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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 127, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587193

RESUMO

According to several reports, the presence of transition metal elements in the atmosphere was associated with adverse health effects. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the presence of transition metal particles with atomic numbers 22-29 on some medicinal plants (n = 22) from various regions of the Republic of Tajikistan and their content in the atmosphere. Samples (n = 43) of individual plant organs, such as seeds, flowers, leaves, trunks, and plant roots, were examined for their elemental composition using X-ray fluorescence analysis. Selection of particles contained in the atmosphere was carried out for 24 h/3 days by the aspiration method using fiberglass filters GF 10 in an apparatus installed at an altitude of 864 m on the periphery of the capital. For the analysis of plant samples, measurements were carried out on a SPECTROSCAN MAX-G wave-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. For samples containing filtered atmosphere elements, a high-resolution PANanalytical Epsilon 5 high-resolution energy-dispersive spectrometer was used. Eight transition elements from the 1st main series of metals with atomic numbers 22-29, such as titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt nickel, and copper, were found in plant organs, as well as in the atmosphere samples. Our results showed that the distribution of metals on plants varied depending on plants and their organs. We did not find any correlation between the region of plant collection and their absorption of metal elements. The distribution of metals varied in various plant organs. In the atmosphere samples, we found all the metals that were found in plants. In conclusion, medicinal plants can adsorb and accumulate some harmful chemical elements in their organs, are involved in the recirculation of these metals, and contribute air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Metais Pesados , Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Tadjiquistão
3.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127575, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683034

RESUMO

The main aim of this research was to identify the mineralogical, morphological, and chemical characteristics of solid particles emitted by vehicular traffic and deposited on special monitoring plots located on the roadside of five countries with different climatic conditions and traffic structure. Within 24 months of exposure, the composition of the matrix used at the monitoring plots changed. Percentage quartz content decreased in all locations, and due to the input from local sources, the share of other mineral phases increased. In some locations, an increase in the share of mineral phases associated with local parent rock and soil erosion was noted (e.g. Helsinki, Böblingen). In other places, material associated with abrasion of the road surface was characteristic (e.g. Gliwice, Opole). The composition of pollutants accumulated at all the monitoring plots was varied, however the common feature was the presence of technogenic magnetic particles in the matrix after exposure. Analyses showed that numerous irregular, angular particles of iron oxides with porous surface, which are carriers for a number of metals and metalloids were present in the samples. Angular iron oxides containing zinc, chromium, and copper are usually considered as non-exhaust traffic emissions. Another type of iron oxides particles found in the samples were magnetic spherules related to exhaust emissions (smaller spherules, < 20 µm). Study of results confirmed the effectiveness of the testing method for roadside pollution monitoring related to currently emitted solid particles accumulated on matrix of known mineral composition.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Finlândia , Alemanha , Grécia , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Polônia , Solo/química , Tadjiquistão
4.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497948

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of the study on columnar aerosol optical and physical properties and radiative effects directly observed over Dushanbe, the capital city of Tajikistan, a NASA AERONET site (equipped with a CIMEL sunphotometer) in Central Asia. The average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) during the observation period from July 2010 to April 2018 were found to be 0.28 ± 0.20 and 0.82 ± 0.40, respectively. The highest seasonal AOD (0.32 ± 0.24), accompanied by the lowest average AE (0.61 ± 0.25) and fine-mode fraction in AOD (0.39), was observed during summer due to the influence of coarse particles like dust from arid regions. Fine particles were found in significant amounts during winter. The 'mixed aerosol' was identified as the dominant aerosol type with presence of 'dust aerosol' during summer and autumn seasons. Aerosol properties like volume size distribution, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and refractive index suggested the influence of coarse particles (during summer and autumn). Most of the air masses reaching this site transported local and regional emissions, including from beyond Central Asia, explaining the presence of various aerosol types in Dushanbe's atmosphere. The seasonal aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE) in the atmosphere was found high (>100 Wm-2) and consistent throughout the year. Consequently, this resulted in similar seasonally coherent high atmospheric solar heating rate (HR) of 1.5 K day-1 during summer-autumn-winter, and ca. 0.9 K day-1 during spring season. High ARFE and HR values indicate that atmospheric aerosols could exert significant implications to regional air quality, climate and cryosphere over the central Asian region and downwind Tianshan and Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau mountain regions with sensitive ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Tadjiquistão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4743(2): zootaxa.4743.2.10, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230343

RESUMO

A new geometrid species, Archedontia agnesae sp. n. is described from Tadjikistan. The new genus Archedontia gen. n. is assigned to the sterrhine tribe Rhodometrini, aside genus Ochodontia Lederer. Adult moth, male and female genitalia are figured and described, and COI barcode data analysed.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino , Tadjiquistão
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 30, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships of power, responsibility and accountability between health systems actors are considered central to health governance. Despite increasing attention to the role of accountability in health governance a gap remains in understanding how local accountability relations function within the health system in Central Asia. This study addresses this gap by exploring local health governance in two districts of Tajikistan using principal-agent theory. METHODS: This comparative case study uses a qualitative research methodology, relying on key informant interviews and focus group discussions with local stakeholders. Data analysis was guided by a framework that conceptualises governance as a series of principal-agent relations between state actors, citizens and health providers. Special attention is paid to voice, answerability and enforceability as crucial components of accountability. RESULTS: The analysis has provided insight into the challenges to different components making up an effective accountability relationship, such as an unclear mandate, the lack of channels for voice or insufficient resources to carry out a mandate. The findings highlight the weak position of health providers and citizens towards state actors and development agents in the under-resourced health system and authoritarian political context. Contestation over resources among local government actors, and informal tools for answerability and enforceability were found to play an important role in shaping actual accountability relations. These accountability relationships form a complex institutional web in which agents are subject to various accountability demands. Particularly health providers find themselves to be in this role, being held accountable by state actors, citizens and development agencies. The latter were found to have established parallel principal-agent relationships with health providers without much attention to the role of local state actors, or strengthening the short accountability route from citizens to providers. CONCLUSION: The study has provided insight into the complexity of local governance relations and constraints to formal accountability processes. This has underlined the importance of informal accountability tools and the political-economic context in shaping principal-agent relations. The study has served to demonstrate the use and limitations of agency theory in health governance analysis, and points to the importance of entrenched positions of power in local health systems.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Empoderamento , Governo Local , Organizações , Responsabilidade Social , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Programas Governamentais , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados , Tadjiquistão
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 103-109, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171998

RESUMO

In the context of significant public health benefits of brucellosis control and shrinking public resources for livestock vaccination, this paper considers the willingness of small ruminant livestock owners to pay for vaccination of their animals against brucellosis. The willingness to pay is estimated through a binary choice contingent valuation approach using data from a rural household survey specially designed for this purpose. The survey was conducted in southern Tajikistan, one of its poorest regions, in March 2009. The study used a non-parametric method for estimating the willingness to pay and a parametric (Probit) model for identifying determinants. The results show that households, including poor households, were willing to pay for continuing vaccination of their sheep and goats against brucellosis. Controlling for other attributes of willingness to pay, there was practically no correlation between willingness to pay and household asset level. This means both poor and rich alike are willing to pay for the service. On the other hand, the results also show that the willingness to pay was comparatively higher in households with relatively higher levels of education of adult females. This suggests that an awareness campaign targeted at female members of households would enhance the ownership and coverage of cost recovery programs and should form an integral part of any efforts towards introducing financial participation from sheep and goat owners for brucellosis vaccination.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Propriedade , Ovinos , Tadjiquistão
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137791, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172125

RESUMO

Nutrient cycling in alpine permafrost-affected wetlands remains insufficiently studied, as it is influenced by a complex network of interrelated climatic and environmental factors, at both regional and local scale. Therefore, we applied mathematical models to examine relationship between environmental factors and plant functional traits reflecting N availability in wetland communities developed under locally variable conditions in a geographic and climatic gradient of high-altitude habitats. Moreover, we assessed impact of local differences in soil chemistry on plant fractionation of N isotopes as a response to N availability. Based on environmental data and chemistry of biomass from 192 study sites from the Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan) and Khangai and Khentei Mountains (Mongolia), a matrix of rank correlations was prepared for regional and local factors and community level plant functional traits. For the traits that were highly correlated either with regional or with local drivers (that is plant N:P ratio and plant δ15N), linear models were built, with a limited set of predictors selected according to the Risk Inflation Criterion and the SOS algorithm. The models were fitted for each of the studied regions. Presented regional models indicated significant influence of soil NH4+ and/or PO43- content on plant N:P ratio, which showed increase with altitude and lowering precipitation. Thus, its values clearly distinguished between the Pamir Mountains (high N:P) and the Mongolian ranges (low N:P). Models for plant δ15N showed its strong positive correlations with soil δ15N and soil salinity. Average values of plant δ15N were comparable for both study areas. The studied plant functional traits showed different response to regional and local drivers. Plant N:P ratio was controlled by regional drivers via their influence on soil NH4+ content. Contrastingly, plant δ15N was significantly affected by local factors, namely soil δ15N and soil salinity expressed as Na:EC.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Áreas Alagadas , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Mongólia , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Tadjiquistão
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the years, technological and process innovations enabled active case finding (ACF) programs to expand their capacities and scope to have evolved to close gaps in missing TB patients globally. However, with increased ACF program's operational complexity and a need for significant resource commitments, a comprehensive, transparent, and standardized approach in evaluating costs of ACF programs is needed to properly determine costs and value of ACF programs. METHODS: Based on reviews of program activity and financial reports, multiple interviews with program managers of two TB REACH funded ACF programs deployed in Cambodia and Tajikistan, we first identified common program components, which formed the basis of the cost data collection, analysis, reporting framework. Within each program component and sub-activity group, cost data were collected and organized by relevant resource types (human resource, capital, recurrent, and overhead costs). Total shared, indirect and overhead costs were apportioned into each activity category based on direct human resource contribution (e.g. a number of staff and their relative level of effort dedicated to each program component). Capital assets were assessed specific to program components and were annualized based on their expected useful life and a 3% discount rate. All costs were assessed based on the service provider perspective and expressed in 2015 USD. RESULTS: Over the two program years (April 2013 to December 2015), the Cambodia and Tajikistan ACF programs cumulated a total cost of $336,951 and $771,429 to screen 68,846 and 1,980,516 target population, bacteriologically test 4,589 and 19,764 presumptive TB, diagnose 731 and 2,246 TB patients in the respective programs. Recurrent costs were the largest cost components (54% and 34%) of the total costs for the respective programs and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing incurred largest program component/activity cost for both programs. Cost per screening was $0.63 and $0.10 and cost per Xpert test was $25 and $18; Cost per TB case detected (Xpert) was $373 and $343 in Cambodia and Tajikistan. CONCLUSIONS: Results from two contextually and programmatically different multi-component ACF programs demonstrate that our tool is fully capable of comprehensively and transparently evaluating and comparing costs of various ACF programs.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Camboja , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Tadjiquistão , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(1): 60-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720768

RESUMO

The study was performed in a mountainous area of approximately 7000 sq. km of Western Tajikistan, i.e., Turkestan, Zeravshan, Hissar, and Karateghin ridges that are characterized by complex geological settings. Moss biomonitoring was used to assess the concentration level of trace and major elements in atmospheric deposition of the study area. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. moss was used as biomonitor in this study. 43 major and trace-elements were determined by Epithermal Neutron Activation (ENAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). GIS maps of the 43 elements showed that the distribution of Mo, Cd, REE, Th, and U could be most probably associated with the Odjuk pegmatite field. Zr, Hf, and W contents are significantly increased in the vicinity of the Sarbo River washout while Cr, Co, Ni, and As showed a maximum content near Kanchoch gold field. The global pollution index based on the local content of presumed pollutants Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in some places exceeded the threshold limits for a pristine, unpolluted environment. At the same time, the distribution of incompatible Sc, La, Yb, and Th suggested for the airborne material deposited on mosses a continental component, enriched in few places in felsic components.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bryopsida/química , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Tadjiquistão
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 925, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, a significant risk factor for ischemic heart disease and other chronic conditions, is the third-highest cause of death and disability in Tajikistan. Thus, ensuring the early detection and appropriate management of hypertension is a core element of strategies to improve population health in Tajikistan. For a strategy to be successful, it should be informed by the causes of gaps in service delivery and feasible solutions to these challenges. The objective of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of hypertension case detection and retention in care within Tajikistan's primary health care system, and to identify challenges and appropriate solutions. METHODS: Our mixed methods study drew on the cascade of care framework to examine patient progression through the recommended stages of hypertension care. We triangulated data from household surveys and facility registries within Tajikistan's Health Services Improvement Project (HSIP) to describe the cascade. Focus group discussions with local HSIP stakeholders identified the barriers to and facilitators for care. Drawing on global empirical evidence on effective interventions and stakeholder judgments on the feasibility of implementation, we developed recommendations to improve hypertension service delivery that were informed by our quantitative and qualitative findings. RESULTS: We review the results for the case detection stage of the cascade of care, which had the most significant gaps. Of the half a million people with hypertension in Khatlon and Sogd Oblasts (administrative regions), about 10% have been diagnosed in Khatlon and only 5% in Sogd. Barriers to case detection include misinformation about hypertension, ambiguous protocols, and limited delivery capacity. Solutions identified to these challenges were mobilizing faith-based organizations, scaling up screening through health caravans, task-shifting to increase provider supply, and introducing job aids for providers. CONCLUSIONS: Translating findings on discontinuities in care for hypertension and other chronic diseases to actionable policy insights can be facilitated by collaboration with local stakeholders, triangulation of data sources, and identifying the intersection between the feasible and the effective in defining solutions to service delivery challenges.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Hipertensão/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comunicação , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Tadjiquistão
14.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.5, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716389

RESUMO

Alburnoides holciki was described from the Hari River basin, which was the only basin it was known from. Populations from the Amu Darya basin were previously recognized as A. eichwaldii or Alburnoides sp. Our study recognized specimens of Alburnoides from the Amu Darya basin as A. holciki based on morphological data and the COI barcode gene. The population from the Zeravshan basin showed some morphological differences compared to others but were similar in the COI gene and needs further investigation. New results extend the range of A. holciki for almost 1000 km -from the Hari River to the upper Amu Darya tributaries in Tajikistan. The intraspecific genetic similarity in the COI gene between populations in the Hari and Amu Darya rivers supports the geographical hypothesis of a recent connection of these rivers.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Ásia Central , Rios , Tadjiquistão
15.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.12, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716421

RESUMO

A taxonomic and biogeographic review of thirteen species of Encephalus Stephens 1832 and Gyrophaena Mannerheim 1830 (Aleocharinae: Gyrophaenina) of Middle Asia, with an emphasis on the fauna of Kazakhstan is provided. Gyrophaena (s.str.) aryanamensis Enushchenko, sp. nov. from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, and G. (s.str.) hochhuthi Bernhauer 1908 are re-(described) and illustrated. Several synonymies are established: Encephalus (s.str.) angusticollis Sahlberg 1880 = E. solskyi Heyden 1880 (replacement name of E. kraatzi Solsky 1875; not synonym of G. nitidula (Gyllenhal 1810)), resyn., = E. torosus Eppelsheim 1893, syn. nov.; G. (s.str.) affinis Mannerheim 1830 = G. glareicola Pace 2010, syn. nov., = G. kangasi Rutanen 1994, syn. nov., = G. ranongensis Pace 2005, syn. nov., = G. rosskotheni Wüsthoff 1937, syn. nov. Illustrations of habitus and sexual characters of E. angusticollis are provided. A key to the species of Gyrophaena of the laetula group of Kazakhstan is given. Several members of Gyrophaenina are recorded for the first time: E. angusticollis, G. (s.str.) bihamata Thomson 1867, G. (s.str.) congrua Erichson 1837, G. (s.str.) joyi Wendeler 1924, G. (s.str.) obsoleta Ganglbauer 1895, G. (Phaenogyra) strictula Erichson 1839 from Kazakhstan and Middle Asia, and G. (s.str.) hochhuthi from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and China.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia , China , Cazaquistão , Quirguistão , Tadjiquistão
16.
Zootaxa ; 4656(2): zootaxa.4656.2.11, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716832

RESUMO

The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 belongs to the family Pholcidae C.L. Koch, 1850, which is a species-rich group, including 94 genera and 1,716 species (World Spider Catalog 2019). Pholcus is mainly distributed in the Palaearctic, Indo-Malayan, Afrotropical, and Australasian Region (Huber 2011). The only exception is the Pholcus kingi group with ten species in the southeastern USA (Huber 2011). The genus includes species from a wide range of habitats, e.g., between buttresses, in small holes or caves, among and under large rocks, or on the underside of green leaves (Huber 2011). Many taxonomic changes were implemented on the latest molecular phylogeny analyses (Eberle et al. 2018; Huber et al. 2018), including nine new genera resulted from splitting Pholcus: Cantikus Huber, 2018, Kelabita Huber, 2018, Kintaqa Huber, 2018, Meraha Huber, 2018, Muruta Huber, 2018, Paiwana Huber, 2018, Pribumia Huber, 2018, Teranga Huber, 2018, and Tissahamia Huber, 2018. The genus Sihala Huber, 2011 was synonymized with Pholcus and the species Pholcus agadir Huber, 2011 was moved to Micropholcus Deeleman-Reinhold Prinsen, 1987 (Huber et al. 2018). Nevertheless, Pholcus continues to be the most species-rich genus in Pholcidae and currently includes 328 species belonging to 21 species-groups [previously: 393 species and 32 species-groups] (Huber 2011; Huber et al. 2018; World Spider Catalog 2019). One of the generic species-groups, the Pholcus nenjukovi species-group, contains eight species and occurs in northeastern Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Russia (the single record of Pholcus sidorenkoi Dunin, 1994 from Russia is dubious, see Huber 2011: 339). In the present study, we describe a new species from southwestern Tibet, China assigned to the Pholcus nenjukovi species-group. This distribution represents the eastern most record for the species-group (Fig. 1).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Afeganistão , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Irã (Geográfico) , Federação Russa , Tadjiquistão , Tibet
17.
Zootaxa ; 4629(3): zootaxa.4629.3.5, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712510

RESUMO

The Evaniidae from the Russian fauna is reviewed. Three ensign or hatchet wasp genera and species occur only in the European part of Russia (West of Urals Mountains): Brachygaster minutus (Olivier, 1791), Evania dimidiata Spinola, 1838, and Prosevania fuscipes (Illiger, 1807). Species were also recorded in the following countries for the first time: B. minutus in Abkhazia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and in the numerous localities of the European part of Russia; Evania dimidiata in North Caucasus of Russia (Dagestan); Prosevania fuscipes in Abkhazia. A new species with distinct sexual dimorphism, Brachygaster gussakovskiji sp. nov., is described from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Azerbaijão , República da Geórgia , Cazaquistão , Quirguistão , Federação Russa , Tadjiquistão , Uzbequistão
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 908, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern threathing the success of TB control efforts, and this is particularily problematic in Central Asia. Here, we present the first analysis of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the Central Asian republics Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. METHODS: The study set consisted of 607 isolates with 235 from Uzbekistan, 206 from Tajikistan, and 166 from Kyrgyzstan. 24-loci MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) typing and spoligotyping were combined for genotyping. In addition, phenotypic drug suceptibility was performed. RESULTS: The population structure mainly comprises strains of the Beijing lineage (411/607). 349 of the 411 Beijing isolates formed clusters, compared to only 33 of the 196 isolates from other clades. Beijing 94-32 (n = 145) and 100-32 (n = 70) formed the largest clusters. Beijing isolates were more frequently multidrug-resistant, pre-extensively resistant (pre-XDR)- or XDR-TB than other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Beijing clusters 94-32 and 100-32 are the dominant MTB genotypes in Central Asia. The relative size of 100-32 compared to previous studies in Kazakhstan and its unequal geographic distribution support the hypothesis of its more recent emergence in Central Asia. The data also demonstrate that clonal spread of resistant TB strains, particularly of the Beijing lineage, is a root of the so far uncontroled MDR-TB epidemic in Central Asia.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Genótipo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Tadjiquistão/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510061

RESUMO

The involvement of chromosome changes in the initial steps of speciation is controversial. Here we examine diversification trends within the mole voles Ellobius, a group of subterranean rodents. The first description of their chromosome variability was published almost 40 years ago. Studying the G-band structure of chromosomes in numerous individuals revealed subsequent homologous, step-by-step, Robertsonian translocations, which changed diploid numbers from 54 to 30. Here we used a molecular cytogenetic strategy which demonstrates that chromosomal translocations are not always homologous; consequently, karyotypes with the same diploid number can carry different combinations of metacentrics. We further showed that at least three chromosomal forms with 2n = 34 and distinct metacentrics inhabit the Pamir-Alay mountains. Each of these forms independently hybridized with E. tancrei, 2n = 54, forming separate hybrid zones. The chromosomal variations correlate slightly with geographic barriers. Additionally, we confirmed that the emergence of partial or monobrachial homology appeared to be a strong barrier for hybridization in nature, in contradistinction to experiments which we reported earlier. We discuss the possibility of whole arm reciprocal translocations for mole voles. Our findings suggest that chromosomal translocations lead to diversification and speciation.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Animais , Arvicolinae/classificação , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Diploide , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Cariótipo , Tadjiquistão
20.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 38(1): 17, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387643

RESUMO

Household nutrition is influenced by interactions between food security and local knowledge negotiated along multiple axes of power. Such processes are situated within political and economic systems from which structural inequalities are reproduced at local, national, and global scales. Health beliefs and food taboos are two manifestations that emerge within these processes that may contribute beneficial, benign, or detrimental health outcomes. This study explores the social dimensions of food taboos and health beliefs in rural Khatlon province, Tajikistan and their potential impact on household-level nutrition. Our analysis considers the current and historical and political context of Tajikistan, with particular attention directed towards evolving gender roles in the wake of mass out-migration of men from 1990 to the present. Considering the patrilieneal, patrilocal social system typical to Khatlon, focus group discussions were conducted with the primary decision-making groups of the household: in-married women, mothers-in-law, and men. During focus groups, participants discussed age- and gender-differentiated taboos that call for avoidance of several foods central to the Tajik diet during sensitive periods in the life cycle when micronutrient and energy requirements peak: infancy and early childhood (under 2 years of age), pregnancy, and lactation. Participants described dynamic and complex processes of knowledge sharing and food practices that challenge essentialist depictions of local knowledges. Our findings are useful for exploring entaglements of gender and health that play out across multiple spatial and temporal scales. While this study is situated in the context of nutrition and agriculture extension, we hope researchers and practitioners of diverse epistemologies will draw connections to diverse areas of inquiry and applications.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Tabu , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Preferências Alimentares , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Política , Gravidez , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Tadjiquistão , Adulto Jovem
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