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3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(3): 94-97, sept. 2019. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048277

RESUMO

Las fístulas arteriovenosas durales medulares son malformaciones vasculares adquiridas que constituyen una causa muy infrecuente de mielopatía progresiva (5-10 casos por millón de habitantes por año). La resonancia magnética es el estudio por imágenes de elección para su diagnóstico. A continuación presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 89 años, que consultó a la guardia de nuestra institución por un cuadro de paraparesia moderada asociada a parestesias e incontinencia urinaria posterior a esfuerzo físico. Se le diagnosticó una fístula arteriovenosa dural medular como causante de su cuadro. (AU)


Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are acquired spinal vascular malformations and a rare cause of progressive myelopathy (5-10 new cases per year and per 1 million inhabitants). Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnosis modality of choice. We present a case of a 89-year-old female patient who consulted the emergency department of our institution because of paraparesis and lower extremities paresthesias associated with urinary incontinence post physical effort. With the final diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, as a cause of the clinical symptoms. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Dura-Máter/anormalidades , Parestesia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tabagismo/complicações , Incontinência Urinária , Fístula Arteriovenosa/etiologia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Paraparesia , Incontinência Fecal , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipestesia , Disfunção Erétil , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
4.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(3): e20180314, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271604

RESUMO

Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Tabagismo/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 261-268, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002231

RESUMO

Smoking is the most important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic events; alcohol consumption, on the other hand, appears to have a protective role. Objective: Assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the severity of coronary artery injuries in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed in Santa Catarina. Variables were evaluated using the Chi-squared T/Fisher's exact test, Kendall's correlation coefficient, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Between August 2016 to June 2017, 226 patients were evaluated with first episode of AMI. There was a difference in sex distribution, showing that 59.7% of men and 85.4% of women were not alcoholic (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of non-hypertensive patients who consumed alcohol than hypertensive ones (40.7% vs. 24.4% and p = 0.010) and patients without diabetes who had drinking habits than those diabetic (36.4% vs. 12.0% and p = 0.001). There was also a higher prevalence of non-diabetic patients who smoked than diabetic ones (38.1% vs. 22.0% and p = 0.035). A weak and negative correlation was found between the number of cigarettes per day and the pack-year with the TIMI frame count (r = -0.174 and p = 0.041 and r = -0.192 and p = 0.027, respectively). The other associations did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: The study showed that the number of cigarettes consumed per day and the pack-year is related to a smaller TIMI frame count, i.e., to a better coronary flow, which may be related to the Smoker's Paradox. There was no correlation between the beverage type and quantity with the SYNTAX score, Ejection fraction and TIMI frame count


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tabagismo/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Volume Sistólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitais Públicos
7.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 61(3): 215-224, mayo-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185293

RESUMO

Objetivo: Revisar los hallazgos de imagen de las diferentes histiocitosis pulmonares. En concreto, además de la conocida histiocitosis de células de Langerhans relacionada con el tabaco y su posible aparición sin antecedentes de este, la enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman y la enfermedad de Erdheim-Chester. También se revisa su etiopatogenia, histología, clínica y tratamiento. Conclusión: La histiocitosis de células de Langerhans, la enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman y la enfermedad de Erdheim-Chester son un conjunto de patologías de causa idiopática en las que la proliferación e infiltración de histiocitos es el hallazgo anatomopatológico diagnóstico. La histiocitosis de células de Langerhans se manifiesta en forma de nódulos y quistes que respetan los ángulos costofrénicos, característicamente en pacientes fumadores. Aunque es poco frecuente, debe pensarse en esta entidad en pacientes no fumadores, en tratamiento quimio y radioterapéutico, con nódulos cavitados de nueva aparición e incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial junto con la enfermedad metastásica y la infección oportunista. La enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman y la enfermedad de Erdheim-Chester se presentan con hallazgos torácicos más inespecíficos, como adenopatías, engrosamiento intersticial y derrame pleural. En la enfermedad de Erdheim-Chester, las características manifestaciones extratorácicas suelen ser claves en el diagnóstico


Objective: To review the imaging findings for the different types of pulmonary histiocytosis. In particular, in addition to the well-known pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis related to smoking and its possible appearance in nonsmokers, we focus on non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Rosai-Dorfman disease and Erdheim-Chester disease. We also review the etiopathogenesis, histology, clinical presentation, and treatment of pulmonary histiocytosis. Conclusion: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and Erdheim-Chester disease are idiopathic diseases in which the proliferation and infiltration of histiocytes is the histologic finding that confirms the diagnosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis manifests as nodules and cysts that spare the costophrenic angles; it typically appears in smokers. Although it is uncommon in nonsmokers, Langerhans cell histiocytosis should also be considered in nonsmokers treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in whom cavitated nodules appear and should be included in the differential diagnosis together with metastatic disease and opportunistic infections. Rosai-Dorfman disease and Erdheim-Chester disease present with less specific thoracic findings such as adenopathies, interstitial thickening, and pleural effusion. In Erdheim-Chester disease, the characteristic extrathoracic manifestations are usually key for the diagnosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Histiocitose/classificação , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Histiocitose Sinusal/diagnóstico , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tabagismo/complicações
8.
Rev. patol. respir ; 22(2): 43-46, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185767

RESUMO

Introducción. El riesgo de complicaciones postoperatorias es menor en aquellos pacientes que se abstiene de fumar en las 6 semanas previas a la intervención, esto podría deberse a diferencias en el perfil inflamatorio del pulmón. El objetivo de este estudio es medir las concentración de biomarcadores inflamatorios en el lavado broncoalveolar de dos cohortes de pacientes sometidos a cirugía torácica, una no fumadora o exfumadora con más de 6 semanas de abstinencia y otra de fumadores activos o con menos de 6 semanas de abstinencia. Métodos. Este estudio transversal de 226 pacientes mayores de 18 años, de ambos sexos elegibles, pudieron ser analizados 174 (55 fumadores y 119 no fumadores en las 6 semanas previas a la intervención) sometidos a cirugía torácica. Se determinaron en el lavado broncoalveolar previo a la cirugía del pulmón no intervenido IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL10, IL-12, MCP-1 y TNF-alfa. Resultados. El grupo de fumadores resultó tener valores significativamente (p < 0,05) más elevados de IL-1: 136 (27) pg/ml vs 120 (21) pg/ml, IL-2: 2,22 (0,39) pg/ml vs 2,09 (0,4) pg/ml, IL-4: 0,64 (0,22) pg/ml vs 0,40 (0,06) pg/ml, IL-6: 6,6 (0,9) pg/ml vs 6,2 (0,7) pg/ml y MCP-1: 382 (28) pg/ml vs 352 (50) pg/ml, también mostró una espirometría más obstructiva: FEV1/FVC: 68 (5)% vs 75 (12)%, así como menor DLCO: 82 (22)% vs 96 (21)%. Conclusiones. Los pacientes fumadores en las 6 semanas previas a la cirugía tienen un estado inflamatorio pulmonar aumentado con respecto a los que no fumaron durante ese periodo


Introduction. The risk of postoperative complications is lower in those who abstain from smoking in the 6 weeks prior to the intervention; this could be due to differences in the lung inflammatory profile. The objective of this study is to measure the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in the broncholveolar lavage of two cohorts of patients undergoing thoracic surgery: One consisting of smokers or non-smokers with more than 6 weeks of abstinence and other of smokers or ex-smokers with less than 6 weeks of abstinence. Methods. In this cross-sectional study from 226 eligible patients of sexes, 18 years or older, undergoing thoracic surgery, 174 could be analysed (55 smokers and 119 non-smokers in the 6 weeks prior to the intervention). IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL10, IL-12, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage prior to surgery. Results. the Group of smokers had values significantly (p < 0.05) higher of IL-1: 136 (27) pg/ml vs 120 (21) pg/ml, IL-2: 2.22 (0.39) pg/ml vs 2.09 (0.4) pg/ml, IL-4: 0.64 (0.22) pg/ml vs 0.40 (0.06) pg/ml, IL-6: 6.6 pg/ml (0.9) vs. 6.2 pg/ml (0.7) and MCP-1: 382 (28) pg/ml vs 352 (50) pg/ml. They also were more obstructive: FEV1/FVC: 68 (5)% vs. 75 (12)%, as well as they had lower DLCO: 82 (22)% vs 96 (21)%. Conclusions. Smokers in the 6 weeks prior to surgery have an increased lung inflammatory status with respect to those who did not smoke during this period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Tabagismo/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(6): 312-318, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181766

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los determinantes en fases iniciales de la historia natural de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) son poco conocidos. Entenderlos mejor es de capital importancia para poder diseñar intervenciones dirigidas a modificar su pronóstico. Los principales objetivos del estudio son: a) caracterizar a una población de adultos jóvenes con EPOC de forma multidimensional; b) comparar estos pacientes con sujetos fumadores con función pulmonar normal; y c) establecer una cohorte de adultos jóvenes con y sin EPOC, que pueda ser seguida a largo plazo para conocer mejor la historia natural de la enfermedad. Participantes y método: EARLY COPD es un estudio multicéntrico de casos y controles que permitirá establecer una cohorte de sujetos para su seguimiento posterior. Se seleccionaron 311 (101 casos y 210 controles) participantes reclutados en una treintena de centros de atención primaria y 12 hospitales de 8 comunidades autónomas españolas. Los participantes eran fumadores o exfumadores (>10 paquetes año) de entre 35-50 años de edad. Los casos presentaban una espirometría obstructiva con un FEV1/FVC<70% y los controles una espirometría normal con un FEV1/FVC≥70%. Las principales variables de estudio que se han determinado son las siguientes: cuestionarios de salud, síntomas, exacerbaciones y actividad física, pruebas de función respiratoria, análisis biológicos de sangre y esputo y TAC de baja radiación. Para el análisis estadístico de los resultados se describirán las características de los pacientes con EPOC y se compararán con los sujetos del grupo control mediante un modelo de regresión logística


Introduction and objectives: Determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the early stages of its natural history are not well known. Improving our knowledge of these factors will help to design interventions that can modify prognosis. Study objectives are: a) to characterize a COPD population of young adults aged 35-50 years from a multidimensional point of view; b) to compare these patients with smokers with normal lung function; and c) to create a cohort of young adults aged 35-50 years (smokers or former smokers), with and without COPD, who will be followed in the future to improve understanding of the natural history of the disease. Participants and method: This is a case-control multicenter study aimed at establishing a well-characterized cohort of young adults, smokers or former-smokers, with and without COPD, for subsequent follow-up. A total of 311 participants (101 cases and 210 controls) were selected from approximately 30 primary care settings and 12 hospitals in 8 Spanish regions. Subjects were smokers or former smokers (>10 pack-years) aged 35-50 years. Diagnosis of COPD was based on a post-bronchodilator result of FEV1/FVC<70%. The main study variables were: questionnaires on health, symptoms, exacerbations and daily physical activity, lung function tests, blood and sputum samples, and low-dose computed tomography. In the statistical analysis, COPD patient characteristics will be described and compared with control subjects using a logistic regression analysis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Tabagismo/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc ; 26(1): 27-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104373

RESUMO

The concomitant presentation of lung cancer and severe heart disease requiring intervention is a scenario that many clinicians have to face. Its common physiopathological substratum is unknown and it is believed that tobacco plays a role. From a surgical point of view, these patients pose various technical challenges and medical literature is scarce in providing solid answers. The aim of this report is to review our experience with cases undergoing combined surgical treatment of both heart disease and lung cancer, aiming to analyse patients' characteristics, operative technical considerations and related outcomes. A total of five patients were included, with two synchronous procedures, two cases with lung surgery being performed first and one case commenced with cardiac surgery. All cancers were non-small-cell lung carcinoma or carcinoid tumors and cardiac disease was mostly represented by severe aortic stenosis. Lobectomy was performed in two thirds of patients and minimally invasive techniques were used in 60% of the procedures. All valvular patients received a bioprosthesis. There was one immediate complication, with good recovery on follow-up, and there were no late events (median follow-up of 1,8 ±1,1 months). The analysis of these cases highlights the complex nature of these challenging patients and reinforces the importance of devoting efforts to offer the most suitable solutions for each scenario.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Pneumonectomia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126155

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nicotine dependence and food dependence in smokers. Smoking and obesity are both serious public health problems that give rise to diseases and increased medical expenses. Nicotine dependence is one of the sources of difficulty in smoking cessation, while food dependence is one of the causes of obesity. Materials and Methods: We examined the data of 72 (smoking vs. nonsmoking) and 62 (nicotine dependence vs. no nicotine dependence) subjects among 321 staff and students at medical colleges in Kagawa and Okayama prefectures in Japan. Results: There was a significant difference in food dependence (except women) between the smoking and nonsmoking groups (total: smoking 4.7 ± 6.1, nonsmoking 2.1 ± 2.0, p = 0.0411; men: smoking 4.0 ± 4.7, nonsmoking 2.0 ± 2.1, p = 0.0490). There was also a significant difference in food dependence (except women) between the nicotine dependence and no nicotine dependence groups (total: nicotine dependence 4.6 ± 6.3, no nicotine dependence 2.0 ± 2.1, p = 0.0370; men: nicotine dependence 3.6 ± 4.8, no nicotine dependence 1.6 ± 1.8, p = 0.0489). Conclusion: The findings showed that the smoking group (and nicotine dependence group) had higher food dependence than the nonsmoking group (and no nicotine dependence group). Our results indicate an interdependence between nicotine and food dependences.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/complicações
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 261-268, may.-june. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006090

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is the most important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic events; alcohol consumption, on the other hand, appears to have a protective role. Objective: Assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the severity of coronary artery injuries in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed in Santa Catarina. Variables were evaluated using the Chi-squared T/Fisher's exact test, Kendall's correlation coefficient, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Between August 2016 to June 2017, 226 patients were evaluated with first episode of AMI. There was a difference in sex distribution, showing that 59.7% of men and 85.4% of women were not alcoholic (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of non-hypertensive patients who consumed alcohol than hypertensive ones (40.7% vs. 24.4% and p = 0.010) and patients without diabetes who had drinking habits than those diabetic (36.4% vs. 12.0% and p = 0.001). There was also a higher prevalence of non-diabetic patients who smoked than diabetic ones (38.1% vs. 22.0% and p = 0.035). A weak and negative correlation was found between the number of cigarettes per day and the pack-year with the TIMI frame count (r = -0.174 and p = 0.041 and r = -0.192 and - = 0.027, respectively). The other associations did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: The study showed that the number of cigarettes consumed per day and the pack-year is related to a smaller TIMI frame count, i.e., to a better coronary flow, which may be related to the Smoker's Paradox. There was no correlation between the beverage type and quantity with the SYNTAX score, Ejection fraction and TIMI frame count


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tabagismo/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Volume Sistólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitais Públicos
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46422

RESUMO

O infarto do miocárdio, ou ataque cardíaco, é a morte das células de uma região do músculo do coração por conta da formação de um coágulo que interrompe o fluxo sanguíneo de forma súbita e intensa.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Aterosclerose , Vasos Coronários , Infarto , Tabagismo/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão
14.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46423

RESUMO

Aneurisma é a dilatação anormal de uma artéria. Um aneurisma pode se romper e causar uma hemorragia ou permanecer sem estourar durante toda a vida. Os aneurismas podem ocorrer em qualquer artéria do corpo, como as do cérebro, do coração, do rim ou do abdômen. Os do tipo cerebral e da aorta torácica e abdominal apresentam altas taxas de mortalidade.


Assuntos
Aneurisma , Hemorragia Cerebral , Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Aorta Abdominal/anormalidades , Hipertensão/complicações , Tabagismo/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Doenças e Anormalidades Congênitas, Hereditárias e Neonatais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Aterosclerose/complicações
15.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46428

RESUMO

A vesícula biliar é um órgão em forma de saco, parecida com uma pera, localizada abaixo do lobo direito do fígado. Sua função é armazenar a bile, líquido produzido pelo fígado que atua na digestão de gorduras no intestino. A bile é formada pela mistura de várias substâncias, entre elas o colesterol, responsável pela imensa maioria da formação de cálculos (pedras), que podem impedir o fluxo da bile para o intestino e causar uma inflamação chamada colecistite.


Assuntos
Colecistite , Cálculos Biliares , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Comportamento Sedentário , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Tabagismo/complicações , Anticoncepcionais/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Hereditariedade
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215053, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the autonomous nervous system modulation on heart rate and is associated with several pathologies, including cardiac mortality. While mechanistic studies show that smoking is associated with lower HRV, population-based studies present conflicting results. METHODS: We assessed the mutual effects of active smoking status, cumulative smoking history, and current smoking intensity, on HRV among 4751 adults from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study. The HRV metrics standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) inter-beat intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of consecutive NN intervals (RMSSD), total power (TP), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power, and their ratio (LF/HF), were derived from 20-minute electrocardiograms. Smoking status, pack-years (PY), and tobacco grams/day from standardized questionnaires were the main exposures. We fitted linear mixed models to account for relatedness, non-linearity, and moderating effects, and including fractional polynomials. RESULTS: Past smokers had higher HRV levels than never smokers, independently of PY. The association of HRV with current smoking became apparent when accounting for the interaction between smoking status and PY. In current smokers, but not in past smokers, we observed HRV reductions between 2.0% (SDNN) and 4.9% (TP) every 5 PY increase. Furthermore, current smokers were characterized by dose-response reductions of 9.8% (SDNN), 8.9% (RMSSD), 20.1% (TP), 17.7% (LF), and 19.1% (HF), respectively, every 10 grams/day of smoked tobacco, independently of common cardiometabolic conditions and HRV-modifying drugs. The LF/HF ratio was not associated with smoking status, history, or intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation was associated with higher HRV levels. In current smokers, heavier smoking intensity appears gradually detrimental on HRV, corroborating previous evidence. By affecting both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system indexes, but not the LF/HF balance, smoking intensity seems to exert a systemic dysautonomic effect.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Tabagismo/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213729, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865709

RESUMO

Tobacco use and oral sex (OS) are important risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Little is known about the prevalence of OS practice in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OS practice and tobacco use in a South African patient population. This cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, betel nut use and OS practice data from consenting adults (≥18 years; n = 850). Oral sex practices were recorded for patients 18-45 years-old (n = 514). Data analysis included chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the study population, 55.2% (n = 468) were female, 88% (n = 748) self-identified as black Africans and 45.1% (n = 383) were unemployed. Furthermore, 19.7% (n = 167), 6.4% (n = 54) and 2.1% (n = 18) were current smokers, snuff users and betel nut users, respectively. Out of the 514 who answered the questionnaire in relation to OS, 22.8% (n = 115) reported to practice it. Oral sex practice in the age group 18-45 years was most common among the self-identified white participants (41.9%); and among tobacco users than among non-tobacco users (30.9% vs. 20.5%; p = 0.022). A multivariable-adjusted regression model showed that white South Africans were more likely to use tobacco than black Africans (OR = 5.25; 95% CI = 2.21-12.47). The practice of OS was more likely among those 18-35 years-old (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.01-2.74), but had no significant association with tobacco use (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.62-1.83). The observed age and ethnic differences in both risk behaviours suggest a need for targeted population intervention in order to reduce the risk for oral HPV infection.


Assuntos
Clínicas Odontológicas , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Comportamento Sexual , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Areca/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/etnologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , África do Sul/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(10): e14797, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855497

RESUMO

There are limited studies comparing the effect of current smoking on first-generation (1G)-drug-eluting stents (DES) and second-generation (2G)-DES in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the clinical impact of current smoking on 2-year clinical outcomes between the 1G-DES and the 2G-DES in AMI patients after PCI.A total of 11,812 AMI patients with a history of current smoking who underwent successful PCI with 1G-DES (n = 4622) or 2G-DES (n = 7190) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as all-cause death, recurrent AMI (re-MI) or any revascularization (target lesion revascularization [TLR], target vessel revascularization [TVR], and non-TVR). The secondary endpoint was the incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST).Two propensity score-matched (PSM) groups (3900 pairs, n = 7800, C-statistic = .708) were generated. After PSM analysis, the 2-year cumulative incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the 1G-DES group compared with the 2G-DES (9.4% vs 7.4%, Log-rank P = .002; hazard ratio, 1.281; 95% confidence interval, 1.097-1.495; P = .002) and this increased incidence of MACE was associated with the increased incidence of any revascularization including TLR, TVR, and non-TVR. However, the incidences of ST, all-cause death, re-MI were not significantly different during 2-year follow-up period.2G-DES was the preferred treatment strategy for AMI patients with a history of current smoking to reduce MACE especially, any revascularization rate rather than 1G-DES in this study.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Prótese , Recidiva , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 116-124, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002187

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Vocal fold polyps are one of themost frequent benign laryngeal lesions, impacting the quality of life of those affected by them, primarily the vocal production. Despite being a well-established therapy in conjunction with surgery, speech therapy alone may also be effective in treating these lesions. As such, otolaryngologists and speech therapists need updated bibliographic knowledge on the issue. Objective To describe the literature findings on vocal fold polyps that discuss prevalence, etiology, histology, physiopathology, vocal characteristics or treatment. Data Synthesis The present study is a review article based on a bibliographic search using platforms, databases and search engines, with no restrictions on means of publication, methodological quality or language. All the articles on vocal fold polyps pertaining to the object of study published in the past 15 years were included. Among the characteristics investigated, the most discussed were prevalence of men, smoking as an etiological cofactor, the possibility of histological differentiation from vocal nodules, the relationship with cover minor structural alterations, and the indication and effectiveness of different treatment options. Conclusion Despite the discrepancies found in the present literature review on vocal fold polyps, there has been a notable scientific progress in the otolaryngologic techniques and in the effectiveness of speech therapy as initial treatment, with direct and indirect techniques, corroborating the need for scientific investigation of the issue.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pólipos , Prega Vocal , Doenças da Laringe , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Pólipos/etiologia , Pólipos/fisiopatologia , Pólipos/patologia , Pólipos/terapia , Pólipos/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/complicações , Prega Vocal/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
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