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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 23, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389226

RESUMO

High-rise residential developments are rapidly increasing in urban areas. Smaller residential units in this high rise bring a reduction in windows, resulting in poor indoor air ventilation. In addition, materials used in interiors can emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can significantly affect human health. Since people spend 90% of their time indoors, an evaluation of indoor air quality is especially important for high-rise residential buildings with an analysis of determining factors. This study aims to measure the concentrations of VOCs, formaldehyde, and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in 9 high-rise residential buildings in Bangkok by using the accidental sampling method (n = 252) and to investigate possible important determining factors. The results show that the average concentrations of VOCs, formaldehyde, PM2.5, and PM10 in 9 high-rise residential buildings were at good to moderate levels in the indoor air quality index (IAQI) and that high pollutant concentrations were rarely found except in new constructions. Moreover, it was found that the age of buildings shows strong correlations with all pollutants (p value < 0.0001). Old buildings showed significantly lower pollutant concentrations than new and under-construction buildings at a 95% confidence level. The findings from this investigation can be used as part of sustainable well-being design guidelines for future high-rise residential developments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Tailândia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 27: e929207, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397841

RESUMO

As of November 25, 2020, over 60 million people have been infected worldwide by COVID-19, causing almost 1.43 million deaths. Puzzling low incidence numbers and milder, non-fatal disease have been observed in Thailand and its Southeast (SE) Asian neighbors. Elusive genetic mechanisms might be operative, as a multitude of genetic factors are widely shared between the SE Asian populations, such as the more than 60 different thalassemia syndromes (principally dominated by the HbE trait). In this study, we have plotted COVID-19 infection and death rates in SE Asian (SEA) countries against heterozygote HbE and thalassemia carrier prevalence. COVID-19 infection and death incidence numbers appear inversely correlated with the prevalence of HbE and thalassemia heterozygote populations. We posit that the evolutionary protective effect of the HbE and other thalassemic variants against malaria and the dengue virus may extend its advantage to resistance to COVID-19 infection, as HbE heterozygote population prevalence appears to be positively correlated with immunity to COVID-19. Host immune system modulations induce antiviral interferon responses and alter structural protein integrity, thereby inhibiting cellular access and viral replication. These changes are possibly engendered by HbE carrier miRNAs. Proving this hypothesis is important, as it may shed light on the mechanism of viral resistance and lead to novel antiviral treatments. This development can thus guide decision-making and action to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hemoglobina E/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , /imunologia , Dengue/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Interferons , Malária/genética , Pandemias , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/genética
3.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 2): 128437, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045510

RESUMO

This study aimed to classify the possible molecular formulas of precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs) in raw, coagulated, and chlorinated water samples from the U-Tapao Canal, Songkhla, Thailand. The molecular formulas of DBPs in chlorinated water were investigated. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was employed as a coagulant. Orbitrap Fourier transform-mass spectrometry was able to estimate the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with the carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) elements contained and DBPs at the molecular level. The molecular formulas of the DOM in the raw water primarily consisted of CHO and CHON when extracted by lichrolut EN. The CHO and CHON species were rich in lignin-, tannin-, and condensed aromatic-like substances. The DOM with high-molecular-weight from 300 to 500 Da were preferentially removed by coagulation. The PACl coagulation decreased the abundances of lignin-, tannin-, and condensed aromatic-like substances in the CHO formulas, while lignin- and condensed aromatic-like substances in the CHON formulas remained. The remaining precursors corresponded to CHON molecules in the coagulated water, which may result in the formation of some chlorine (Cl)-containing molecules. Several DBPs among the CHOCl and CHONCl species were produced in the chlorinated water through the addition reaction of chlorine. New chlorinated N-DBPs of 21 formulas were detected.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Espectrometria de Massas , Tailândia , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 265: 128653, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131752

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been reported as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and its molecular characteristics are rarely investigated due to its complexity. In this study, changes in the characteristics of DOM were investigated in the lower Phong River in Thailand in dry season and after the first rain in rainy season, using a non-targeted analysis with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The river was rich with CHO features dominated by lignin-like molecules, while lipid-like molecules increase after domestic wastewater discharges. Wastewater discharge released DOM with higher molecular weight (MW) that was less oxygenated (low O/C) and less oxidized (low carbon oxidation state [Cos]). A lake affected by anthropogenic activities contributed more oxidized DOM into the river, while surface runoff carried DOM that is more oxygenated (high O/C), less hydrogenated (low H/C), and more oxidized (high Cos) to the stream. Water treatment further modified DOM to be lower MW. Approximately three hundred Cl-containing features (CHOCl) detected upstream were also found downstream. Disinfection by chlorine (Cl2) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) formed both CHO and CHOCl DBPs. Low chlorine dosage applied to upstream and downstream samples resulted in many common unknown DBPs while increasing chlorine dosage resulted in more unique DBPs. At the same dosage, Cl2 reacted with DOM more than ClO2, including more oxidized molecules that are refractory to ClO2. Both Cl2 and ClO2 produced chlorinated and non-chlorinated DBPs, and some DBPs were commonly found by both disinfections. Cl2-produced DBPs were more unsaturated (higher [DBE-O]/C) and oxidized (higher Cos) than ClO2-DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Compostos Clorados , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Espectrometria de Massas , Óxidos , Tailândia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111536, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126188

RESUMO

Land use change has generally been considered a cause and consequence of environmental change. Here, we interpreted the land cover in northern Southeast Asia (including parts of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and China) year by year from 2000 to 2018 with the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The results show that the areas of old growth forest, young growth forest and annual crops have changed dramatically in the study area. The average frequency of land use change was determined to be 5.4 times (that is, the land use changed every 3.4 years) by comparing the land use types in each year throughout the entire study period, and the frequency of land use change showed a significant agglomeration effect. In addition, there was a substantial difference between the land use change determined with an annual approach and that determined with the commonly used time-stage approach; time-stage land use change studies may overlook gradual change processes in land use change, which highlights the necessary of determining a suitable time period for studying land use change at the local scale. The results show that understanding land use volatility and agglomeration has become important to deepen the understanding of land use change and to help formulate land use policy.


Assuntos
Ásia Sudeste , China , Tailândia , Vietnã , Volatilização
6.
Food Chem ; 334: 127402, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711260

RESUMO

In this study, heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd in 55 Thai local rice (4 varieties) were measured using ICP-MS. Health risks were estimated from various Thai population groups, classified according to ages and genders. The potential impact on Thai population who consumed Thai local rice contained heavy metals was assessed by means of probabilistic approach. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic risks from heavy metal exposure was below the threshold limit of 1 for all rice varieties except Mn in Pka Am Pun rice and As in Pka Am Pun rice, Jek Chuey Sao Hai rice, and Leb Nok rice. Only the hazard index (HI) for consumption of Khaowong Kalasin sticky rice was below 1. The maximum cancer probabilities over the lifetime consumption of Thai local rice were in the range of 5 in 10,000 to 3 in 1000 chances in developing cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(1): 97-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination during pregnancy prevents influenza among women and their infants but remains underused among pregnant women. We aimed to quantify the risk of antenatal influenza and examine its association with perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study in pregnant women in India, Peru, and Thailand. Before the 2017 and 2018 influenza seasons, we enrolled pregnant women aged 18 years or older with expected delivery dates 8 weeks or more after the season started. We contacted women twice weekly until the end of pregnancy to identify illnesses with symptoms of myalgia, cough, runny nose or nasal congestion, sore throat, or difficulty breathing and collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs from symptomatic women for influenza real-time RT-PCR testing. We assessed the association of antenatal influenza with preterm birth, late pregnancy loss (≥13 weeks gestation), small for gestational age (SGA), and birthweight of term singleton infants using Cox proportional hazards models or generalised linear models to adjust for potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between March 13, 2017, and Aug 3, 2018, we enrolled 11 277 women with a median age of 26 years (IQR 23-31) and gestational age of 19 weeks (14-24). 1474 (13%) received influenza vaccines. 310 participants (3%) had influenza (270 [87%] influenza A and 40 [13%] influenza B). Influenza incidences weighted by the population of women of childbearing age in each study country were 88·7 per 10 000 pregnant woman-months (95% CI 68·6 to 114·8) during the 2017 season and 69·6 per 10 000 pregnant woman-months (53·8 to 90·2) during the 2018 season. Antenatal influenza was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·4, 95% CI 0·9 to 2·0; p=0·096) or having an SGA infant (adjusted relative risk 1·0, 95% CI 0·8 to 1·3, p=0·97), but was associated with late pregnancy loss (aHR 10·7, 95% CI 4·3 to 27·0; p<0·0001) and reduction in mean birthweight of term, singleton infants (-55·3 g, 95% CI -109·3 to -1·4; p=0·0445). INTERPRETATION: Women had a 0·7-0·9% risk of influenza per month of pregnancy during the influenza season, and antenatal influenza was associated with increased risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support the added value of antenatal influenza vaccination to improve perinatal outcomes. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. TRANSLATIONS: For the Thai, Hindi, Marathi and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Peru , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116148, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310199

RESUMO

An improved understanding of the historical variation in the emissions and sources (biomass burning, BB vs. fossil fuel, FF combustion) of soot and char, the two components of black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) may help in assessing the environmental effects of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) in SE Asia. We therefore determined historical variations of the fluxes of soot, char, and PACs (24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), and 4 azaarenes) in a dated sediment core (covering the past ∼150 years) of Phayao Lake in Thailand. The soot fluxes have been increasing in recent times, but at a far lower rate than previously estimated based on BC emission inventories. This may be associated with a decreasing BB contribution as indicated by the decreasing char fluxes from old to young sediments. The fluxes of high- and low-molecular-weight (HMW and LMW) PAHs, OPAHs, and azaarenes all sharply increased after ∼1980, while the ΣLMW-/ΣHMW-PAHs ratios decreased, further supporting the reduction in BB contribution at the expense of increasing FF combustion emissions. We also suggest that the separate record of char and soot, which has up to now not been done in aerosol studies, is useful to assess the environmental effects of ABC because of the different light-absorbing properties of these two BC components. Our results suggest that besides the establishment of improved FF combustion technology, BB must be further reduced in the SE Asian region in order to weaken the ABC haze.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compostos Policíclicos , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fuligem/análise , Tailândia
9.
Virus Res ; 292: 198233, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227343

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health threat. Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was implemented in March of 2020 at a major diagnostic hub in Bangkok, Thailand. Several virus lineages supposedly originated in many countries were found, and a Thai-specific lineage, designated A/Thai-1, has expanded to be predominant in Thailand. A virus sample in the SARS-CoV-2 A/Thai-1 lineage contains a frame-shift deletion at ORF7a, encoding a putative host antagonizing factor of the virus.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética , /prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Genômica , Humanos , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Tailândia
11.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(1): 236-239, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085800

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical pharmacists actively participate in patient care via patients' medication use. Yet the setting of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) limits patient contact with healthcare personnel. We aimed to review the services provided and drug-related problems detected using telemonitoring methods to guide clinical pharmacists in providing service in treating COVID-19 patients. COMMENT: At a tertiary care hospital in Thailand, clinical pharmacists provided pharmaceutical care services for COVID-19 patients via telemonitoring using the hospital's computerized physician order entry system. The pharmacists were able to provide therapeutic drug monitoring services, especially for anticoagulants. Many patients were considered special populations, with individualized requirements for drug dosing. Some adverse drug reactions were observed. Drug-related problems were mostly related to medication use in critically ill patients. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Telemonitoring is a viable method for clinical pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care and meet the challenges posed by treating patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/terapia , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Papel Profissional , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tailândia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111638, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293164

RESUMO

This research assessed the economic feasibility of recovering polyol from rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) waste, collected from dismantled, discarded refrigerators, by a single-phase glycolysis recycling process using domestic crude glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) as a transesterification agent. The study, conducted in Thailand, took into account benefits from the added value of the recovered product, the investment and related operating costs of the process, demand (the need for the recovered product) and supply (the amount of RPUF waste). The results showed that the production of recovered polyol from RPUF waste is economically feasible, with a net present value of 1,113,018 USD, an internal rate of return (IRR) of 22.9%, and a payback period of 4.4 years. Due to the high IRR, project investment should be attractive to both the government and private sector investors. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the economic resilience of the process to uncertainties in key factors, including the prices of the machinery, recovered polyol, crude glycerol and stannous octoate, and the amount of RPUF waste available. The sensitivity analysis showed that the economic feasibility was most sensitive to the price of the recovered polyol, followed by the amount of RPUF waste and the prices of the machinery, crude glycerol and stannous octoate. Based on these results, technological, operational, financial, and regulatory policy recommendations were also presented.


Assuntos
Poliuretanos , Reciclagem , Glicólise , Tailândia
13.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111659, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310234

RESUMO

Currently, Thai livestock is rapidly expanding, especially the production of ruminants, chicken, and swine. The improper use of antibiotics will probably lead to an antimicrobial resistance problem. It has long been suspected that wastewater released from swine farms is a crucial aspect of the spread of antimicrobial resistance to the environment. Biogas systems are wastewater treatment systems commonly used on swine farms; however, little is known about the roles they play in the occurrence and transmission of resistant bacteria between biogas and non-biogas systems. This study collected pooled water, wastewater, and feces samples from five biogas farms and three non-biogas farms in Central Thailand. The samples were isolated to hemolytic E. coli (HEC) and non-hemolytic E. coli (NHEC) to test the drug resistance by using VITEK® 2 Compact (BioMérieux, USA) and detect resistant genes by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to correlate the determined phenotypic and genotypic patterns. The results demonstrated that enumeration levels of E. coli ranged from 20.1 to 70.4 (MPN/100 ml), 105 to 107 (cfu/ml), and 105 to 109 (cfu/g), while they were 0-148.7 (MPN/100 ml), 105 to 107 (cfu/ml) and 105 to 109 (cfu/g) for water, wastewater and manure from biogas and non-biogas swine farms, respectively. The amount of E. coli in the sow feces samples was higher than the samples of nursery piglets on biogas farms at a 0.05 significant level (p < 0.05). The antimicrobial resistance indicated the relevant resistance characteristics of E. coli: the highest antimicrobial resistance was for ampicillin (AMP), followed by amoxicillin (AMX), tetracyclines (TET), chloramphenicol (C), and piperacillin (PIP), respectively. Multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli was 15 drugs: AMP-AMX-AMC-PIP-CEX-CEV-CPD-XNL-GM-IMP-SXT-C-TE (11.9%) and AMP-AMX-AMC-PIP-CEX-CEV-CPD-XNL-GM-IMP-SXT-C-ENR-MBR-TE (18.55%), which were the most commonly found in biogas and non-biogas swine farms, respectively. The blaTEM, tetA, sul2, and sul3 were dominantly resistant genes isolated from the water from both types of farm; while, blaTEM, aadA1, tetA, dfrA12, sul2, sul3, and cmlA were isolated from feces. The amount of E. coli in the final effluent from biogas swine farms was higher than the non-biogas swine farms; however, it was not significantly different at (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the findings of study found that genotypic characteristic of HEC showed similarity 100%. Thus, it was concluded that the levels of E. coli were accelerated in biogas wastewater treatment systems, and isolated E. coli demonstrated multidrug resistance. Even though E. coli was found in different locations, it showed relevant resistance characteristics. Therefore, regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance on livestock farms is necessary for efficient management and drug uses on farms.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Esterco , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biocombustíveis , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas , Feminino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , Tailândia , Água
14.
Zootaxa ; 4881(1): zootaxa.4881.1.5, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311130

RESUMO

The genus Ukamenia Oku, 1981 is recorded the first time for Thailand and a new species, Ukamenia thailandica n. sp., is described. Photograph of living specimens of U. thailandica n. sp. in natural resting posture is present. The one new taxon increases the number of described Ukamenia species to 4.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Tailândia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4868(4): zootaxa.4868.4.4, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311381

RESUMO

A small wild prawn of the genus Macrobrachium, found in Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand has some morphological features resembling four other closely related species, M. lanchesteri, M. peguense, M. kunjuramani, and M. chainatense. However, it is distinguishable from the above species in terms of distinctive golden colored antennules; number of teeth on the rostrum; number of teeth on the cutting edges of the second pereiopod; and length of carpus relative to that of chela on the second pereiopod. Moreover, DNA analysis places it far apart on the phylogenetic tree from the related species in the genus.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Palaemonidae , Animais , Filogenia , Tailândia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 921, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016 and 2017, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection outbreaks occurred in two communities in southern Thailand. This re-immerging infection can widely spread by mosquito bites and cause serious complications in a central nervous system among children born to infected mothers. Thus, they should be protected. This study aims to (1) To determine the prevalence of neutralizing ZIKV antibodies in the post-outbreak areas among the general population and pregnancy women residing at various distances from the houses of the nearest index patients; (2) To examine the cross-neutralizing capacity of antibodies against ZIKV on other flaviviruses commonly found in the study areas; (3) To identify factors associated with the presence of neutralizing ZIKV antibodies. METHODS: The two post-outbreak communities were visited at 18 months after the outbreaks. We enrolled (1) 18 confirmed ZIKV infected (index) cases, (2) sample of 554 neighbors in the outbreak areas who lived at various distances from the index patients' houses, (3) 190 residents of non-outbreak areas, and (4) all pregnant women regardless of gestational age residing in the study areas (n = 805). All serum specimens underwent the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Ten randomly selected ZIKV seropositive and ten randomly selected seronegative specimens were tested for dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies using PRNT90. Serum titer above 1:10 was considered positive. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: Out of all 18 index cases, 9 remained seropositive. The seroprevalence (95% CI) in the two outbreak areas were 43.7% (35.9-51.6%) and 29.7% (23.3-36.0%) in general population, and 24.3% (20.1-28.8%) and 12.8% (9.7-16.5%) in pregnant women. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was independent of the distance gradient from the index's houses. However, being elderly was associated with seropositivity. DENV1-4 and JEV neutralizing antibodies were present in most ZIKV-positive and negative subsamples. CONCLUSION: Protective herd immunity for ZIKV infection is inadequate, especially among pregnant women in the two post-outbreak areas in southern Thailand.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Gravidez , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 927, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thailand is home to around 69 million individuals. Dengue is hyper-endemic and all 4 serotypes are in active circulation in the country. Dengue outbreaks occur almost annually within Thailand in at least one province but the spatio-temporal and environmental interface of these outbreaks has not been studied. METHODS: We develop Bayesian regime switching (BRS) models to characterize outbreaks, their persistence and infer their likelihood of occurrence across time for each administrative province where dengue case counts are collected. BRS was compared against two other classification tools and their agreement is assessed. We further examine how these spatio-temporal clusters of outbreak clusters arise by comparing reported dengue case counts, urban population, urban land cover, climate and flight volumes on the province level. RESULTS: Two dynamic dengue epidemic clusters were found nationally. One cluster consists of 47 provinces and is highly outbreak prone. Provinces with a large number of case counts, urban population, urban land cover and incoming flight passengers are associated to the epidemic prone cluster of dengue. Climate has an effect on determining the probability of outbreaks over time within provinces, but have less influence on whether provinces belong to the epidemic prone cluster. BRS found high agreement with other classification tools. CONCLUSIONS: Importation and urbanization drives the risk of outbreaks across regions strongly. In provinces estimated to have high epidemic persistence, more resource allocation to vector control should be applied to those localities as heightened transmission counts are likely to occur over a longer period of time. Clustering of epidemic and non-epidemic prone areas also highlights the need for prioritization of resource allocation for disease mitigation over provinces in Thailand.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Epidemias , Modelos Estatísticos , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Análise por Conglomerados , Dengue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Sorogrupo , Tailândia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Urbanização
18.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(6): 442-450, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess the treatment outcomes of unilateral cleft lip and palate after primary surgery on nasolabial soft tissue of children ages 4-5 years old as compared with unaffected children and to establish a nasolabial soft tissue norm within Khon Kaen. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study consisted of 60 unaffected subjects living in Khon Kaen province and 20 subjects with repaired complete unilateral cleft lip and palate who were treated at Srinagarind Hosipital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. 3D images were taken by a Morpheus 3D Scanner and measured by the Morpheus 3D program. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used to analyze the significant differences between subjects with cleft and unaffected subjects. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) of nasolabial measurements between affected subjects and unaffected subjects. Unilateral measurements showed decreased nostril height, columella lengths, and nose protrusion from ala base and ala length in the affected group. In addition, bilateral measurements found decreased upper lip protrusion, philtrum length, upper lip height, upper vermillion thickness, and lip angle. CONCLUSION: This study attempted to establish a norm for evaluating the treatment outcome of cleft lip and cleft palate repair at Srinagarind Hospital in relation to unaffected or noncleft individuals. The results suggest that the noncleft side in affected patients is not an optimal surgical guide for cleft repair and the surgeon should correct both sides of lip and nose features according to the norms. A surgical treatment plan should emphasize correcting nostril height, columella length, nose protrusion from ala base, ala length, and upper lip features.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Nariz/cirurgia , Tailândia
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e24487, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of university students. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the psychological responses toward COVID-19 among university students from 3 countries-Indonesia, Taiwan, and Thailand. METHODS: We used a web-based, cross-sectional survey to recruit 1985 university students from 5 public universities (2 in Indonesia, 1 in Thailand, and 1 in Taiwan) via popular social media platforms such as Facebook, LINE, WhatsApp, and broadcast. All students (n=938 in Indonesia, n=734 in Thailand, and n=313 in Taiwan) answered questions concerning their anxiety, suicidal thoughts (or sadness), confidence in pandemic control, risk perception of susceptibility to infection, perceived support, resources for fighting infection, and sources of information in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 3 student groups, Thai students had the highest levels of anxiety but the lowest levels of confidence in pandemic control and available resources for fighting COVID-19. Factors associated with higher anxiety differed across countries. Less perceived satisfactory support was associated with more suicidal thoughts among Indonesian students. On the other hand, Taiwanese students were more negatively affected by information gathered from the internet and from medical staff than were Indonesian or Thai students. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that health care providers in Thailand may need to pay special attention to Thai university students given that high levels of anxiety were observed in this study population. In addition, health care providers should establish a good support system for university students, as the results of this study indicate a negative association between support and suicidal thoughts.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Biometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Taiwan , Tailândia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zootaxa ; 4894(1): zootaxa.4894.1.5, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311094

RESUMO

The damselfly genus Bayadera Selys, 1853 comprises 17 species, but the larvae of only four species have been described. Here we describe the final stadium larva of another species-Bayadera serrata Davies Yang, 1996. Larvae were collected from a headwater stream at Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun Province, Thailand. The larva of B. serrata is distinguished from congener species following the presence of one to three distinct spines on the genae, two pairs of setae on the ligula, one pair of setae on the ventral side of prementum, the presence of three teeth of the distal end of the labial palp, the presence of a plate-like spine on the gonapophyses, the presence of a row of rod-like setae on the distal end of the tibial comb, the presence of a cluster of long simple setae on the abdominal terga S3-9, and the presence of short terminal filament of the caudal gills. The larvae of genus Bayadera have been compared with other known larvae from family Euphaidae. Key is provided to the genera with known Southeast Asian euphaeid larvae: Anisopleura, Bayadera, and Euphaea.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Larva , Rios , Tailândia
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