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1.
Microbiol Res ; 230: 126347, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586859

RESUMO

Biocontrol has emerged in recent years as an alternative to pesticides. Given the importance of environmental preservation using biocontrol, in this study two antagonistic bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi were isolated and evaluated. These bacterial strains, identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa NMA1017 and Burkholderia cenocepacia CACua-24, inhibited (70 to 80%) the development of two phytopathogens of economic importance: the fungus Rhizoctonia solani RhCh-14, isolated from chili pepper, and the oomycete Pythium ultimum PyFr-14, isolated from tomato. The spectrum was not limited to the previous pathogens, but also to other phytopathogenic fungus, some bacteria and other oomycetes. Fungi-bacteria microcultures observed with optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed hyphae disintegration and pores formation. The antifungal activity was found also in the supernatant, suggesting a diffusible compound is present. Innocuous tests on tobacco leaves, blood agar, bean seed germination and in Galleria mellonella larvae showed that strain NMA1017 has the potential to be a biocontrol agent. Greenhouse experiments with bean plants inoculated with P. polymyxa exhibited the efficacy to inhibit the growth of R. solani and P. ultimum. Furthermore, P. polymyxa NMA1017 showed plant growth promotion activities, such as siderophore synthesis and nitrogen fixation which can contribute to the crop development.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Burkholderia cenocepacia/química , Paenibacillus polymyxa/química , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Burkholderia cenocepacia/metabolismo , Paenibacillus polymyxa/metabolismo , Pythium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pythium/fisiologia , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/microbiologia
2.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(1): 70-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283085

RESUMO

The effects of elevated glutathione levels on defence responses to powdery mildew (Euoidium longipes) were investigated in a salicylic acid-deficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NahG) and wild-type cv. Xanthi plants, where salicylic acid (SA) contents are normal. Aqueous solutions of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its synthetic precursor R-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) were injected into leaves of tobacco plants 3 h before powdery mildew inoculation. SA-deficient NahG tobacco was hyper-susceptible to E. longipes, as judged by significantly more severe powdery mildew symptoms and enhanced pathogen accumulation. Strikingly, elevation of GSH levels in SA-deficient NahG tobacco restored susceptibility to E. longipes to the extent seen in wild-type plants (i.e. enhanced basal resistance). However, expression of the SA-mediated pathogenesis-related gene (NtPR-1a) did not increase significantly in GSH or OTC-pretreated and powdery mildew-inoculated NahG tobacco, suggesting that the induction of this PR gene may not be directly involved in the defence responses induced by GSH. Our results demonstrate that artificial elevation of glutathione content can significantly reduce susceptibility to powdery mildew in SA-deficient tobacco.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Glutationa , Ácido Salicílico , Tabaco , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Tabaco/química , Tabaco/microbiologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 11994-12001, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618578

RESUMO

Bioactivity-guided isolation of the endophytic fungus Fusarium sambucinum TE-6L residing in Nicotiana tabacum L. led to the discovery of two new angularly prenylated indole alkaloids (PIAs) with pyrano[2,3-g]indole moieties, amoenamide C (1) and sclerotiamide B (2), and four known biosynthetic congeners (3-6). Their structures were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 containing the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane core and indoxyl unit is rarely reported. All the compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. Notably, compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory effects against three human- and one plant-pathogenic bacterium, and seven plant-pathogenic fungi. Compounds 2-4 also exhibited remarkable larvicidal activity against first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera with mortality rates of 70.2%, 83.2%, and 70.5%, respectively. Further toxicity tests on zebrafish embryos were performed to evaluate the potential toxicity of PIAs. Of significance was that compound 3 in particular exhibited the highest activities but the lowest effects on the hatching of embryos among all the compounds. This study provides a basis for understanding developmental toxicity of PIAs exposure to zebrafish embryos, and also indicates the potential environmental risks of other natural compounds exposure in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Endófitos/química , Fusarium/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Inseticidas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540359

RESUMO

Effector proteins play an important role in the virulence of plant pathogens such as phytoplasma, which are the causative agents of hundreds of different plant diseases. The plant hosts comprise economically relevant crops such as apples (Malus × domestica), which can be infected by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (P. mali), a highly genetically dynamic plant pathogen. As the result of the genetic and functional analyses in this study, a new putative P. mali effector protein was revealed. The so-called "Protein in Malus Expressed 2" (PME2), which is expressed in apples during P. mali infection but not in the insect vector, shows regional genetic differences. In a heterologous expression assay using Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana occidentalis mesophyll protoplasts, translocation of both PME2 variants in the cell nucleus was observed. Overexpression of the effector protein affected cell integrity in Nicotiana spp. protoplasts, indicating a potential role of this protein in pathogenic virulence. Interestingly, the two genetic variants of PME2 differ regarding their potential to manipulate cell integrity. However, the exact function of PME2 during disease manifestation and symptom development remains to be further elucidated. Aside from the first description of the function of a novel effector of P. mali, the results of this study underline the necessity for a more comprehensive description and understanding of the genetic diversity of P. mali as an indispensable basis for a functional understanding of apple proliferation disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Phytoplasma/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Malus/citologia , Phytoplasma/química , Phytoplasma/genética , Phytoplasma/patogenicidade , Protoplastos/citologia , Protoplastos/microbiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tabaco/citologia , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 360, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tilletia horrida is a basidiomycete fungus that causes rice kernel smut, one of the most important rice diseases in hybrid rice growing areas worldwide. However, little is known about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. We previously reported the genome of T. horrida, and 597 genes that encoded secreted proteins were annotated. Among these were some important effector genes related to pathogenicity. RESULTS: A secretome analysis suggested that five Tilletia fungi shared more gene families than were found in other smuts, and there was high conservation between them. Furthermore, we screened 597 secreted proteins from the T. horrida genome, some of which induced expression in host-pathogen interaction processes. Through transient expression, we demonstrated that two putative effectors could induce necrosis phenotypes in Nicotiana benthamiana. These two encoded genes were up-regulated during early infection, and the encoded proteins were confirmed to be secreted using a yeast secretion system. For the putative effector gene smut_5844, a signal peptide was required to induce non-host cell death, whereas ribonuclease catalytic active sites were required for smut_2965. Moreover, both putative effectors could induce an immune response in N. benthamiana leaves. Interestingly, one of the identified potential host interactors of smut_5844 was laccase-10 protein (OsLAC10), which has been predicted to be involved in plant lignification and iron metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study identified two secreted proteins in T. horrida that induce cell death or are involved in defense machinery in non-host plants. This research provides a useful foundation for understanding the interaction between rice and T. horrida.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morte Celular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/fisiologia
6.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(12): 1649-1664, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425003

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides play a pivotal role in the innate immunity of plants. Defensins are cysteine-rich antifungal peptides with multiple modes of action. A novel Oleaceae-specific defensin gene family has been discovered in the genome sequences of wild and cultivated species of a perennial olive tree, Olea europaea. OefDef1.1, a member of this defensin family, potently inhibits the in-vitro growth of ascomycete fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and three Fusarium spp. OefDef1.1 rapidly permeabilizes the plasma membrane of the conidial and germling cells of B. cinerea. Interestingly, it induces reactive oxygen species and translocates to the cytoplasm only in the germlings but not in the conidia. In medium containing a high concentration of Na1+, antifungal activity of OefDef1.1 is significantly reduced. Surprisingly, a chimeric OefDef1.1 peptide containing the γ-core motif of a Medicago truncatula defensin, MtDef4, displays Na1+-tolerant antifungal activity. In a phospholipid-protein overlay assay, the chimeric peptide exhibits stronger binding to its phosphoinositide partners than OefDef1.1 and is also more potent in inhibiting gray mold disease on the surface of Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce leaves than OefDef1.1. Significant differences are observed among the four ascomycete pathogens in their responses to OefDef1.1 in growth medium with or without the elevated concentration of Na1+. The varied responses of closely related ascomycete pathogens to this defensin have implications for engineering disease resistance in plants.


Assuntos
Defensinas , Fusarium , Olea , Defensinas/metabolismo , Defensinas/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/microbiologia , Olea/imunologia , Olea/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 149-162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267255

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here we describe that the regulation of MdWRKY31 on MdHIR4 in transcription and translation levels associated with disease in apple. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a main factor in apple (Malus domestica) production due to its function in disease resistance. WRKY transcription factors play a vital role in response to stress. An RNA-seq analysis was conducted with 'Royal Gala' seedlings treated with SA to identify the WRKY regulatory mechanism of disease resistance in apple. The analysis indicated that MdWRKY31 was induced. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of MdWRKY31 was induced by SA and flg22. Ectopic expression of MdWRKY31 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased the resistance to flg22 and Pseudomonas syringae tomato (Pst DC3000). A yeast two-hybrid screen was conducted to further analyze the function of MdWRKY31. As a result, hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) protein MdHIR4 interacted with MdWRKY31. Biomolecular fluorescence complementation, yeast two-hybrid, and pull-down assays demonstrated the interaction. In our previous study, MdHIR4 conferred decreased resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea). A viral vector-based transformation assay indicated that MdWRKY31 evaluated the transcription of SA-related genes, including MdPR1, MdPR5, and MdNPR1 in an MdHIR4-dependent way. A GUS analysis demonstrated that the w-box, particularly w-box2, of the MdHIR4 promoter played a major role in the responses to SA and B. dothidea. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, yeast one-hybrid assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR demonstrated that MdWRKY31 directly bound to the w-box2 motif in the MdHIR4 promoter. GUS staining activity and a protein intensity analysis further showed that MdWRKY31 repressed MdHIR4 expression. Taken together, our findings reveal that MdWRKY31 regulated plant resistance to B. dothidea through the SA signaling pathway by interacting with MdHIR4.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Malus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Reporter , Malus/imunologia , Malus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/imunologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315176

RESUMO

In this study we cloned a chitinase gene (SmchiC), from Serratia marcescens isolated from the corpse of a Diatraea magnifactella lepidopteran, which is an important sugarcane pest. The chitinase gene SmchiC amplified from the S. marcescens genome was cloned into the transformation vector p2X35SChiC and used to transform tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Petit Havana SR1). The resistance of these transgenic plants to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and to the pest Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated: both the activity of chitinase as well as the resistance against B. cinerea and S. frugiperda was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to the wild-type.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Quitinases/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Serratia marcescens/genética , Tabaco/genética , Transgenes , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Quitinases/metabolismo , Spodoptera/patogenicidade , Tabaco/microbiologia , Tabaco/parasitologia
9.
Biotechnol J ; 14(10): e1900113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218827

RESUMO

Large-scale automated transient protein expression in plants requires the synchronization of cultivation and bacterial fermentation, especially if more than one bacterial strain. Therefore, a ready-to-use approach that decouples bacterial fermentation and infiltration is developed. It is found that bacterial cultures can easily be reconstituted in infiltration medium at a user-defined time, optical density, and quantity. This allows the process flow to be staggered, avoiding bottlenecks in process capacity and labor. Using the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, as a model product, the ready-to-use preparations achieved the same yields in infiltrated plant biomass as Agrobacterium tumefaciens derived from regular fermentations. It is possible to store the ready-to-use stocks at -20 °C and -80 °C for more than two months without loss of activity. Using a consolidated cost model for the current fermentation process, it is found that the ready-to-use strategy can reduce operational costs by 20-95% and investment costs by up to 75%, which would otherwise offset the economic advantages of plants over mammalian expression systems during upstream production. Furthermore, the staggered cultivation of plants and bacteria reduces the likelihood of batch failure and thus increases the robustness and flexibility of transient expression for the production of recombinant proteins in plants.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Criopreservação , Fermentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 95-112, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236845

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Sorghum glycine rich proline rich protein (SbGPRP1) exhibit antimicrobial properties and play a crucial role during biotic stress condition. Several proteins in plants build up the innate immune response system in plants which get triggered during the occurrence of biotic stress. Here we report the functional characterization of a glycine-rich proline-rich protein (SbGPRP1) from Sorghum which was previously demonstrated to be involved in abiotic stresses. Expression studies carried out with SbGPRP1 showed induced expression upon application of phytohormones like salicylic acid which might be the key in fine-tuning the expression level. Upon challenging the Sorghum plants with a compatible pathogen the SbGprp1 transcript was found to be upregulated. SbGPRP1 encodes a 197 amino acid polypeptide which was bacterially-expressed and purified for in vitro assays. Gram-positive bacteria like Bacillus and phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians showed inhibited growth in the presence of the protein. The NPN assay, electrolytic leakage and SEM analysis showed membrane damage in bacterial cells. Ectopic expression of SbGPRP1 in tobacco plants led to enhanced tolerance towards infection caused by R. fascians. Though the N-terminal part of the protein showed disorderness the C-terminal end was quite capable of forming several α-helices which was correlated with CD spectroscopic analysis. Here, we have tried to determine the structural model for the protein and predicted the association of antimicrobial activity with the C-terminal region of the protein.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sorghum/genética , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Glicina/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorghum/imunologia , Sorghum/metabolismo , Sorghum/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/imunologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(7): 1546-1555, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246411

RESUMO

Plant pathogenic bacteria possess sophisticated mechanisms to detect the presence of host plants by sensing host-derived compounds. Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt on solanaceous plants, employs quorum sensing to control the production of the secondary metabolite ralfuranones/ralstonins, which have been suggested to be involved in virulence. Here, we report that d-galactose and d-glucose, plant sugars, activate the production of ralfuranones/ralstonins in R. solanacearum. As a result, two new derivatives, ralfuranone M (1) and ralstonin C (2), were found in the culture extracts, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Ralstonin C (2) is a cyclic lipopeptide containing a unique fatty acid, (2S,3S,Z)-3-amino-2-hydroxyicos-13-enoic acid, whereas ralfuranone M (1) has a common aryl-furanone structure with other ralfuranones. d-Galactose and d-glucose activated the expression of the biosynthetic ralfuranone/ralstonin genes and in part became the biosynthetic source of ralfuranones/ralstonins. Ralfuranones and ralstonins were detected from the xylem fluid of the infected tomato plants, and their production-deficient mutants exhibited reduced virulence on tomato and tobacco plants. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of ralfuranone/ralstonin production by host sugars functions in R. solanacearum virulence.


Assuntos
Galactose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Solanaceae/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
12.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174300

RESUMO

In this study, two phenol compounds, magnolol and honokiol, were extracted from Magnolia officinalis and identified by LC-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The magnolol and honokiol were shown to be effective against seven pathogenic fungi, including Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl, Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom, Alternaria dauci f.sp. solani, Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld, Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl., Valsa mali Miyabe & G. Yamada, and Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Kühn, with growth inhibition of more than 57%. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying the potential antifungal activity of magnolol and honokiol. The results showed that they inhibited the growth of A. alternata in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, magnolol and honokiol treatment resulted in distorted mycelia and increased the cell membrane permeability of A. alternata, as determined by conductivity measurements. These results suggest that magnolol and honokiol are potential antifungal agents for application against plant fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Magnolia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Alternaria/patogenicidade , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Magnolia/química , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/microbiologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 284, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinacea-endophyte interaction might affect plant secondary metabolites content and influence bacterial colonization specificity and plant growth, but the underlying mechanisms need deepening. An in vitro model, in which E. purpurea axenic plants as host species and E. angustifolia and Nicotiana tabacum as non-host species inoculated with single endophytes isolated from stem/leaf, root and rhizospheric soil, were used to investigate bacterial colonization. RESULTS: Colonization analysis showed that bacteria tended to reach tissues from which they were originally isolated (tissue-specificity) in host plants but not in non-host ones (species-specificity). Primary root elongation inhibition as well as the promotion of the growth of E. purpurea and E. angustifolia plants were observed and related to endophyte-produced indole-3-Acetic Acid. Bacteria-secreted substances affected plant physiology probably interacting with plant regulators. Plant metabolites played an important role in controlling the endophyte growth. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed in vitro infection model could be, generally used to identify novel bioactive compounds and/or to select specific endophytes contributing to the host metabolism properties.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Echinacea/microbiologia , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Echinacea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/microbiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2292, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123263

RESUMO

The wheat Pm3 resistance gene against the powdery mildew pathogen occurs as an allelic series encoding functionally different immune receptors which induce resistance upon recognition of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from the pathogen. Here, we describe the identification of five effector proteins from the mildew pathogens of wheat, rye, and the wild grass Dactylis glomerata, specifically recognized by the PM3B, PM3C and PM3D receptors. Together with the earlier identified AVRPM3A2/F2, the recognized AVRs of PM3B/C, (AVRPM3B2/C2), and PM3D (AVRPM3D3) belong to a large group of proteins with low sequence homology but predicted structural similarities. AvrPm3b2/c2 and AvrPm3d3 are conserved in all tested isolates of wheat and rye mildew, and non-host infection assays demonstrate that Pm3b, Pm3c, and Pm3d are also restricting the growth of rye mildew on wheat. Furthermore, divergent AVR homologues from non-adapted rye and Dactylis mildews are recognized by PM3B, PM3C, or PM3D, demonstrating their involvement in host specificity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Dactylis/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genoma Fúngico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Secale/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(14): 5763-5780, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127355

RESUMO

The expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens emrAB operon, which encodes a membrane fusion protein and an inner membrane protein, is inducible by various flavonoids, including apigenin, genistein, luteolin, naringenin, and quercetin. Among these flavonoids, quercetin is the best inducer, followed by genistein. The emrR gene is divergently transcribed from the emrAB operon. The EmrR protein, which belongs to the TetR transcriptional regulator family, negatively regulates the expression of emrAB and of itself. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting showed that EmrR binds directly at two EmrR-binding sites in the emrR-emrAB intergenic region and that quercetin inhibits the DNA-binding activity of EmrR. Promoter-lacZ fusion analyses and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends were performed to map the emrR and emrAB promoters. Compared with the wild-type strain, the emrA mutant strain exhibited similar levels of resistance to the tested antibiotics. In contrast, disruption of emrR conferred protection against nalidixic acid and novobiocin, but it rendered A. tumefaciens sensitive to tetracycline and erythromycin. The emrR mutation also destabilized the outer membrane of A. tumefaciens, resulting in increased sensitivity to SDS and low pH. These findings demonstrate that proper regulation of emrR-emrAB is required for free-living A. tumefaciens to survive in deleterious environments in which toxic compounds are present. Nonetheless, A. tumefaciens strains that lack emrR or emrA still have the ability to cause tumors when infecting Nicotiana benthamiana plants.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Novobiocina/farmacologia , Óperon , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(7): 2082-2088, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099732

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain X7XT, was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample of Nicotiana tabacum L. collected from a tobacco factory located in Kunming, south-western China. The cells showed oxidase-positive and catalase-positive reactions. Growth occurred at 20-40 °C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c). The cellular polar lipids contained phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified glycolipids, four unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain X7XT should be affiliated to the genus Flavisolibacter. Results from further analysis showed that strain X7XT had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavisolibacter metallilatus TX0661T (96.4 %) and 'Flavisolibacter swuensis' SR2-4-2T (96.4 %), followed by other species of the genus Flavisolibacter. The polyphasic taxonomic characteristics indicated that strain X7XT represents a novel species of the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibacternicotianae sp. nov. (type strain X7XT=KCTC 62326T=CGMCC 16451T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Tabaco/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(9): 1229-1242, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012804

RESUMO

The plasma membrane (PM) is at the interface of plant-pathogen interactions and, thus, many bacterial type-III effector (T3E) proteins target membrane-associated processes to interfere with immunity. The Pseudomonas syringae T3E HopZ1a is a host cell PM-localized effector protein that has several immunity-associated host targets but also activates effector-triggered immunity in resistant backgrounds. Although HopZ1a has been shown to interfere with early defense signaling at the PM, no dedicated PM-associated HopZ1a target protein has been identified until now. Here, we show that HopZ1a interacts with the PM-associated remorin protein NbREM4 from Nicotiana benthamiana in several independent assays. NbREM4 relocalizes to membrane nanodomains after treatment with the bacterial elicitor flg22 and transient overexpression of NbREM4 in N. benthamiana induces the expression of a subset of defense-related genes. We can further show that NbREM4 interacts with the immune-related receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase avrPphB-susceptible 1 (PBS1) and is phosphorylated by PBS1 on several residues in vitro. Thus, we conclude that NbREM4 is associated with early defense signaling at the PM. The possible relevance of the HopZ1a-NbREM4 interaction for HopZ1a virulence and avirulence functions is discussed.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteínas de Transporte , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fosfoproteínas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Pseudomonas syringae , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Tabaco/enzimologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(13)2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003986

RESUMO

Bacterial wilt disease is a devastating disease of crops, which leads to huge economic loss worldwide. It is hypothesized that the occurrence of bacterial wilt may be related to changes in soil chemical properties and microbial interactions. In this study, we compared the soil chemical properties and microbial network structures of a healthy soil (HS) and a bacterial wilt-susceptible soil (BWS). The contents of available nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus and the soil pH in the BWS were significantly lower than those in the HS. BWS showed nutrient deficiency and acidification in comparison with the HS. The structure and composition of the BWS network were quite different from those of the HS network. The BWS network had fewer modules and edges and lower connectivity than the HS network. The HS network contained more interacting species, more key microorganisms, and better high-order organization and thus was more complex and stable than the BWS network. Most nodes and module memberships were unshared by the two networks, while the ones that were shared showed different topological roles. Some generalists in the HS network became specialists in the BWS network, indicating that the topological roles of microbes were changed and key microorganisms were shifted in the BWS. In summary, the composition and structure of the microbial network of the BWS were different from that of the HS. Many microbial network connections were missing in the BWS, which most likely provided conditions leading to higher rates of bacterial wilt disease.IMPORTANCE Bacterial wilt disease is caused by the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and is a widespread devastating soilborne disease leading to huge economic losses worldwide. The soil microbial community is crucial to the capacity of soils to suppress soilborne diseases through complex interactions. Network analysis can effectively explore these complex interactions. In this study, we used a random matrix theory (RMT)-based network approach to investigate the changes in microbial network and associated microbial interactions in a bacterial wilt-susceptible soil (BWS) in comparison to a healthy soil (HS). We found that the structure and composition of the microbial network in BWSs were quite different from those of the HS. The BWS network had fewer modules, edges, and key microorganisms and lower connectivity than the HS network. In the BWSs, apparently the topological role of microbes was changed and key microorganisms were shifted to specialists.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Consórcios Microbianos , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939810

RESUMO

Lysin-motif receptor-like kinase PsK1 is involved in symbiosis initiation and the maintenance of infection thread (IT) growth and bacterial release in pea. We verified PsK1 specificity in relation to the Nod factor structure using k1 and rhizobial mutants. Inoculation with nodO and nodE nodO mutants significantly reduced root hair deformations, curling, and the number of ITs in k1-1 and k1-2 mutants. These results indicated that PsK1 function may depend on Nod factor structures. PsK1 with replacement in kinase domain and PsSYM10 co-production in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves did not induce a hypersensitive response (HR) because of the impossibility of signal transduction into the cell. Replacement of P169S in LysM3 domain of PsK1 disturbed the extracellular domain (ECD) interaction with PsSYM10's ECD in Y2H system and reduced HR during the co-production of full-length PsK1 and PsSYM0 in N. benthamiana. Lastly, we explored the role of PsK1 in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi; no significant differences between wild-type plants and k1 mutants were found, suggesting a specific role of PsK1 in legume⁻rhizobial symbiosis. However, increased sensitivity to a highly aggressive Fusarium culmorum strain was found in k1 mutants compared with the wild type, which requires the further study of the role of PsK1 in immune response regulation.


Assuntos
Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Ervilhas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Simbiose , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Micorrizas/genética , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases/química , Rhizobium/patogenicidade , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(7): 1514-1524, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989198

RESUMO

Pathogenic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum form invasive hyphae; the hyphae are surrounded by an extra-invasive hyphal membrane (EIHM), which is continuous with the plant plasma membrane. Although the EIHM plays a crucial role as the interface between plant and fungal cells, its precise function during Colletotrichum infection remains elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of phosphoinositides (PIs) has a crucial role in Colletotrichum infection. We observed the localization of PIs in Arabidopsis thaliana cells infected by A. thaliana-adapted Colletotrichum higginsianum (Ch), and found that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] was extremely enriched in the EIHM during Ch infection. We also found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-5 kinase (PIP5K), which catalyzes production of PI(4,5)P2, also accumulated at the EIHM. The overexpression of PIP5K3 in A. thaliana increased hyphal invasion by Ch. An exocytic factor, EXO84b, was targeted to the EIHM during Ch infection, although endocytic factors such as CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAIN 2 and FLOTILLIN 1 did not. Intriguingly, the interfacial membranes between A. thaliana and powdery mildew- or downy mildew-causing pathogens did not accumulate PI(4,5)P2. These results suggest that Ch could modify the PI(4,5)P2 levels in the EIHM to increase the exocytic membrane/protein supply of the EIHM for successful infection. Our results also suggest that PI(4,5)P2 biosynthesis is a promising target for improved defense against Colletotrichum infection.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Colletotrichum , Hifas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
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