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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321377

RESUMO

Zoonotic taeniasis caused by the adult stage of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica are considered neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. The life cycle of these 3 metazoan species is very similar and includes an intermediate host: pigs in the case of T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle in the case of T. saginata. By eating meat (pork/T. solium, T. asiatica; beef/T. saginata) containing live cysticerci, humans develop taeniasis, which is practically asymptomatic but is the main risk factor for intermediate hosts to become infected. T. saginata causes bovine cysticercosis, while T. solium and T. asiatica cause swine cysticercosis, of veterinary and economic importance. T. solium cysticerci cause neurological disease in humans: neurocysticercosis. Cysticerci develop after ingesting microscopic eggs released from a human tapeworm carrier. Here we describe the life stages of the parasites, diagnosis, pathogenesis, symptomatology of neurocysticercosis, and prevention and control measures. Highlighting the need to validate diagnostic tools, treatments and vaccination in endemic areas, with the challenge of addressing the most vulnerable populations that lack resources. If people understand the transmission route, avoid eating uncooked or insufficiently cooked meat and have adequate hygienic habits, the life cycle of the 3 zoonotic Taenia species may be interrupted. In addition, we describe the growing field of immune response and immunomodulation elicited by the parasites, which may provide essential tools for diagnosis, treatment, control of taeniasis/cysticercosis, as well as for identification of parasite-derived immunomodulators that could aid in the treatment of emerging inflammatory diseases worldwide.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/fisiologia , Teníase/transmissão , Teníase/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 201-204, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418391

RESUMO

Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Taenia saginata , Teníase/diagnóstico , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/epidemiologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 92, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis has been well studied in several countries. Brazil is one of the most important beef exporting countries and has one of the highest cattle population size in the world. In this country, bovine cysticercosis (BCC) remains the most frequent reported zoonosis detected during post-mortem inspection, resulting in costs for the beef sector and public health. We performed a systematic literature review regarding data about BCC epidemiology in Brazil and meta-analyses for its prevalence in different administrative regions and the distribution over time, and based on this discussed possible control strategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to obtain data about BCC in Brazil using the words "bovine cysticercosis" and "Brazil" to construct the search phrase. The inclusion criteria used to select articles were: (i) published from 2000 to 2018; (ii) full text available online in Portuguese or English; and (iii) contain information at least regarding one of the following aspects of BCC in Brazil: prevalence, incidence, spatial distribution, risk-factors, economic burden and measures for control. RESULTS: A set of 42 articles was included, covering the prevalence of BCC in Brazil, ranging between 0.01-18.75%. Prevalence results of 40 articles were included in a meta-analysis per administrative region. The highest prevalence was found in the South (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2%), followed by the Southeast (2.7%; 95% CI: 1.9-3.6%), Northeast (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.6-2.7%), Central-western (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3-1.7%) and North (0.0%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.6%) region. In addition, a reduction in prevalence over time was observed in all the evaluated states except for Alagoas and Pará. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the large availability of data, a critical lack of information about BCC epidemiology remains in Brazil. Nevertheless, the available data on prevalence, high risk-areas and risk factors should contribute to a better understanding of transmission and the formulation of recommendations for control. A One Health approach will be required to reduce T. saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis prevalence and the consequent economic burden for the beef sector in Brazil, one of the most important beef exporters in the world.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Taenia saginata/classificação , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia saginata/fisiologia
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765613

RESUMO

There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillance systems may offer a solution to this challenge by applying risk analysis principles; first to set priorities, and secondly to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The latter is done through a focus on the cost-effectiveness ratio in sampling and prioritisation. Risk-based surveillance was originally introduced into veterinary public health in 2006. Since then, experience has been gathered, and the methodology has been further developed. Guidelines and tools have been developed, which can be used to set up appropriate surveillance programmes. In this paper, the basic principles are described, and by use of a surveillance design tool called SURVTOOLS (https://survtools.org/), examples are given covering three meat-borne parasites for which risk-based surveillance is 1) either in place in the European Union (EU) (Trichinella spp.), 2) to be officially implemented in December 2019 (Taenia saginata) or 3) only carried out by one abattoir company in the EU as there is no official EU requirement (Toxoplasma gondii). Moreover, advantages, requirements and limitations of risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites are discussed.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Animais , Prioridades em Saúde/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Teníase/transmissão , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Triquinelose/transmissão
7.
Euro Surveill ; 24(35)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481148

RESUMO

BackgroundFew case reports on human infections with the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata and the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, diagnosed in Belgium have been published, yet the grey literature suggests a higher number of cases.AimTo identify and describe cases of taeniasis and cysticercosis diagnosed at two Belgian referral medical institutions from 1990 to 2015.MethodsIn this observational study we retrospectively gathered data on taeniasis and cysticercosis cases by screening laboratory, medical record databases as well a uniform hospital discharge dataset.ResultsA total of 221 confirmed taeniasis cases were identified. All cases for whom the causative species could be determined (170/221, 76.9%) were found to be T. saginata infections. Of those with available information, 40.0% were asymptomatic (26/65), 15.4% reported diarrhoea (10/65), 9.2% reported anal discomfort (6/65) and 15.7% acquired the infection in Belgium (11/70). Five definitive and six probable cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC), and two cases of non-central nervous system cysticercosis (non-CNS CC) were identified. Common symptoms and signs in five of the definitive and probable NCC cases were epilepsy, headaches and/or other neurological disorders. Travel information was available for 10 of the 13 NCC and non-CNS CC cases; two were Belgians travelling to and eight were immigrants or visitors travelling from endemic areas.ConclusionsThe current study indicates that a non-negligible number of taeniasis cases visit Belgian medical facilities, and that cysticercosis is occasionally diagnosed in international travellers.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Teníase/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 417-422, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533409

RESUMO

From October 2015 to August 2018, tapeworm proglottids were obtained from 10 patients who were residents of Daegu and Gyeongbuk provinces and had a history of raw beef consumption. Most of them had no overseas travel experience. The gravid proglottids obtained from the 10 cases had 15-20 lateral uterine branches. A part of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) DNA of the 10 cases, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with AleI restriction enzyme, produced the same band pattern of Taenia saginata, which differentiated from T. asiatica and T. solium. Sequences of ITS1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) showed higher homology to T. saginata than to T. asiatica and T. solium. Collectively, these 10 cases were identified as T. saginata human infections. As taeniasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans, it is necessary to maintain hygienic conditions during livestock farming to avoid public health concerns.


Assuntos
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , República da Coreia , Mapeamento por Restrição , Homologia de Sequência , Taenia saginata/classificação , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105117, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369727

RESUMO

The Snakes and Ladders board game was modified so that it contained information on taeniasis. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate if elementary school children were able to answer correctly more questions about Taenia saginata and Taenia solium transmission and control after playing the game compared to before playing the game. In total, 78 children (9-12 years of age) from Dukuh elementary school in Karangasem District, Bali, Indonesia, were evaluated. The children were asked to complete a pre- and post-test assessment before and after playing the game a single time. Overall proportion of correct answers was 40.3% before playing the game and 58.8% after playing the game. There was a greater proportion of correct answers for questions pertaining to the transmission route for T. saginata (p < 0.001) and T. solium (p < 0.001), human infection type with T. solium (p = 0.035) and T. saginata (p < 0.001), and animal infection type with T. solium or T. saginata (p < 0.001) after playing the game compared to before playing the game. However, there was no significant difference for any question for the youngest grade level. Use of this popular board game appears to be a promising tool for teaching older (10 years of age and above) children about taeniasis in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos , Conhecimento , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Teníase , Animais , Criança , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Registros , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/transmissão
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 313-318, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284357

RESUMO

In recent years, the taeniasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). But in this study, we intend to report 4 taeniasis cases caused by Taenia saginata during a 5-month period (February to June 2018) at a unversity hospital in Gwangju, Korea. Worm samples (proglottids) discharged from all cases were identified by phenotypic and molecular diagnostics. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences showed 99.4-99.9% identity with T. saginata but, differed by 4% from T. asiatica and by 7% from T. multiceps, respectively. We found that tapeworms in 2 cases (Cases 2 and 3) yielded exactly the same sequences between them, which differed from those in Cases 1 and 4, suggesting intra-species variation in tapeworms. These taeniasis cases by T. saginata infection in this study, which occurred within a limited time period and region, suggest the possibility of a mini-outbreak. This study highlights the need for further epidemiological investigation of potentially overlooked cases of T. saginata infection in Korea.


Assuntos
Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Taenia saginata/classificação , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/diagnóstico
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 135-141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As is the case for all of Southeast Europe, Serbia is an area traditionally endemic for Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections. This study was performed to analyse the epidemiological data on taeniosis and cysticercosis in Serbia for the period 1990-2018. METHODS: Data on cases of T. saginata and T. solium infection were collected via a systematic search of published articles, the grey literature, and official reports, as well as by performing clinical observational studies of patients treated in the departments for infectious diseases of hospitals and university clinics in Serbia. RESULTS: A total of 212 cases of taeniosis were reported, all between 1997 and 2004 when taeniosis was notifiable (incidence range 0.04-0.9/100 000 population/year). From 1990 to 2018, 170 cases of cysticercosis (all but one of neurocysticercosis), were registered (incidence range 0-0.29/100 000 population/year), with a strong decrease since 2000 and a single case in the last 9 years. The annual number of cases of both taeniosis (Pearson's r = 0.914, p = 0.001) and cysticercosis (Pearson's r = 0.582, p = 0.014) correlated with the consumer price index. CONCLUSIONS: In Serbia, T. saginata and T. solium infections are autochthonous but occur only sporadically. However, the potential for re-emergence exists, depending on the socio-economic state of the country.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Teníase/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taenia saginata , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 324, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic tapeworm Taenia saginata, although causing only minor discomfort in humans, is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock sector due to condemnation or downgrading of infected beef carcasses. An overview of current knowledge on the distribution and prevalence of this parasite in West and Central Africa is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, collecting information on published and grey literature about T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis from 27 countries/territories in West and Central Africa, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: The literature search retrieved 1672 records, of which 51 and 45 were retained for a qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Non-specified human taeniosis cases were described for Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic Congo, Guinea, and Ivory Coast (seven out of 27 countries/territories), while T. saginata taeniosis specifically was only reported for Cameroon. Most prevalence estimates for taeniosis ranged between 0-11%, while three studies from Nigeria reported prevalence estimates ranging between 23-50%. None of the studies included molecular confirmation of the causative species. The presence of bovine cysticercosis was reported for Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tristan da Cunha (14 out of 27 countries/territories). Prevalence estimates ranged between 0-29%. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review has revealed that human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis are seriously understudied in West and Central Africa. The high prevalence estimates of both conditions suggest an active dissemination of this parasite in the region, calling for a concerted One Health action from public health, veterinary health and food surveillance sectors.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Gado/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , África Central/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 175, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata transmits between humans, the definitive host (causing taeniosis), and bovines as the intermediate host (causing cysticercosis). Central and western Asia and the Caucasus have large cattle populations and beef consumption is widespread. However, an overview of the extent of human T. saginata infection and bovine cysticercosis is lacking. This review aims to summarize the distribution of T. saginata in this region. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, that gathered published and grey literature, and official data concerning T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in central and western Asia and the Caucasus published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2018. Where no data were available for a country within this period, published data from 1985-1990 were also accessed. RESULTS: From 10,786 articles initially scanned, we retrieved 98 full-text articles from which data were extracted. In addition, two unpublished datasets were provided on the incidence of human taeniosis. Data for human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis were found for all countries except Turkmenistan. Human taeniosis prevalence varied from undetected to over 5.3%, with regional variations. Where bovine cysticercosis was detected, prevalences varied from case reports to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The public health burden of T. saginata is assumed to be small as the parasite is of low pathogenicity to humans. However, this review indicates that infection continues to be widespread and this may result in a large economic burden, due to the resources utilized in meat inspection and condemnation or processing with subsequent downgrading of infected carcasses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Taenia saginata , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia Ocidental/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Humanos , Transcaucásia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 113, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata utilizes bovines as an intermediate host (causing cysticercosis) and humans as the definitive host (causing taeniosis). The public health burden of T. saginata is assumed to be low, but the economic burden is large, due to the resources utilized in the detection and condemnation of infected carcasses and carcass parts. As part of a collaborative effort to synthesize worldwide epidemiological data on this parasite, we present here the results of a systematic review on the distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). METHODS: Information on the occurrence and prevalence of T. saginata taeniosis and cysticercosis in the MENA region was obtained through a systematic review of published and grey literature, including OIE reports, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 63 publications were retrieved across the 21 MENA countries. Taenia saginata taeniosis was reported in 11 of these countries, whereas unspecified taeniosis was reported for a further seven. Microscopy-based prevalence values ranged between 0.02-8.6%. Bovine cysticercosis prevalence estimates based on meat inspection were only reported for Egypt and Israel, with prevalence data ranging between 0.2-20% and 0.1-9.1% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The presence of bovine cysticercosis could be confirmed for 10 additional countries through OIE reports. CONCLUSIONS: Human taeniosis occurrence was confirmed for 86% (18/21) of the countries in the MENA region, although in several of these countries the species responsible was not specified. Religious prohibitions on the consumption of pork and the limited extent of pig farming across much of this region, however, suggest that many reported taeniosis cases are likely to be attributable to T. saginata rather than Taenia solium or Taenia asiatica. There was a paucity of data regarding both the prevalence and economic impact of bovine cysticercosis. More detailed epidemiological data on both T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis could be obtained by adopting an integrated "One Health" approach, considering the characteristics (e.g. ecosystem related and sociopolitical aspects) of the MENA region. Compared with more conventional approaches, this could lead to an enhanced performance and cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Teníase/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Taenia saginata
16.
J Helminthol ; 94: e45, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873931

RESUMO

We report four cases of Taenia saginata taeniasis in different urban communities of Aragua state, Venezuela. After subsequent treatment with praziquantel and a saline purge, adult tapeworms were collected from all four patients and demonstrated to be T. saginata by morphological and molecular characterization. The finding of T. saginata in four distinct and separate urban municipalities of the Aragua state indicates the pertinence of rigorous meat inspection, and the importance of establishing parasite prevalence in human and bovine Venezuelan populations.


Assuntos
Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Taenia saginata/classificação , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico , População Urbana , Venezuela
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007261, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870421

RESUMO

Taenia solium is known to cause human cysticercosis while T. saginata does not. Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies on the oncosphere and the postoncospheral (PO) forms of T. solium and T. saginata may help to elucidate why cysticercosis can occur from one and not the other. The aim of this study was to use in vitro culture assays and in vivo models to study the differences in the development of the T. solium and T. saginata oncosphere. Furthermore, this study aimed to evaluate the expression of cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which were stimulated by these oncospheres and PO antigens. T. solium and T. saginata activated oncospheres (AO) were cultured in INT-407 and HCT-8 intestinal cells for 180 days. The T. solium began to die while the T. saginata grew for 180 days and developed to cysticerci in INT-407 cells. Rats were inoculated intracranially with AO and PO forms of either T. saginata or T. solium. Rats infected with T. solium AO and PO forms developed neurocysticercosis (NCC), while those infected with the T. saginata did not. Human PMBCs were stimulated with antigens of AO and PO forms of both species, and the production of cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured. The T. solium AO antigen stimulated a higher production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-2 cytokines compared to T. saginata AO. In the PO form, the T. saginata PO antigen increased the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-12 cytokines compared to T. solium, suggesting that this global immune response stimulated by different forms could permit survival or destruction of the parasite depending of their life-cycle stage. Regarding MMPs, T. solium AO antigen stimulated a higher production of MMP-9 compared to T. saginata AO antigen, which may be responsible for altering the permeability of intestinal cells and facilitating breakdown of the blood-brain barrier during the process of invasion of host tissue.


Assuntos
Taenia saginata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taenia saginata/patogenicidade , Taenia solium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Sangue/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Metaloproteases/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Ratos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 115, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is the common parasitic infection in the general population of the Republic of Korea, however, taeniasis is scarcely reported recently. Here, we describe a case of co-infection with the cestode T. saginata in a patient with subclinical clonorchiasis diagnosed by a combination of diagnostic tools in Korea. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man visited the hospital having passed proglottids in his stool for the past two months and brought a stool sample with segments to our hospital. He had no abdominal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation. He used to consume raw beef and fish frequently. We could not find evidence of gravid proglottids which contain fully developed uteri filled with ova or branched uterine structures, within the submitted sample. To identify the tapeworm species, we carried out molecular analyses on the proglottids. The cox1 and ef1a sequences had a 100% match with those of T. saginata and differed from the sequences of the other Taenia species. Upon examination of stool samples fixed by formalin-ether concentration method, no Taenia species ova were observed in 10 slides. Instead, C. sinensis ova were observed, despite the level of IgG specific to C. sinensis being within the normal range. The patient was treated with praziquantel (25 mg/kg, three times a day) for 3 days, and subsequently C. sinensis ova were not found in his stool. CONCLUSION: Our case indicates that a combination of morphological, serological, and molecular diagnostic tools should be used for the accurate diagnosis of subclinical parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Taenia saginata/genética , Teníase/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Clonorquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Clonorquíase/etiologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia , Taenia saginata/patogenicidade , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico , Teníase/etiologia
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 266: 88-95, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736954

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess in vitro the transmission potential of T. saginata eggs stored in different media at various temperatures, and to optimize recovery, hatching and activation methods. A total of 42 freshwater and 42 silt samples were spiked with 100 µl of a T. saginata egg suspension, of which half were stored at 5 °C and the other half at 20 °C. Additionally, 5 silt and 35 tap water control samples were included. Eggs were obtained from gravid proglottids passed by a human carrier following treatment. The duration of the experiment was 6 months, with three sampling time points at 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively (Study 1). In addition, two pilot studies were carried out. One included 8 samples kept in a freshwater stream for a period of 2 and 4 months, respectively, from December 2016 until February 2017 (Study 2). Another study used 6 water samples which were stored for one week in the freezer at -18 °C, and 6 samples that were stored outdoor from 7 to 14 February, at temperatures ranging from - 6 °C to 5 °C (Study 3). To assess survival of T. saginata eggs, recovery, hatching and activation methods were optimized. Taenia saginata eggs could be activated after 6 months of storage in water and silt at 5 °C. Storage at 20 °C significantly decreased activation of the eggs, to 4 months when stored in water and 2 months when stored in silt. Furthermore, degenerative changes in oncospheres were observed when eggs were stored at 20 °C, which were associated with an increased loss of oncospheres during activation. Eggs could be activated after 4 months of storage in the stream at temperatures ranging from - 10 °C to 17 °C, as well as after one week of constant freezing at - 18 °C, or repeated freezing and thawing from - 6 °C to 5 °C. This study indicates that T. saginata eggs can survive a Northern European winter, and thus pose a significant risk of transmission, and that in vitro activation is a more accurate method for assessing the transmission potential of T. saginata eggs, than recovery, integrity and hatching. Studies will be needed to assess how accurate the in vitro activation correlates to in vivo infectivity to ensure an accurate assessment of the transmission potential at a larger scale for surveillance purposes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Óvulo/fisiologia , Taenia saginata/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Meios de Cultura , Congelamento , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos , Teníase/parasitologia
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