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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19355, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150075

RESUMO

A remarkable increase in the prevalence of cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has occurred worldwide. However, updated data regarding cutaneous NTM infection in Thailand is limited.This study aim to describe the clinical manifestations, pathogenic organism, and prognostic factors of cutaneous NTM infections among patients living in Thailand.The electronic medical records of all patients with confirmatory diagnosis of cutaneous NTM infection from either positive cultures or polymerase chain reaction were retrospectively reviewed at a university-based hospital.From 2011 to 2017, a total of 88 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cutaneous NTM infection were included. Mycobacterium abscessus was the most common pathogens followed by M haemophilum and M marinum (61.4%, 10.2%, and 8.1%, respectively). Nodule and plaque were 2 most common lesions (26.4% and 25.5%, respectively) and lower leg is the most common site of involvement (50.9%). The majority of patients presented with single lesion (67%). Seven patients (7.9%) had history of surgical procedure and/or cosmetic injection before the development of lesion and all pathogenic organisms in this group were rapidly growing mycobacteria. Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum were the 2 most common reactive dermatoses, presented in 3.4% and 2.3%, respectively. The majority of patients infected with cutaneous M haemophilum infections were immunocompromised and lacked history of preceding trauma (77.8%). Patients with cutaneous NTM that receiving less than 3 medications was associated with higher disease relapse (odds ratio 65.86; P = .02).M abscessus is the most common pathogen of cutaneous NTM infection in Thailand. The prevalence of M haemophilum is increasing and should be particularly cautious in immunocompromised patients. Rapidly growing mycobacteria should be suspected in all cases of procedure-related cutaneous NTM. We recommend at least 3 antibiotics should be considered for cutaneous NTM infection to reduce the rate of relapse.


Assuntos
Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/epidemiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/patogenicidade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19522, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176103

RESUMO

Beside established anti-cancer treatment, dietary modification is one of the most promising approaches for reducing the probability of colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence. Many Western studies showed a relationship between shortened survival and increased amounts of Western diet (meat and processed meat). Given that Thai food is dissimilar to Western diet, we aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns and disease recurrence among Thai CRC patients.Early-stage CRC patients who were disease-free at the end of a 2-year period or patients with disease recurrence within 2 years were enrolled. Patients were administered a food frequency questionnaire to evaluate their dietary lifestyle. Quantitative comparison within individual food groups among patients who were disease-free and among those with recurrence was performed. Proportion of patients with recurrence and disease-free survival was compared between patients who had consumed the lowest and highest tertile of each dietary pattern.A total of 225 CRC patients were enrolled (151 disease-free and 74 recurrence). There were no significant differences in demographic or tumor parameters between patients with or without disease recurrence. From the questionnaire, 45 food items were assigned to 1 of 12 food groups according to similarity in nutritional profile. Patients who consumed high amounts of pickled fish or chili-paste had significantly lower recurrence rates compared to patients who had never eaten those foods (P < .01). From the factor analysis, meat/wheat, vegetarian, and fast-food/processed fruit patterns were identified as the major dietary patterns. There was no significant association between intakes of individual dietary patterns and CRC recurrence.Among CRC patients with Thai dietary lifestyles there was no association between meat/wheat, fast-food/processed fruit, or vegetarian dietary patterns and CRC recurrence. Greater consumption of some unique Thai foods, such as chili-paste or pickled fish, may relate to better outcomes for CRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Árabe, Russo, Chinês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46953

RESUMO

No site da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Atualizações sobre o primeiro caso do Corona virus na Tailandia (procedente de China) Preparación y respuesta ante emergencias.Nuevo coronavirus (Brotes epidémicos 14 de enero de 2020)


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Tailândia/epidemiologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105221, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654901

RESUMO

Opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (OV-CCA) is a major public health problem in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Countries, the poorest region in Asia. People in this region have similar traditions or respect the same religion. There is no difference in lifestyle and food culture. Excluding Thailand, publications on risk factors for OV-CCA from the GMS Countries are few, especially data on behavioral risk factors for OV-CCA. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the behavior-related risk factors and to compare the risk of OV-CCA among rural people living along the Mekong River in five GMS countries. It was a cross-sectional analytic study during June and October 2017. All participants with informed consent completed the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of risk factors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were used to compare the risk of OV-CCA. It was found that there were more drinkers than non-drinkers in all areas, except in Vietnam. The highest history of liver fluke infection was found in Cambodia. Praziquantel use and consumption of raw freshwater fish dishes were mostly found in Lao PDR. The highest consumption of nitrosamine-contaminated foodstuffs was found in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The spatial comparison of OV-CCA risk showed that Lao PDR and Ubon Ratchathani were two risk areas when compared to Tachileik, Myanmar (a reference area). This study provided the behavior-related risk factors for OV-CCA among people in five GMS Countries which would be a major jigsaw puzzle leading to proactive surveillance for OV-CCA prevention in the future.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1688, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporary drinking abstinence campaigns have emerged globally in recent years. In Western countries, campaigns usually challenge drinkers to abstain for one month. In Thailand, the campaign called the Buddhist Lent Abstinence Campaign has been organized annually since 2003. The campaign encourages Thai people to abstain from drinking for three months during the Buddhist Lent period, which coincides with the monsoon season in Southeast Asia (around July-October). This study aimed to estimate the proportion and number of drinkers changing their drinking behaviours during the 3-month Thai abstinence campaign and to examine the determinants of abstinence. METHODS: The 2016 Buddhist Lent Abstinence Evaluation Survey was analysed. The survey was a national representative survey of Thai populations aged ≥15 years. Weighted data were employed throughout the analysis. The number and proportion of drinkers changing their drinking behaviours were estimated. The determinants of alcohol abstinence during the campaign were explored using weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of drinking in the Thai population was 34.3% (95% CI: 32.2-36.4%). A third of the current drinkers, equal to almost six million drinkers, abstained completely during the 3-month period. Another six million drinkers partially changed their drinking behaviours (16.3% abstained for a certain period, and 18.7% decreased the quantity of alcohol they consumed). The factors associated with abstinence included religion, occupation, drinking frequency prior to the campaign, type of beverages consumed, perceived harm from alcohol, exposure to campaign media, and making a public commitment. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a temporary abstinence campaign in Thailand. The work is part of the growing global evidence on the effectiveness of this type of intervention. Temporary abstinence campaigns could be a potential approach to controlling alcohol consumption and related harms. Further research should focus on the long-term effects of such campaigns.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1075, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera is a major public health concern in displaced-person camps, which often contend with overcrowding and scarcity of resources. Maela, the largest and longest-standing refugee camp in Thailand, located along the Thai-Burmese border, experienced four cholera outbreaks between 2005 and 2010. In 2013, a cholera vaccine campaign was implemented in the camp. To assist in the evaluation of the campaign and planning for subsequent campaigns, we developed a mathematical model of cholera in Maela. METHODS: We formulated a Susceptible-Infectious-Water-Recovered-based transmission model and estimated parameters using incidence data from 2010. We next evaluated the reduction in cases conferred by several immunization strategies, varying timing, effectiveness, and resources (i.e., vaccine availability). After the vaccine campaign, we generated case forecasts for the next year, to inform on-the-ground decision-making regarding whether a booster campaign was needed. RESULTS: We found that preexposure vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of cholera even when <50% of the population is given the full two-dose series. Additionally, the preferred number of doses per person should be considered in the context of one vs. two dose effectiveness and vaccine availability. For reactive vaccination, a trade-off between timing and effectiveness was revealed, indicating that it may be beneficial to give one dose to more people rather than two doses to fewer people, given that a two-dose schedule would incur a delay in administration of the second dose. Forecasting using realistic coverage levels predicted that there was no need for a booster campaign in 2014 (consistent with our predictions, there was not a cholera epidemic in 2014). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest that vaccination in conjunction with ongoing water sanitation and hygiene efforts provides an effective strategy for controlling cholera outbreaks in refugee camps. Effective preexposure vaccination depends on timing and effectiveness. If a camp is facing an outbreak, delayed distribution of vaccines can substantially alter the effectiveness of reactive vaccination, suggesting that quick distribution of vaccines may be more important than ensuring every individual receives both vaccine doses. Overall, this analysis illustrates how mathematical models can be applied in public health practice, to assist in evaluating alternative intervention strategies and inform decision-making.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Campos de Refugiados , Vacinação/métodos , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/transmissão , Vacinas contra Cólera/provisão & distribução , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saneamento , Tailândia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1062, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the cumulative incidence of and factors associated with mortality among patients with infective endocarditis (IE) at Thailand's largest national tertiary referral center. METHODS: Medical charts of adult patients diagnosed with IE by Duke criteria at Siriraj Hospital during January 2005 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of 380 patients, 66.3% had definite IE, and 81.3% had native valve IE (NVE). Cumulative IE incidence was 5.67/1000 admissions. The most common pathogens were viridans group streptococci (VGS) (39.7%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (13.1%), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (11.5%) in NVE; and, MSSA (20.3%), VGS (20.3%), and Enterococcus spp. (16.9%) in prosthetic valve (PVE) or device-related IE (DRIE). Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.4%. Mortality was significantly higher in PVE/DRIE than in NVE (26.8% vs. 16.5%, p = 0.047). End-stage renal disease (ESRD) (aOR: 9.43, 95% CI: 2.36-37.70), diabetes mellitus (DM) (aOR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.06-7.49), neurological complication (aOR: 14.16, 95% CI: 5.11-39.22), congestive heart failure (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.91-9.75), hospital-acquired infection (aOR: 3.78, 95% CI: 1.66-8.57), renal complication (aOR: 3.12, 95%CI: 1.32-7.37), and other complication during admission (aOR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.41-7.61) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IE, and the mortality rate among those diagnosed with IE are both increasing in Thailand - particularly among those with PVE or DRIE. End-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and development of IE-related complications during admission were found to be independent predictors of mortality.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estreptococos Viridans/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1449, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have been one of the most critical public health problems in Thailand for decades. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent provincial economy was associated with RTIs, road traffic deaths and case fatality rate in Thailand. METHODS: A secondary data analysis on time-series data was applied. The unit of analysis was a panel of 77 provinces during 2012-2016. Data were obtained from relevant public authorities, including the Ministry of Public Health. Descriptive statistics and econometric models, using negative binomial (NB) regression, negative binomial regression with random-effects (RE) model, and spatial Durbin model (SDM) were employed. The main predictor variable was gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the outcome variables were incidence proportion of RTIs, traffic deaths and case fatality rate. The analysis was adjusted for key covariates. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of RTIs rose from 449.0 to 524.9 cases per 100,000 population from 2012 till 2016, whereas the incidence of traffic fatalities fluctuated between 29.7 and 33.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Case fatality rate steadily stood at 0.06-0.07 deaths per victim. RTIs and traffic deaths appeared to be positively correlated with provincial economy in the NB regression and the RE model. In the SDM, a log-Baht increase in GDP per capita (equivalent to a growth of GDP per capita by about 2.7 times) enlarged the incidence proportion of injuries and deaths by about a quarter (23.8-30.7%) with statistical significance. No statistical significance was found in case fatality rate by the SDM. The SDM also presented the best model fitness relative to other models. CONCLUSION: The incidence proportion of traffic injuries and deaths appeared to rise alongside provincial prosperity. This means that RTIs-preventive measures should be more intensified in economically well-off areas. Furthermore, entrepreneurs and business sectors that gain economic benefit in a particular province should share responsibility in RTIs prevention in the area where their businesses are running. Further studies that explore others determinants of road safety, such as patterns of vehicles used, attitudes and knowledge of motorists, investment in safety measures, and compliance with traffic laws, are recommended.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Análise Espacial , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(5): 578-585, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702065

RESUMO

Event free survival at 24 months (EFS24) has been described as a powerful predictor for outcome in several subtypes of B cell lymphoma. However, it was limitedly described in T cell lymphoma. We explored the implication of EFS24 as a predictor marker for peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). We reviewed 293 systemic PTCL patients at 13 nationwide major university hospitals in Thailand from 2007 to 2014. The median event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of PTCL patients in our cohort was 16.3 and 27.7 months with corresponding 2-year EFS and 2-year OS of 45.8% and 51.9%, respectively. A total of 118 patients achieved EFS24 (no events during the first 24 mo). Patients who achieved EFS24 had better OS than patients who did not (2-y OS 92% vs 18.8%; HR, 0.1; P < .001). The standardized mortality ratio of patients achieving EFS24 was 18.7 (95% CI, 14.6-22.8). Multivariable analysis demonstrated performance status, histologic subtype, remission status, and EFS24 achievement as independent predictors for OS. Our study affirmed the value of EFS24 as a powerful prognostic factor for PTCL. Further validation in prospective study setting is warranted.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células T Periférico/mortalidade , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007518, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751346

RESUMO

Dengue and influenza-like illness (ILI) are two of the leading causes of viral infection in the world and it is estimated that more than half the world's population is at risk for developing these infections. It is therefore important to develop accurate methods for forecasting dengue and ILI incidences. Since data from multiple sources (such as dengue and ILI case counts, electronic health records and frequency of multiple internet search terms from Google Trends) can improve forecasts, standard time series analysis methods are inadequate to estimate all the parameter values from the limited amount of data available if we use multiple sources. In this paper, we use a computationally efficient implementation of the known variable selection method that we call the Autoregressive Likelihood Ratio (ARLR) method. This method combines sparse representation of time series data, electronic health records data (for ILI) and Google Trends data to forecast dengue and ILI incidences. This sparse representation method uses an algorithm that maximizes an appropriate likelihood ratio at every step. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate that our method recovers the underlying sparse model much more accurately than the lasso method. We apply our method to dengue case count data from five countries/states: Brazil, Mexico, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand and to ILI case count data from the United States. Numerical experiments show that our method outperforms existing time series forecasting methods in forecasting the dengue and ILI case counts. In particular, our method gives a 18 percent forecast error reduction over a leading method that also uses data from multiple sources. It also performs better than other methods in predicting the peak value of the case count and the peak time.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Internet/tendências , México/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(3): 87-90, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of violence and factors associated with aggressive or violent behaviour in Thai patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all patients with schizophrenia aged ≥18 years admitted to Suan Prung Psychiatric Hospital, Thailand, between January and November 2014. Baseline interviews were conducted by a psychiatrist and psychiatric nurses. Accessibility to weapons and toxic chemicals was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 230 patients with schizophrenia screened, 207 (162 men and 45 women) were included. Of them, only 16 (7.7%) patients had aggressive or violent behaviour, including verbal aggression (n = 7), physical aggression (n = 5), and aggression against property (n = 4). Nonetheless, only 2 (12.5%) of them had been charged by the police. The weapon score was higher in violent than non-violent patients (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the weapon score was the only significant predictor of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia with greater access to weapons were more likely to have aggressive or violent behaviour. Routine screening for access to weapons in clinical settings and adequate treatment of psychotic symptoms may reduce the incidence of aggressive or violent behaviour and violent offences.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Armas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585650

RESUMO

Information on the epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in South-East Asian countries is limited, as is data on possible animal reservoirs of C. difficile in the region. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in piglets and the piggery environment in Thailand and Malaysia. Piglet rectal swabs (n = 224) and piggery environmental specimens (n = 23) were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 11 farms located in Thailand and Malaysia. All specimens were tested for the presence of C. difficile with toxigenic culture. PCR assays were performed on isolates to determine the ribotype (RT), and the presence of toxin genes. Whole genome sequencing was used on a subset of isolates to determine the evolutionary relatedness of RT038 (the most prevalent RT identified) common to pigs and humans from Thailand and Indonesia. C. difficile was recovered from 35% (58/165) and 92% (54/59) of the piglets, and 89% (8/9) and 93% (13/14) of the environmental specimens from Thailand and Malaysia, respectively. All strains from Thailand, and 30 strains from Malaysia (23 piglet and 7 environmental isolates) were non-toxigenic. To our knowledge, this is the first and only report with a complete lack of toxigenic C. difficile among piglets, a feature which could have a protective effect on the host. The most common strain belonged to RT038 (ST48), accounting for 88% (51/58) of piglet and 78% (7/9) of environmental isolates from Thailand, and all 30 isolates tested from Malaysia. Piglet RT038 isolates from Thailand and Malaysia differed by only 18 core-genome single nucleotide variants (cgSNVs) and both were, on average, 30 cgSNVs different from the human strains from Thailand and Indonesia, indicating a common ancestor in the last two decades.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Variação Genética , Abrigo para Animais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1294, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hematological changes following the initial drug regimen has been poorly understood in Thailand. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite recurrence and hematological alteration of patients during the initial drug regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at Phop Phra Hospital, Tak Province, located in northwestern Thailand. All data from patients who were diagnosed with Plasmodium spp. infection - including types of Plasmodium spp., clinical characteristics, and hematological parameters - were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that during years 2012-2018, 95 out of 971 patients (9.78%) were infected with malaria two or more times. The gender, nationality, symptom of headache, type of Plasmodium spp., and career of each patient were associated with recurrence (P-value< 0.05). Among patients treated with malarial drug, the leukocyte count and red cell distribution width (RDW) were significantly changed when compared to untreated patients with recurrence (P-value< 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicated the high prevalence of malarial recurrence in Tak Province, Western Thailand, and its relationship to certain characteristics of individuals. Patients who were treated with antimalarial drugs exhibited leukocyte and RDW changes following the initial drug regimen. This data could be useful for prompt detection, treatment, and prevention of malarial recurrence in endemic areas of Thailand.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Índices de Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 808, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in humans living in Thailand has been published. METHODS: PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterize E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene was used to investigate E. bieneusi, and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to investigate Cryptosporidium spp., and 697 fecal samples from villagers and school children in rural areas in Thailand were analyzed. RESULTS: The infection rates were 2.15% (15/697) for E. bieneusi and 0.14% (1/697) for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly high in Loei province. Sequence analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolate was C. parvum. Nine E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, EbpC, Peru12, TMH6, TMH3, TMH7, H, D, and two novel genotypes TMLH1 and TMLH2. E. bieneusi prevalence was significantly higher in male participants than in female participants, and in children aged 3-15 years than in participants aged > 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, genotypes, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi were found to vary significantly high even in one country. Transmission routes and key animal carriers of E. bieneusi may be associated with differences in hygiene, sanitation, and cultural behaviors. Further molecular studies including longitudinal studies will be required to unveil epidemiological characteristics of these opportunistic intestinal protozoa in all over the countries.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Filogenia , Prevalência , População Rural , Saneamento , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 18(4): 393-401, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522447

RESUMO

CXC Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8) plays an important role in gastric inflammation and in the progression of gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The association of CXCL8, CXC Chemokine Receptor 1 (CXCR1), and CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 (CXCR2) polymorphisms with H. pylori infection and gastric cancer progression needs to be investigated in a population within an enigma area consisting of multiple ethnicities, such as Thailand. To analyze the relative risk of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer among Thai gastroduodenal patients, gene polymorphisms in CXCL8 (promoter region -251) and in CXCR1 and CXCR2 (receptors for CXCL8) were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele specific-PCR (AS-PCR). We also determined the presence of cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) in Thai patients with H. pylori infection. Correlation between the CXCL8 (-251) polymorphism and CXCL8 gene expression was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR). We found a significant association between the T/A and A/A genotypes of CXCL8 (-251) with H. pylori infection. However, no significant correlation was found between the CXCR1 (+2607) and CXCR2 (+1208) gene polymorphisms with H. pylori infection among Thai gastroduodenal subjects. Within the H. pylori-infected group of Thai gastroduodenal patients, no significant differences in cagA were observed. In addition, the A/A genotype of CXCL8 (-251) significantly correlated with the risk of gastric cancer and correlated with higher CXCL8 gene expression levels in Thai gastroduodenal patients. These results suggest that CXCL8 (-251) polymorphisms are associated with H. pylori infection, an increased risk of stronger inflammatory responses, and gastric cancer in Thai gastroduodenal patients.


Assuntos
Gastrite/etiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Interleucina-8/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Alelos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539665

RESUMO

Fasciolosis among domestic ruminants has resulted in a decrease in the production of milk products and has occasionally led to the deaths of young ruminants due to of acute infections. This study aimed to discriminate between the eggs of Fasciola gigantica and other trematode eggs in samples collected from ruminant feces specimens using PCR-based methods with the new candidate gene Cytochrome B (CYTB). A species-specific primer was developed with a high degree of sensitivity (3.285 pg). The primer was able to amplify the F. gigantica genomic DNA and there were no positive results with the other related trematodes (Paramphistomum sp., Orthocoelium sp., Fischoederius sp., Calicophoron sp., Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. ilocanum and Isthmiophora hortensis), freshwater snails (Lymnaea auricularia, Bithynia siamensis, Indoplanorbis exustus, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera) or definitive hosts (Bos primigenius and Bubalus bubalis). The minimum concentration of DNA from eggs that could be give a positive result was 3.285 pg. Moreover, the results of the study confirmed the existence of F. gigantica in Nakhon Pathom Province with a high prevalence (28.57%) and revealed the area of infection through epidemiological mapping. Thus, the species-specific primer and epidemiological data in this study may be helpful for use in epidemiological studies, phylogenetic studies and veterinary studies in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Citocromos b/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Fasciola/enzimologia , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia/epidemiologia
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2859-2864, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554388

RESUMO

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important risk factors for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy has recently been the first-line regimen recommended in many European countries but has limited efficacy in ASEAN especially Thailand. This study was aim to evaluate efficacy of high dose PPI Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with probiotics supplement for H. pylori eradication. Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, H. pylori infected patients were randomized to receive 7-or 14-day high dose PPI- bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with or without probiotics supplement. Probiotic was 37.5 mg Lactobacillus reuteri (Biogaia®) in tablet twice daily. CYP2C19 genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests were also done. H. pylori eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 100 subjects were enrolled (72 females, 28 males, mean age=54 years). Antibiotic resistance was 15.6% for clarithromycin, 34.1% for metronidazole. CYP2C19 genotyping was performed in both group and revealed 13%, 50% and 37% for poor, intermediate and rapid metabolizers, respectively. Overall eradication rates of 7-day and 14-day regimens with probiotic were 68% and 96%; P value=0.027. The eradication rate for all patients with poor and rapid metabolizers were 100% with 14-day regimen. 14-day regimen with probiotics can provide 100% eradication with clarithromycin resistance, metronidazole resistance or dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance group. Furthermore, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and bitter taste were significantly lower in patients with probiotics group compared with placebo (6%vs.26%, P=0.002,OR=0.126,95% CI=0.03-0.53; 4%vs.18.0%, P=0.017, OR= 0.155,95% CI=0.03-0.81 and 4%vs.26%, P= 0.001,OR= 0.08, 95%CI= 0.016-0.41, respectively). Conclusions: The 14-day high dose PPI- bismuth-containing quadruple therapy with probiotic can provide an excellent cure rate for H. pylori infection as first line treatment irrespective of CYP2C19 and antibiotic resistance pattern. Adding probiotic also significantly reduced treatment-related adverse events and improve the patients' compliance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bismuto/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tailândia/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1193-1201, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A long-term civil conflict has been occurring in the southernmost provinces of Thailand, and migration to Malaysia has been accelerated by this conflict. The objective of this work was to examine the influence of perceived effects of the unrest, migration of a household member, and children left behind on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms of working age adults. METHODS: A first round of data collection was conducted in 2014 including interviews with a probability sample of 1102 households and individual interviews with 2058 males and females aged 18-59. In 2016, a second round of data collection was conducted. A fixed effects model was used in the analysis. RESULTS: The perceived effect of the unrest on the household was associated with an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, the migration of a household member for work and the presence of children left behind were related to an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults, especially among females. CONCLUSIONS: The unrest and its associated migration was related to an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among working age adults in the study population.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Civis , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emigração e Imigração , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 21: 67-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between sexual orientation of young people and their health and risk behaviours in Thailand and Sweden, and to explore similarities and differences between the countries. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using data from the Life and Health - Young surveys in Thailand and Sweden. Three different statistical analyses were used to examine the associations of the variables. RESULTS: In total, 3869 students aged 16-18 years old were included: 1488 Thai students and 2381 Swedish students. Significantly more Thai (20%) than Swedish (9%) students identified themselves as bisexual, homosexual or unsure (p < .001). Bivariate analysis showed that, in Thailand, self-harm was more often reported by the homosexual, unsure, and bisexual groups than by the heterosexual group (p = .005). In Sweden, early sexual debut was more often reported by the unsure, bisexual, and homosexual groups than by the heterosexual group (p = .033). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that homosexual and unsure sexual orientations were significantly associated with self-harm (p < .05) among Thai students. Unsure sexual orientation was significantly associated with early sexual debut (p = .04) among Swedish students. Multiple correspondence analysis indicated that sexual orientation was associated with health and risk behaviours, and varied by different subcategories of students' backgrounds such as country, sexual orientation, family structure and adult support. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority young people reported more risk behaviours and poorer health than their heterosexual counterparts. The findings are useful for policy programmes on sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 188-190, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398452

RESUMO

During March-April 2018, an infectious measles index case traveling from Thailand led to two successive generations of measles transmission in Taiwan, with 21 cases confirmed. The median patient age was 30.5 years (range 22-47 years); six (27%) had documented receipt of one (n=3) or more (n=3) previous measles-containing vaccine doses at age ≥12 months. Epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis found that most (n=16, 76%) measles transmissions had occurred in airport and flight settings; secondary and tertiary cases included cabin crew (n=7), airport staff (n=2), and passengers who had been at the same airport or on the same flight (n=7). This investigation serves as a reminder that an international airport can be a hotspot for measles transmission. International travelers, airline cabin crew, and airport employees are recommended to check their vaccination status and ensure that they are fully vaccinated against measles. Furthermore, it is recommended that airline and airport employers have an occupational health vaccination program in place to ensure appropriate pre-employment assessment of measles immunity and vaccination.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Sarampo/transmissão , Viagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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