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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(3): 436-442, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068525

RESUMO

Introduction. Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and pityriasis versicolor (PV) are common dermatoses caused by Malassezia species. Their molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and exoenzymes are rarely reported in China.Aim. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and enzymatic profile of Malassezia clinical isolates.Methodology. Malassezia strains were recovered from MF and PV patients and healthy subjects (HS) and identified by sequencing analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antifungals (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, bifonazole, terbinafine and caspofungin) and tacrolimus, the interactions between three antifungals (itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine) and tacrolimus, and the extracellular enzyme profile were evaluated using broth and checkerboard microdilution and the Api-Zym system, respectively.Results. Among 392 Malassezia isolates from 729 subjects (289 MF, 218 PV and 222 HS), Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa accounted for 67.86 and 18.88 %, respectively. M. furfur was the major species in MF and PV patients and HS. Among 60M. furfur and 50M. globosa strains, the MICs for itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and ketoconazole were <1 µg ml-1. M. furfur was more susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine and bifonazole but tolerant to miconazole compared with M. globosa (P<0.05). Synergistic effects between terbinafine and itraconazole or between tacrolimus and itraconazole, ketoconazole or terbinafine occurred in 6, 7, 6 and 9 out of 37 strains, respectively. Phosphatases, lipases and proteases were mainly secreted in 51 isolates.Conclusions. Itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and ketoconazole are theagents against which there is greatest susceptibility. Synergistic effects between terbinafine and itraconazole or tacrolimas and antifungals may be irrelevant to clinical application. Overproduction of lipases could enhance the skin inhabitation of M. furfur.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Foliculite/epidemiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Tinha Versicolor/epidemiologia , Azóis/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Foliculite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lipase/metabolismo , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Malassezia/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Pele/microbiologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Terbinafina , Tinha Versicolor/microbiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 264, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937758

RESUMO

Paralleling the activation of dorsal horn microglia after peripheral nerve injury is a significant expansion and proliferation of macrophages around injured sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here we demonstrate a critical contribution of DRG macrophages, but not those at the nerve injury site, to both the initiation and maintenance of the mechanical hypersensitivity that characterizes the neuropathic pain phenotype. In contrast to the reported sexual dimorphism in the microglial contribution to neuropathic pain, depletion of DRG macrophages reduces nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and expansion of DRG macrophages in both male and female mice. However, fewer macrophages are induced in the female mice and deletion of colony-stimulating factor 1 from sensory neurons, which prevents nerve injury-induced microglial activation and proliferation, only reduces macrophage expansion in male mice. Finally, we demonstrate molecular cross-talk between axotomized sensory neurons and macrophages, revealing potential peripheral DRG targets for neuropathic pain management.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Neuralgia/imunologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hiperalgesia/imunologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/fisiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/imunologia , Gravidez , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Tacrolimo/análogos & derivados , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
4.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 119: 105680, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866508

RESUMO

It is usually accepted that prion proteins induce apoptosis in nerve cells. However, the mechanisms of PrPSc-neurotoxicity are not completely clear. Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. It activates autophagy, and may represent a link between deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and neuronal cell death. In this study, the effect of calcineurin activation mediated by human prion protein induced neuronal cell death via AMPK dephosphorylation and autophagy, was investigated. Synthetic peptides of PrP (PrP 106-126) increased calcineurin activity, without changing the levels of this protein phosphatase. Furthermore, these peptides reduced the levels of AMPK phosphorylation at threonine residue 172 and in autophagy activation. Calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, prevented this effect. The data showed that PrP-treated neurons had lower levels of AMPK than control neurons. This decrease in AMPK levels was matched via activation of autophagy. FK506 prevented the changes in AMPK and autophagy levels induced by PrP peptides. Taken together, the data demonstrated that prion peptides triggered an apoptotic cascade via calcineurin activation, which mediated AMPK dephosphorylation and autophagy activation. Therefore, these data suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting calcineurin inhibition might facilitate the management of neurodegenerative disorders including prion disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Príons/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/enzimologia , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neurônios/enzimologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
5.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(11): 1047-1057, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575290

RESUMO

Introduction: The clinical use of tacrolimus is characterized by many side effects which include neurotoxicity. In contrast, tacrolimus has also shown to have neuroregenerative properties. On a molecular level, the mechanisms of action could provide us more insight into understanding the neurobiological effects. The aim of this article is to review current evidence regarding the use of tacrolimus in peripheral nerve injuries.Areas covered: Available data on tacrolimus' indications were summarized and molecular mechanisms were elucidated to possibly understand the conflicting neurotoxic and neuroregenerative effects. The potential clinical applications of tacrolimus, as immunosuppressant and enhancer of nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries, are discussed. Finally, concepts of delivery are explored.Expert opinion: It is unclear what the exact neurobiological effects of tacrolimus are. Besides its known calcineurin inhibiting properties, the mechanism of action of tacrolimus is mediated by its binding to FK506-binding protein-52, resulting in a bimodal dose response. Experimental models found that tacrolimus administration is preferred up to three days prior to or within 10 days post-nerve reconstruction. Moreover, the indication for the use of tacrolimus has been expanding to fields of dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology to improve outcomes after various indications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Animais , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4275, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537789

RESUMO

Calcineurin is important for fungal virulence and a potential antifungal target, but compounds targeting calcineurin, such as FK506, are immunosuppressive. Here we report the crystal structures of calcineurin catalytic (CnA) and regulatory (CnB) subunits complexed with FK506 and the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) from human fungal pathogens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis). Fungal calcineurin complexes are similar to the mammalian complex, but comparison of fungal and human FKBP12 (hFKBP12) reveals conformational differences in the 40s and 80s loops. NMR analysis, molecular dynamic simulations, and mutations of the A. fumigatus CnA/CnB-FK506-FKBP12-complex identify a Phe88 residue, not conserved in hFKBP12, as critical for binding and inhibition of fungal calcineurin. These differences enable us to develop a less immunosuppressive FK506 analog, APX879, with an acetohydrazine substitution of the C22-carbonyl of FK506. APX879 exhibits reduced immunosuppressive activity and retains broad-spectrum antifungal activity and efficacy in a murine model of invasive fungal infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Coccidioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidioides/metabolismo , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos A , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Tacrolimo/metabolismo
7.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(5): 613-620, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397908

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of local tacrolimus (FK506) delivery to improve outcomes in the setting of nerve transection injury. METHODS: FK506 embedded poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) films capable of extended, localized release of FK506 were developed. FK506 rate of release testing and bioactivity assay was performed. Mouse sciatic nerve transection and direct repair model was used to evaluate the effect extended, local delivery of FK506 had on nerve regeneration outcomes. RESULTS: Linear release of FK506 was observed for 30 days and released FK506 matched control levels of neurite extension in the dorsal root ganglion assay. Groups treated with local FK506 had greater gastrocnemius muscle weight, foot electromyogram, and number of axons distal of the repair site than non-FK506 groups. DISCUSSION: Results of this study indicate that extended, localized delivery of FK506 to nerve injuries can improve nerve regeneration outcomes in a mouse sciatic nerve transection and repair.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Denervação Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Axônios/patologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Eletromiografia , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuritos/patologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Poliésteres , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Nervo Isquiático/cirurgia , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem
8.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(5): 629-636, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuroenhancing therapies are desired because repair of nerve injuries can fail to achieve recovery. We compared two neuroenhancing therapies, electrical stimulation (ES) and systemic tacrolimus (FK506), for their capabilities to enhance regeneration in the context of a rat model. METHODS: Rats were randomized to four groups: ES 0.5 mA, ES 2.0 mA, FK506, and repair alone. All groups underwent tibial nerve transection and repair, and outcomes were assessed by using twice per week walking track analysis, cold allodynia response, relative muscle mass, and nerve histology. RESULTS: Electrical stimulation and FK506 groups demonstrated improved functional recovery and myelinated axon counts distal to the repair compared with repair alone. Electrical stimulation provided improvements in nerve regeneration that were not different from optimized FK506 systemic administration. DISCUSSION: Providing ES after nerve repair improved regeneration and recovery in rats, with minimal differences in therapeutic efficacy to FK506, further demonstrating its clinical potential to improve management of nerve injuries.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Nervo Tibial/lesões , Animais , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Ratos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Nervo Tibial/patologia , Nervo Tibial/cirurgia
9.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2081-2098, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399186

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid that acts through the members of a family of 5 G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1 to S1P5). Among these, S1P1 is a major regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. Fingolimod, whose active metabolite, fingolimod phosphate, acts as a nonselective S1P-receptor agonist, exerts its immunomodulatory effect, at least in part, by regulating lymphocyte trafficking via downregulation of S1P1 expression on lymphocytes. Here, we describe the pharmacologic profile of a novel S1P1 agonist, ASP1126. ASP1126 preferentially activated S1P1 compared to S1P3 in rat and human guanosine-5'-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (GTPγS) assays. Oral single administration of ASP1126 decreased the number of peripheral lymphocytes and repeated dosing showed a cumulative effect on lymphopenia in both rats and monkeys. ASP1126 prolonged allograft survival in a rat heterotopic heart transplantation model in combination with a subtherapeutic dose of tacrolimus that was independent of drug-drug interactions. In addition, in nonhuman primate (NHP) renal transplantation, pretreatment with ASP1126 reduced not only the number of naive T cells and central memory T cells but also effector memory T cells in the peripheral blood, all of which could contribute to acute graft rejection and prolonged allograft survival in combination with tacrolimus. Further, we confirmed that ASP1126 has a broad ranging safety margin with respect to its effect on lung weight in rats and bradycardia in NHPs, which were the adverse events found in clinical studies of fingolimod. ASP1126 with improved safety profile has the potential to be an adjunct therapy in combination with tacrolimus in clinical transplantation.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/metabolismo , Animais , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Ratos , Esfingosina/agonistas , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5381-5396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409994

RESUMO

Background: Tacrolimus (TCR), also known as FK-506, is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II drug that is insoluble in water because of its high log P values. After dermal application, TCR remains in the stratum corneum and passes through the skin layers with difficulty. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with thermosensitive properties to improve penetration and retention. Methods: We prepared TCR-loaded thermosensitive solid lipid nanoparticles (TCR-SLNs) with different types of surfactants on the shell of the particle, which conferred the advantages of enhancing skin permeation and distribution. We also characterized them from a physic point of view and performed in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Results: The TCR contained in the prepared TCR-SLN was in an amorphous state and entrapped in the particles with a high loading efficiency. The assessment of ex vivo skin penetration using excised rat dorsal skin showed that the TCR-SLNs penetrated to a deeper layer than the reference product (0.1% Protopic®). In addition, the in vivo skin penetration test demonstrated that TCR-SLNs delivered more drug into deeper skin layers than the reference product. FT-IR images also confirmed drug distribution of TCR-SLNs into deeper layers of the skin. Conclusion: These results revealed the potential application of thermosensitive SLNs for the delivery of difficult-to-permeate, poorly water-soluble drugs into deep skin layers.


Assuntos
Derme/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Temperatura , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Irritantes/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Cutâneos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química , Difração de Raios X
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5849-5863, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440050

RESUMO

Background: Topical application of tacrolimus (FK506) was effective in treating atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the therapeutic efficiency is hampered by its poor penetration into the skin and local side effects of transient irritation symptoms with a burning sensation, a feeling of warmth or heat. Menthol and camphor have been widely used in topical compound formulations for adjunctive pharmacotherapy for antipruritics and analgesics owing to their cool nature, and both present skin penetration enhancing effects. Moreover, they can form a liquid eutectic oil to solubilize hydrophobic drugs. Purpose: Taking advantages of menthol/camphor eutectic (MCE), this work aims to integrate FK506 into MCE to construct a microemulsion system, i.e., FK506 MCE ME, which simultaneously enhances the percutaneous delivery and treatment efficacy, while reduces the side effects of FK506. Methods: The formulation of FK506 MCE ME was optimized and characterized. Different formulations containing FK506 were topically administered to treat 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced murine AD. Results: MCE solubilized FK506. FK506 in MCE ME penetrated skin in vitro more than in the commercial ointment, and MCE predominantly exerted the enhancing effects in MCE ME. FK506 MCE ME or FK506 MCE ME gel had greater effects on clinical symptoms, histological analysis, and IgE than did commercial FK506. The anti-pruritic and down-regulation of substance P effects of MCE ME vehicle mitigated the side effects of FK506 application. Conclusion: MCE ME presented the excellent properties of simultaneously enhancing the percutaneous delivery and treatment efficacy, while reducing the side effects of FK506 for AD. Therefore, MCE ME is a promising nanoscale system for FK506 to effectively treating AD with low irritation and high medication adherence. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Tacrolimus (PubChem CID: 445643); menthol (PubChem CID: 1254); camphor (PubChem CID: 2537).


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Emulsões/química , Óleos/química , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Cânfora/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Orelha/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mentol/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância P/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda Insensível de Água/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Orv Hetil ; 160(30): 1178-1183, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327249

RESUMO

Tacrolimus is an important part of immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation. The therapeutic range of the drug from the calcineurin inhibitor group is narrow. Adjustment of the blood concentration can be very complicated but to be able to avoid the occurrence of side effects or ineffective immunosuppression it is inevitable. This article summarizes the properties of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics. We will focus on individual variations of cytochrome enzymes. In the following part, a new method for screening high risk patients will be introduced. We will present the publications of the determination of the concentration/dose (C/D) ratio. By determining the C/D ratio, researchers identify fast and slow metabolizing patient groups. Fast metabolizers require higher doses in general and the occurrence of complications is also more frequent in this group. Long-term results are lagging behind the slow metabolizing group. The long-term results of renal transplantation nowadays contribute to the postoperative period and the later years rather than the surgery itself. It includes the proper management of previous illnesses (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, endocrinological problems), detection of complications (e.g., infections, malignancies), and the precise regulation of immunosuppressive therapy. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(30): 1178-1183.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacocinética , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Farmacogenética , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Mol Cell Biol ; 39(19)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308130

RESUMO

Calcineurin (Cn) is a calcium-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is broadly implicated in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression. During skeletal muscle differentiation, Cn activates the nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcription factor but also promotes differentiation by counteracting the negative influences of protein kinase C beta (PKCß) via dephosphorylation and activation of Brg1, an enzymatic subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme. Here we identified four major temporal patterns of Cn-dependent gene expression in differentiating myoblasts and determined that Cn is broadly required for the activation of the myogenic gene expression program. Mechanistically, Cn promotes gene expression through direct binding to myogenic promoter sequences and facilitating the binding of Brg1, other SWI/SNF subunit proteins, and MyoD, a critical lineage determinant for skeletal muscle differentiation. We conclude that the Cn phosphatase directly impacts the expression of myogenic genes by promoting ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and formation of transcription-competent promoters.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mioblastos/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína MyoD , Mioblastos/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find safer and more effective drugs than mitomycin C to prevent conjunctival fibrosis in a rabbit model. METHODS: Twenty-four rabbits were involved and randomly divided into four groups. Limbus-based peritomy was performed at the superior cornea, and normal saline (NS group), mitomycin C (MMC group), SR (SR group), or TC (TC group)-coated silicone plate was inserted at the sub-Tenon's space in each group. Conjunctival congestion was evaluated at 1 and 4 weeks postoperatively. At 4 weeks, the numbers of inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, blood vessels, and goblet cells were counted in the conjunctiva and Tenon's capsule around the silicone plate. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, conjunctival congestion was significantly less than that observed at 1 week in the SR and TC groups (p < 0.05), whereas the number of myofibroblasts was significantly lower in the MMC and TC groups (p < 0.05). The conjunctiva was significantly less congested in the TC group versus the other groups at 1 week and 4 weeks (p < 0.05). The TC group had the lowest number of inflammatory cells and MMC group had the lowest number of goblet cells among all groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The TC-coated silicone plate was more effective in inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis versus the MMC-coated silicone plate and was associated with fewer adverse effects in the rabbit model.


Assuntos
Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Fibrose/cirurgia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/terapia , Córnea/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/terapia , Células Caliciformes , Masculino , Mitomicina/metabolismo , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Coelhos , Silicones , Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Cápsula de Tenon/cirurgia
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105756, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344556

RESUMO

Long-term graft survival after organ transplantation is difficult to achieve because of the development of chronic rejection. One cause of chronic rejection arises from antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), which is dependent on the production of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Current immunosuppression in organ transplantation is effective in preventing acute T cell-mediated rejection, but the risk of DSA production and graft loss due to AMR remains unchanged. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ (PI3Kδ), a member of the family of PI3K lipid kinases, is a key mediator of B cell activation, proliferation and antibody production. AS2541019 is a novel PI3Kδ selective inhibitor that prevents antibody production by inhibiting B cell immunity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of AS2541019 on DSA production in preclinical rodent and non-human primate allotransplant models. Concomitant administration of AS2541019 with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) inhibited de novo DSA production in an ACI-to-Lewis rat cardiac allotransplant model. To predict the efficacy of AS2541019 in clinical practice, we evaluated its effects in cynomolgus monkeys. AS2541019 inhibited B cell proliferation and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression on B cells in cynomolgus monkeys. Oral administration of AS2541019 inhibited MHC class II expression on peripheral B cells and anti-tetanus toxoid antibody production. In cynomolgus monkey renal allotransplant model, concomitant administration of AS2541019 with tacrolimus and MMF significantly inhibited de novo DSA production. Together, our findings indicate that the PI3Kδ selective inhibitor AS2541019 is a potential candidate for preventing AMR development by inhibiting DSA production.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transplante de Coração , Transplante de Rim , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos ACI , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem
16.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(7): 633-639, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a lifelong autoimmune disorder that affects neuromuscular transmission. The long-term treatment plan should include immunotherapy. We investigated the long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus for the treatment of MG in real-world clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 160 MG patients treated with tacrolimus from 2005 to 2015. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification, MGFA post-intervention status, myasthenic functional score, and dose of oral prednisolone were investigated. RESULTS: Adverse events occurred in 68 patients (42.5%), most of which were minor and well-managed. Clinical severity scales improved after administration of tacrolimus, compared to the baseline. Compared to 6 months before administration of tacrolimus, prednisolone dose significantly decreased at 12 months after treatment (2.85±0.92 mg/day, p=0.002), 18 months after treatment (3.36±0.99 mg/day, p=0.001), and 24 months after treatment (3.71±0.93 mg/day, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus may be effective in reducing the severity of MG and may permit a reduction in the steroid dose prescribed to the patients. Adverse events due to tacrolimus treatment were not serious.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172494, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238062

RESUMO

To better define the biological impact of immunosuppression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we employed RNASeq analysis to compare the whole transcriptomic profile of a group of renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with Everolimus (EVE) with those treated with Tacrolimus (TAC). Then, obtained results were validated by classical biomolecular methodologies. The statistical analysis allowed the identification of four genes discriminating the 2 study groups: Sushi Domain Containing 4 (SUSD4, P = 0.02), T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma 1A (TCL1A, P = 0.02), adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E3 (ADGRE3, P = 0.01), Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Gamma 3 (IGHG3, P = 0.03). All of them were significantly down-regulated in patients treated with EVE compared to TAC. The Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) of the final model based on these 4 genes was 73.1% demonstrating its good discriminative power. RT-PCR and ELISA validated transcriptomic results. Additionally, an in vitro model confirmed that EVE significantly down-regulates (P<0.001) TCL1A, SUSD4, ADGRE3 and IgHG3 in PBMCs as well as in T cells and monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Taken together, our data, revealed, for the first time, a new four gene-based transcriptomic fingerprint down-regulated by EVE in PBMCs of renal transplant patients that could improve the available knowledge regarding some of the biological/cellular effects of the mTOR-Is (including their antineoplastic and immune-regulatory properties).


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 164-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus, for its activity on modulation of collagen production and fibroblast activity, may have a role in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate macroscopic, microscopic, metabolic, laboratory effects and side effects of the use of topical tacrolimus ointment, in different concentrations, in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. METHODS: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of 2 fragments of 1 cm of each ear, 4 cm apart, down to cartilage. The left ear of the animals was standardized as control and Vaseline applied twice a day. The right ear received tacrolimus ointment, at concentrations of 0.1% on the upper wound and 0.03% on the lower wound, also applied twice a day. Macroscopic, microscopic, laboratory criteria and the animals' weight were evaluated after 30 days of the experiment. RESULTS: Wounds treated with tacrolimus, at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.03%, when compared to control, showed a lower average degree of thickening (p = 0.048 and p <0.001, respectively). The average of scar thickness and lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil concentrations are lower in the treated wounds compared to the control (p <0.001, p=0.022, p=0.007, p=0.044, respectively). The mean concentration of lymphocytes is lower in wounds treated with a higher concentration of the drug (p=0.01). STUDY LIMITATIONS: experiment lasted only 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus at the 2 concentrations evaluated reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and positively altered the macroscopic aspect of the scar in the short term. Its use was shown to be safe, with no evidence of systemic or local adverse effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patologia , Creatinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Orelha Externa/patologia , Eritema/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pomadas , Coelhos , Albumina Sérica/análise , Albumina Sérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/sangue , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 4536-4544, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059034

RESUMO

The present study examined the efficacy of the topical 15d­PGJ2­poloxamer 407 hydrogel in an atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model. The 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel was prepared and characterized. The examined rats possessed AD­Like cutaneous lesions, which were induced using 2,4­dinitrochlorobenzene, the rats were then treated with a hydrogel vehicle, 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel or tacrolimus for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to quantify the IgE levels. Subsequently, skin biopsies were stained with toluidine blue to identify mast cells and immunohistochemistry was performed for ROR­Î³t and TNF­α. Histological analyses demonstrated that 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel significantly decreased mast cell infiltration (P<0.05) when compared with the AD­group. Tacrolimus at 0.1% exhibited decreased mast cell infiltration; however, this difference was not statistically significant from the AD­group. Topical 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel and Tacrolimus 0.1% significantly reduced the serum levels of IgE (P<0.05) compared with the AD­group. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in ROR­Î³t and TNF­α positive cell expression (P<0.05) in the 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel group compared with the AD­group. In summary, topical administration of 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel had a beneficial effect on AD symptoms, suggesting that this formulation may be a useful strategy for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dinitroclorobenzeno/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Prostaglandina D2/análogos & derivados , Administração Tópica , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Prostaglandina D2/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096684

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing genes may affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Here, we investigated the influence of genotypes of CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and POR on the concentration/dose (C/D) ratio of tacrolimus and episodes of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in Japanese recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thirty-six patients receiving the first HSCT using tacrolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis were enrolled with written informed consent. During continuous intravenous infusion, HSCT recipients carrying the CYP3A5*1 allele, particularly those with at least one POR*28 allele, had a significantly lower tacrolimus C/D ratio throughout all three post-HSCT weeks compared to that in recipients with POR*1/*1 (p < 0.05). The CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype and the concomitant use of voriconazole were independent predictors of an increased tacrolimus C/D ratio during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration (p < 0.05). In recipients receiving concomitant administration of voriconazole, our results suggest an impact of not only CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 genotypes, but also plasma voriconazole concentration. Although switching from intravenous to oral administration at a ratio of 1:5 was seemingly appropriate in recipients with CYP3A5*1, a lower conversion ratio (1:2-3) was appropriate in recipients with CYP3A5*3/*3. Our results suggest that CYP3A5, POR, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms are useful biomarkers for individualized dosage adjustment of tacrolimus in HSCT recipients.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Voriconazol/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
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