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1.
Gene ; 834: 146650, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680022

RESUMO

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most widespread gastrointestinal parasites and its larvae (cysticercosis) causes significant economic loss to rabbit industry. No efficient drug is available for this disease to date. To better understand its genomics, we assembled a 211-Mb high quality genome of T. pisiformis at chromosome level with a scaffold N50 size of 20 Mbp. Totally, 12,097 protein-coding genes was predicted from the genome. Genome-level phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliations with other tapeworms and revealed that T. pisiformis diverged from its closely related relative T. hydatigena âˆ¼ 14.6 Mya. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that the T. pisiformis genome was characterized by adaptive features of strong positive selection signals from carbohydrate/lipid metabolism and body surface integrity, and of expanded gene families related to metabolism of amino acids and lipids. The high-quality genome of T. pisiformis constitutes a resource for the comparative genomics and for further applications in general parasitology.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Taenia , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Filogenia , Coelhos , Taenia/genética
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 238: 108281, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594932

RESUMO

Copro-microscopic diagnostic methods are the most common approach for screening patients with parasitic infections. However, expertise is required to identify helminthic eggs from fecal specimens. Consequently, new methods are required to support accurate species identification. Novel technologies have recently been developed for the classification of organisms, including geometric morphometric (GM) approaches. In this study, the outline-based GM approach was used to distinguish the eggs of 12 common human parasite species, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, Capillaria philippinensis, Opisthorchis spp., Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Schistosoma mekongi, Taenia spp., Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana. The GM analysis revealed that the size cannot be used as the main variable in the identification of parasite species at the egg stage, producing only 30.18% overall accuracy. However, comparisons of shape based on the Mahalanobis distances between pairs of parasite species showed significant differences in all pairs (p < 0.05). The shape analysis produced 84.29% overall accuracy. This is the first time that outline-based GM has been preliminarily confirmed as a valuable approach to support copro-microscopic analysis, in order to effectively screen helminth eggs. However, further studies with a larger set of helminth eggs and artefacts should be carried out to increase confidence in the identification of parasite species in the absence of local experts.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Taenia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Trichuris
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 238: 108265, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525309

RESUMO

Taenia crassiceps is often used as experimental model for T. solium cysticercosis studies. Currently cysticercosis antiparasitic treatment is based on albendazole and praziquantel which may present side effects and parasitic resistance. The search for other antiparasitic drugs is necessary. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) and flubendazole (FLB) are broad spectrum antiparasitic drugs that present anti-cysticercosis effect. Metabolic analyses help to determine the impact of these drugs on parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on the production and excretion of organic metabolites in T. crassiceps cysticerci after in vitro exposure to NTZ and FLB, isolated or in combination. T. crassiceps cysticerci were culture in RPMI medium and exposed to 10 µg/mL of NTZ, 10 µg/mL of FLB or 10 µg/mL of NTZ +10 µg/mL of FLB. 24 h after exposure, the parasites were chromatographic analyzed to determine the impact of these drugs on glycolysis, homolactic fermentation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acids oxidation and proteins catabolism. It was possible to determine that the drugs combination induced greater metabolic impact on cysticerci in comparison to the isolated drugs exposure. The drugs combination induced gluconeogenesis, metabolic acidosis, increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle and in proteins catabolism. While the NTZ isolated exposure induced metabolic acidosis and protein catabolism and the FLB isolate exposure induced gluconeogenesis and protein catabolism. These results show that the combination of drugs with different modes of action increase the antiparasitic effect and may be indicated as alternative cysticercosis treatments.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cysticercus , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nitrocompostos , Estresse Fisiológico , Tiazóis
4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100711, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431069

RESUMO

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stages of Taenia hydatigena has a significant global impact on livestock production, particularly of goats and sheep. Despite this, global data on prevalence and genetic variance of this parasite are still scarce. In Ghana, as in most African countries, numerous anecdotal observations agree that it is widespread and frequent. To obtain baseline data, we screened 251 goats and 248 sheep in northern Ghana (Upper East Region) for T. hydatigena metacestode and molecularly characterized the isolates using the mtDNA cox1 gene sequence. Prevalence was 58.57% in goats and 60.48% in sheep, confirming the abundance of this parasite in the region. Gene sequences revealed high diversity (π 0.00346, hd 0.809) and significant negative Tajima D and Fu's Fs values, a characteristic of a population experiencing an expansion after a recent bottleneck. This is the first account of the genetic structure of T. hydatigena in Ghana, intended as a basis for subsequent studies in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Taenia , Animais , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Gado , Filogenia , Dados Preliminares , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 84, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279199

RESUMO

Taenia multiceps is a taeniid cestode that inhabits the small intestines of both wild and domestic carnivores. The larval stage, Coenurus cerebralis, is typically found in the central nervous system (CNS) of a wide range of livestock and, to a lesser extent, in the extra-cerebral tissues of sheep and goats. This review covers all aspects of the life cycle of T. multiceps and its epidemiology, molecular characterization, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, control and zoonotic potential. Coenurosis caused by the larval stage of T. multiceps has a worldwide distribution and is often fatal in intermediate hosts, which can result in substantial economic losses in livestock farming. Molecular characterization using the mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 of different T. multiceps populations has revealed significant genetic variation and the presence of three major haplotypes. The disease mostly affects young sheep and is referred to as either acute or chronic coenurosis. Acute coenurosis occurs as a result of oncospheres migrating through the CNS, while chronic coenurosis occurs as a consequence of the coenurus maturing, which causes displacement and pressure atrophy of brain tissue. Non-cerebral coenurosis has been most commonly reported in goats. The best diagnostic method for cerebral coenurosis involves the interpretation of clinical signs with accurate localization of the cyst using diagnostic imaging techniques. A vaccine based on recombinant oncosphere antigens has proved to be an effective tool against T. multiceps infection in sheep. Additionally, use of anthelmintics during the parasite's migration stages reduces the development of cysts in the sheep brain. Surgery is considered the most effective method for the treatment of cerebral coenurosis in small ruminants, but is often not carried out because of the limited finances of many sheep and goat breeders. However, coenurosis can also be controlled effectively through preventative measures, such as anthelmintic treatment of dogs and the proper disposal of intermediate host carcasses. The parasite is also zoonotic, and cases of coenurosis have been reported in humans with coenuri located in the brain, spinal cord and eyes.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Cisticercose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Taenia , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Cães , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética
6.
Parasitol Res ; 121(5): 1345-1354, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278128

RESUMO

Taenia hydatigena is a cosmopolitan tapeworm that uses canids or felines as definitive hosts, while the larval stage (metacestode), formerly referred to as cysticercus tenuicollis, infects a wide variety of intermediate hosts, in particular ruminants. In the present study, we used partial nucleotide sequences of the cox1 and nad1 genes of T. hydatigena from different animal species to analyse the intraspecies genetic diversity of this economically important parasite. Twenty-four samples of metacestodes or adults of T. hydatigena from infected sheep, chamois, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar, and dogs from Slovakia were collected and further analysed. Several haplotypes of T. hydatigena were identified with unique mutations that have not been previously recorded in Slovakia. Analysis of nucleotide polymorphism revealed the existence of 9 and 13 haplotypes, with relatively low nucleotide pairwise divergence ranging between 0.3-1.3 and 0.2-1.8% for the Hcox and Hnad haplotypes, respectively. In general, low nucleotide and high haplotype diversities in the overall population of T. hydatigena from the study indicate a high number of closely related haplotypes within the explored population; nucleotide diversity per site was low for cox1 (Pi = 0.00540) and slightly higher for nad1 (Pi = 0.00898). A molecular study confirmed the existence of genetic variation within T. hydatigena isolates from Slovakia. However, further investigations with more samples collected from different intermediate and definitive hosts are required in order to investigate the epidemiological significance of the apparent genetic differences observed in this study.


Assuntos
Cervos , Taenia , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Nucleotídeos , Filogenia , Ovinos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 28: 100680, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115119

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasite infections in livestock and companion animals in Mongolia have not been investigated sufficiently. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cyclophyllid cestodes (Taeniidae and Mesocestoididae) in Mongolian sheepdogs using copro-DNA analysis. Sheepdog fecal samples (n = 1242) were collected from five ecological zones (mountain taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, desert-steppe, and desert) and four geographical regions (Western, Khangai, Central, and Eastern) within 20 of the country's 21 provinces. Among the 1242 samples, 201 (16.2%) tested positive for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ribosomal 12S rRNA encoding genes of cyclophyllid cestodes. Prevalence in the mountain taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, desert-steppe, and desert zones was 29.2%, 15.4%, 15.1%, 20.1%, and 9.1%, respectively. Prevalence in the Western, Khangai, Central, and Eastern regions was 19.9%, 18.6%, 12.1%, and 12.8%, respectively. Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, and two Mesocestoides species (Mesocestoides sp.1 and Mesocestoides sp.2) were identified. T. hydatigena was found in the samples from all 20 provinces (all five zones and four regions), while T. multiceps was detected in the samples from 19 provinces (all five zones and four regions). Mesocestoides sp.1 infection was detected in the samples from all zones (except desert) and regions; it was detected in 14 provinces. Mesocestoides sp.2 infection was detected in the samples from all zones (except mountain taiga) and regions and found in seven provinces. Cyclophyllidea infection in sheepdogs is highly prevalent across Mongolia, representing a zoonotic risk. Implementation of a surveillance program for sheepdogs and their owners, and the wild animals in all ecological zones should be considered. In addition, control measures, including public awareness campaigns, especially for sheepdog owners, and periodic deworming of sheepdogs are warranted.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Mesocestoides , Taenia , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Prevalência , Taenia/genética
8.
Acta Trop ; 226: 106253, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822852

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) diagnosis by means of serological assays is hampered by the presence of parasites closely related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), responsible of the zoonotic disease and with which share cross-reacting antigens. Thus, improvements on the characterization of Echinococcus specific antigens expressed in the larval stage are required, in order to provide useful information for the development of immunological assays for the serodiagnosis of CE in sheep. Here, the proteome of the hydatid cyst fluids (HFs) of Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid fluid, EgHF) and other ovine parasites cyst fluids (CFs), Taenia hydatigena (ThCF) and Taenia multiceps (TmCF) were analyzed by a shotgun proteomic approach. Parasite and host protein profiles in the three types of cyst fluids were characterized and compared. Among the identified proteins, differential parasitic markers with serodiagnostic potential, due to their well-known immunoreactivity in human, included Ag5, AgB proteins, 8-kDa glycoproteins, hydatid disease diagnostic antigen P29 and major egg antigen P40. In particular, seven proteoforms of AgB and 8-kDa glycoprotein resulted to be the most promising diagnostic biomarkers, as they might predict CE in ovine and discriminate between different types of parasites.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Taenia , Animais , Líquido Cístico , Proteômica , Ovinos
9.
Parasitol Int ; 87: 102524, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863980

RESUMO

This study describes a subcutaneous proliferative cysticercosis in a pet steppe lemming, Lagurus lagurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), bred and imported from Czech Republic into Japan. Numerous metacestodes were collected from the subcutaneous cystic lesion of the left medial thigh. Four surgical removals were coupled with anthelmintic treatment but ended with recurrence. Based on morphological features and mitochondrial DNA sequences, the metacestodes were identified as the larval stage of Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800). This is the first case of infection with larval T. crassiceps in rodents of the genus Lagurus, and becomes the third case of the parasite detected from imported animals in Japan. Related public health concerns are discussed.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Taenia , Animais , Cisticercose/parasitologia , República Tcheca , Feminino , Japão , Taenia/genética , Taenia/patogenicidade
10.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106297, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968452

RESUMO

Historically, cysticercosis cases caused by infection with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm have occurred sporadically in Bali, with taeniasis carriers found primarily in villages located in the Kubu subdistrict of Karangasem. As Bali is a well-known tourist destination, living standards are relatively high on the island, except for an area located beneath the northeast slope of the active volcano Mt. Agung (Alt. 3031 m), which includes Kubu. Over the last 30 years, pigs originating from this area have been found with T. solium cysticerci, whereas pigs from other parts of the island have not been shown to be infected. Out of 108 individuals screened via fecal sample examination in Kubu during 2019, 3 cases of T. solium taeniasis (2.8%) were identified. There was no significant difference in taeniasis prevalence from surveys conducted in 2011-2016 (1.0%, 11/1089) (p = 0.123). Out of 110 humans and 140 pigs tested serologically in Kubu during 2019, no cases of cysticercosis were identified. This is in contrast to a seroprevalence of 4.1% (42/1025) in humans during 2011-2016 and a seroprevalence of 13.1% (43/329) in pigs during 2011-2013. Over the last decade, improved drinking water and sanitary systems have been employed in addition to health education targeting primary school children, including emphasis on washing hands before eating and after defecation. This review provides previously unpublished survey data and a historical overview of T. solium infection in Bali and offers guidance on best practices to ensure that remaining pockets of transmission are addressed.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Doenças dos Suínos , Taenia solium , Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/prevenção & controle , Cisticercose/veterinária , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/prevenção & controle
11.
Acta Trop ; 226: 106264, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919953

RESUMO

Cysticercosis is a zoonotic public health issue especially severe when the parasite is in the central nervous system although it may be found all over the human organism. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci inoculated in mice is the experimental model used to study cysticercosis. The most used cysticercosis treatment is with albendazole (ABZ). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has been experimentally tested against this parasite. Metabolic analysis has been used to determine drugs impact on the parasite. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo metabolic impact of the ABZ-NTZ combination in T. crassiceps cysticerci inoculated in mice peritoneal and intracranial cavities. Mice were experimentally inoculated with T. crassiceps cysticerci in the intraperitoneal cavity or in the intracranial one. Thirty days after the infection they were treated with NaCl 0.9% (control group), 50 mg/kg of ABZ, 50 mg/kg of NTZ or 50 mg/kg of NTZ and ABZ (ABZ/NTZ combination). 24 h after treatment the animals were euthanized and the cysticerci analyzed through high performance chromatography and spectrophotometry in order to detect the glycolytic, mitochondrial and protein catabolism pathways. The intracranial parasites used more intensely the homolactic fermentation while the intraperitoneal ones presented a greater use of the mitochondrial pathways and protein catabolism. Regarding the glycolytic pathways, it was possible to observe a significant impact induced by the drugs used, both isolated or in combination. It was possible to detect an increase in the fumarate reductase pathway after the drugs exposure and no impact in the protein's catabolism. Therefore, the cysticerci showed different uses of metabolic pathways regarding the site of inoculation due to the availability of nutrients inherent of each environment. This study showed the parasite metabolic resilience and capability of use of different biochemical pathways in order to ensure survival in spite of a hostile environment.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia , Albendazol , Animais , Cysticercus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nitrocompostos , Tiazóis
12.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106197, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688628

RESUMO

A gene silencing procedure on cysticerci of the taeniid cestode Taenia crassiceps is described. This is the first time this technique is reported in this species that is widely used as an animal model for human cysticercosis. Genome database searches were performed in order to find out if relevant genes involved in gene silencing and non-coding RNA processing, Argonaute and Dicer (AGO and Dcr) are present in T. crassiceps. We found three AGO and two Dcr orthologues that were designed TcAGO1, Tc2 and Tc3, as well as TcDcr1 and TcDcr2. In order to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of T. crassiceps TcAGO and TcDcr genes, separate phylogenetic analyses were carried out for each, including AGO and Dcr orthologues of other 20 platyhelminthes. Our findings showed a close phylogenetic relationship of TcAGO and TcDcr with those previously described for Echinococcus spp. Our RT-PCR studies demonstrated expression of all TcAGO and TcDcr orthologues. Our results show that the gene silencing machinery in T. crassiceps is functionally active by inducing silencing of TcEnoA (∼90%). These results clearly show that gene silencing using siRNAs can be used as a molecular methodology to study gene function in taeniid cestodes.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia , Animais , Cysticercus , Humanos , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Filogenia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Taenia/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830012

RESUMO

The transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality is often triggered by hybridization. The gametogenesis of many hybrid asexuals involves premeiotic genome endoreplication leading to bypass hybrid sterility and forming clonal gametes. However, it is still not clear when endoreplication occurs, how many gonial cells it affects and whether its rate differs among clonal lineages. Here, we investigated meiotic and premeiotic cells of diploid and triploid hybrids of spined loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitis) that reproduce by gynogenesis. We found that in naturally and experimentally produced F1 hybrids asexuality is achieved by genome endoreplication, which occurs in gonocytes just before entering meiosis or, rarely, one or a few divisions before meiosis. However, genome endoreplication was observed only in a minor fraction of the hybrid's gonocytes, while the vast majority of gonocytes were unable to duplicate their genomes and consequently could not proceed beyond pachytene due to defects in bivalent formation. We also noted that the rate of endoreplication was significantly higher among gonocytes of hybrids from natural clones than of experimentally produced F1 hybrids. Thus, asexuality and hybrid sterility are intimately related phenomena and the transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality must overcome significant problems with genome incompatibilities with a possible impact on reproductive potential.


Assuntos
Gametogênese/genética , Reprodução Assexuada/genética , Reprodução/genética , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Cipriniformes/genética , Cipriniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hibridização Genética , Meiose/genética , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105508, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655912

RESUMO

Cysticercosis in wild lagomorphs is caused by Cysticercus pisiformis, the larval stage of Taenia pisiformis. Although previous studies have reported the presence of T. pisiformis in different wild carnivore species, information about the prevalence of C. pisiformis in their intermediate hosts is still very scarce. An epidemiological surveillance program was carried out to determine the prevalence and spatiotemporal patterns of cysticercosis in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Spanish Mediterranean ecosystems. A total of 2,923 animals were sampled in 164 hunting estates from Andalusia (southern Spain) during four study periods: 2009-2012 (P1), 2012-2015 (P2), 2015-2018 (P3) and 2018-2020 (P4). The presence of cysticerci was assessed by macroscopical examination and a subset of the collected parasites were molecularly identified by conventional PCR targeting the ITS-1 and 12S rRNA partial genes of Taenia spp. Risk factors associated with cysticercus infection were assessed by generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. A spatial statistical analysis was carried out using a Bernoulli model to identify statistically significant spatial clusters. Cysticercus infection was confirmed in 81 (2.8 %; 95 % CI: 2.2-3.4) rabbits. Cysticerci from 18 infected animals were molecularly identified as T. pisiformis. The GEE model showed the study period as the only risk factor associated with C. pisiformis infection in wild rabbits. Significantly higher prevalence was found in P2 (6.1 %; 95 % CI: 4.4-8.4) compared to the rest of the periods. At least one cysticerci-positive animal was detected in 41 (25.0 %; 95 % CI: 18.4-31.6) out of the 164 hunting estates. No statistically significant spatial clusters of high cysticercus prevalence were identified. Our results indicate an endemic circulation of C. pisiformis in wild rabbits in southern Spain. The spatial results highlight a widespread distribution of this parasite in their populations. Further studies should focus in determining which sympatric species may act as definitive hosts for T. pisiformis and the relevance of other potential intermediate host species (e.g. hares and rodents), as the relevance of wild rabbits in the sylvatic cycle of this cestode in Mediterranean ecosystems seems to be low.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia , Animais , Cisticercose/veterinária , Cysticercus , Ecossistema , Coelhos , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1468-1471, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662862

RESUMO

This article analyzes data from scientific publications (mainly reviews) concerning the link between human neurocysticercosis and epilepsy. Along with data from our own studies on experimental hippocampal sclerosis induced by a Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor in mice, it explores the connection between mechanisms that likely favor the development of epilepsy in cases of human neurocysticercosis. The data from both sources suggest the idea that the T. solium metacestode factor causes hippocampal sclerosis and later epilepsy in humans with neurocysticercosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Neurocisticercose/fisiopatologia , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/etiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Esclerose , Taenia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 447, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tapeworm infections are among the tropical neglected parasitic diseases endemically occurring in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at estimating the pooled prevalence and distribution of Taenia and Echinococcus infections in humans and animals from reports from Ethiopia. METHODS: The systematic search was conducted in four bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Africa Journal Online and Science Direct). Additional data were retrieved from grey literature. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were considered for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted using MetaXL add-in for Microsoft Excel. Heterogeneity and inconsistency were evaluated using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics, respectively. RESULTS: The study provides a country-based database of Taenia and Echinococcus infections consisting of 311 datasets from 201 publications which were mostly abattoir surveys; of these, 251 datasets were subjected to meta-analysis. Most of the studies were from Oromia (32.8%) followed by Amhara (22.9%) regional states. The pooled prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in intermediate and accidental hosts was calculated as 22% (95% CI 18-26%) and high study variability (Q = 24,420.65, I2 = 100%, P = 0.000). Moreover, a pooled prevalence of Echinococcus infections in final hosts was calculated as 33% (95% CI 20-48%) and low study variability (Q = 17.24, I2 = 65%, P = 0.001). Similarly, study subjects (human, cattle, sheep, goat and wolf) were infected by Taenia spp. with pooled prevalence of 3% (95% CI 2-4%) and moderate study variability (Q = 279.07, I2 = 89, P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the pooled prevalence of Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis and T. multiceps infections in intermediate hosts were calculated as 38%, 14% and 5%, respectively. The random effect meta-analysis of bovine cysticercosis showed a pooled prevalence of 7% (95% CI 5-9%) and high study variability was of (Q = 4458.76; I2 = 99%, P = 0.000). Significant differences in prevalence of Taenia and Echinococcus infections between study sites or different livestock origins have been reported. CONCLUSION: The study evidenced a comprehensive dataset on the prevalence and distribution of Taenia and Echinococcus infections at different interfaces by regions and hosts and hence can aid in the design of more effective control strategies.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Prevalência , Taenia/genética
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3783-3794, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549347

RESUMO

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the metacestode of the parasite Taenia solium (T. solium). In humans, the most severe complication of the disease is neurocysticercosis. The drug of choice to treat this disease is albendazole; however, the bioavailability and efficacy of the drug are variable. Therefore, new molecules with therapeutic effects against this and other parasitic infections caused by helminths must be developed. Naphthoquinones are naphthalene-derived compounds that possess antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, and antiparasitic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anti-helminthic effect of 2-[(3-chlorophenylamino)phenylmethyl]-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, isolated from a natural source and then synthesized (naphthoquinone 4a), using an experimental model of murine cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps (T. crassiceps). This compound causes paralysis in the cysticerci membrane from day 3 of the in vitro treatment. Additionally, it induces changes in the shape, size, and appearance of the cysticerci and a decrease in the reproduction rate. In conclusion, naphthoquinone 4a has in vitro cysticidal activity on T. crassiceps cysticerci depending on the duration of the treatment and the concentration of the compound. Therefore, it is a promising drug candidate to be used in T. crassiceps and possibly T. solium infections.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Naftoquinonas , Taenia solium , Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cisticercose/veterinária , Cysticercus , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3245-3253, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386855

RESUMO

Taenia hydatigena is a globally distributed canine tapeworm. The canine tapeworm results in economic impacts for farmers owing to organ condemnation. T. hydatigena utilizes dogs and other carnivores as definitive hosts while swine and ruminants serve as intermediate hosts. T. hydatigena is endemic in Vietnam; however, information on the prevalence and risk factors associated with infection is scarce. This cross-sectional study aims to identify the prevalence of T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs and T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. The risk factors associated with taeniasis in dogs were identified using a fixed effects logistic regression model and quantified using population attributable fractions. The prevalence of T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs and T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle was 10.31% (95% CI 8.21 to 12.84%), 7.60% (95% CI 6.34 to 9.08%), and 11.11% (95% CI 7.63 to 11.81%), respectively; these levels were lower than those reported in other regions of Vietnam. The population attributable fraction of risk factors associated with T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs for dogs living in proximity of an abattoir, those having access to raw pork or beef viscera, and those living in multi-dog households were 80%, 19%, and 7%, respectively. This current study identified and quantified the risk factors for taeniasis in dogs thus advocating for targeted community intervention programs to break the lifecycle of T. hydatigena in Dak Lak province.


Assuntos
Taenia , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
19.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1004, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429506

RESUMO

Taenia hydatigena is a widespread gastrointestinal helminth that causes significant health problems in livestock industry. This parasite can survive in a remarkably wide range of intermediate hosts and affects the transmission dynamics of zoonotic parasites. T. hydatigena is therefore of particular interest to researchers interested in studying zoonotic diseases and the evolutionary strategies of parasites. Herein we report a high-quality draft genome for this tapeworm, characterized by some hallmarks (e.g., expanded genome size, wide integrations of viral-like sequences and extensive alternative splicing during development), and specialized adaptations related to its parasitic fitness (e.g., adaptive evolutions for teguments and lipid metabolism). Importantly, in contrast with the evolutionarily close trematodes, which achieve gene diversification associated with immunosuppression by gene family expansions, in T. hydatigena and other cestodes, this is accomplished by alternative splicing and gene loss. This indicates that these two classes have evolved different mechanisms for survival. In addition, molecular targets for diagnosis and intervention were identified to facilitate the development of control interventions. Overall, this work uncovers new strategies by which helminths evolved to interact with their hosts.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma Helmíntico , Taenia/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Longevidade/genética , Taenia/fisiologia
20.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102439, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418531

RESUMO

A total of 13 metacestodes were collected from the lung and parietal pleura from a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from the Peruvian Amazon. All metacestodes were identified as cysticerci of Taenia omissa by morphological and molecular analyzes. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences from the new isolate T. omissa had more than 96.8% identity with other Peruvian isolates of the species previously sequenced. Lower similarities (93.8-95.8%) were verified between Peruvian and Canadian isolates. This finding adds a new intermediate host for T. omissa and also expands its geographical distribution.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cervos , Masculino , Peru , Teníase/parasitologia
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