laser scanning microscope. CLIBASIA_05150 located in the Golgi apparatus; CLIBASIA_04065 located in the mitochondrion; CLIBASIA_00470 and CLIBASIA_04025 distributed in cells as free GFP. The host proteins interacting with the four virulence factors were identified by yeast two-hybrid. The host proteins interacting with CLIBASIA_00470 and CLIBASIA_04025 were overlapping. Based on the phenotypes, the subcellular localization and the host proteins identified by yeast two-hybrid, CLIBASIA_00470 and CLIBASIA_04025, functioned redundantly. The hypothesis of CaLas virulence was proposed. CaLas affects citrus development and suppresses citrus disease resistance, comprehensively, in a complicated manner. Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation might play a vital role in CaLas virulence. Deep characterization of the interactions between the identified virulence factors and their prey will shed light on HLB. Eventually, it will help in developing HLB-resistant citrus and save the endangered citrus industry worldwide.


Assuntos
Rhizobiaceae/patogenicidade , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Tabaco/virologia
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