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1.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 27: e929207, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397841

RESUMO

As of November 25, 2020, over 60 million people have been infected worldwide by COVID-19, causing almost 1.43 million deaths. Puzzling low incidence numbers and milder, non-fatal disease have been observed in Thailand and its Southeast (SE) Asian neighbors. Elusive genetic mechanisms might be operative, as a multitude of genetic factors are widely shared between the SE Asian populations, such as the more than 60 different thalassemia syndromes (principally dominated by the HbE trait). In this study, we have plotted COVID-19 infection and death rates in SE Asian (SEA) countries against heterozygote HbE and thalassemia carrier prevalence. COVID-19 infection and death incidence numbers appear inversely correlated with the prevalence of HbE and thalassemia heterozygote populations. We posit that the evolutionary protective effect of the HbE and other thalassemic variants against malaria and the dengue virus may extend its advantage to resistance to COVID-19 infection, as HbE heterozygote population prevalence appears to be positively correlated with immunity to COVID-19. Host immune system modulations induce antiviral interferon responses and alter structural protein integrity, thereby inhibiting cellular access and viral replication. These changes are possibly engendered by HbE carrier miRNAs. Proving this hypothesis is important, as it may shed light on the mechanism of viral resistance and lead to novel antiviral treatments. This development can thus guide decision-making and action to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hemoglobina E/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , /imunologia , Dengue/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Interferons , Malária/genética , Pandemias , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/epidemiologia , Talassemia/genética
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 921, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016 and 2017, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection outbreaks occurred in two communities in southern Thailand. This re-immerging infection can widely spread by mosquito bites and cause serious complications in a central nervous system among children born to infected mothers. Thus, they should be protected. This study aims to (1) To determine the prevalence of neutralizing ZIKV antibodies in the post-outbreak areas among the general population and pregnancy women residing at various distances from the houses of the nearest index patients; (2) To examine the cross-neutralizing capacity of antibodies against ZIKV on other flaviviruses commonly found in the study areas; (3) To identify factors associated with the presence of neutralizing ZIKV antibodies. METHODS: The two post-outbreak communities were visited at 18 months after the outbreaks. We enrolled (1) 18 confirmed ZIKV infected (index) cases, (2) sample of 554 neighbors in the outbreak areas who lived at various distances from the index patients' houses, (3) 190 residents of non-outbreak areas, and (4) all pregnant women regardless of gestational age residing in the study areas (n = 805). All serum specimens underwent the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Ten randomly selected ZIKV seropositive and ten randomly selected seronegative specimens were tested for dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies using PRNT90. Serum titer above 1:10 was considered positive. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: Out of all 18 index cases, 9 remained seropositive. The seroprevalence (95% CI) in the two outbreak areas were 43.7% (35.9-51.6%) and 29.7% (23.3-36.0%) in general population, and 24.3% (20.1-28.8%) and 12.8% (9.7-16.5%) in pregnant women. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was independent of the distance gradient from the index's houses. However, being elderly was associated with seropositivity. DENV1-4 and JEV neutralizing antibodies were present in most ZIKV-positive and negative subsamples. CONCLUSION: Protective herd immunity for ZIKV infection is inadequate, especially among pregnant women in the two post-outbreak areas in southern Thailand.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Gravidez , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 927, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thailand is home to around 69 million individuals. Dengue is hyper-endemic and all 4 serotypes are in active circulation in the country. Dengue outbreaks occur almost annually within Thailand in at least one province but the spatio-temporal and environmental interface of these outbreaks has not been studied. METHODS: We develop Bayesian regime switching (BRS) models to characterize outbreaks, their persistence and infer their likelihood of occurrence across time for each administrative province where dengue case counts are collected. BRS was compared against two other classification tools and their agreement is assessed. We further examine how these spatio-temporal clusters of outbreak clusters arise by comparing reported dengue case counts, urban population, urban land cover, climate and flight volumes on the province level. RESULTS: Two dynamic dengue epidemic clusters were found nationally. One cluster consists of 47 provinces and is highly outbreak prone. Provinces with a large number of case counts, urban population, urban land cover and incoming flight passengers are associated to the epidemic prone cluster of dengue. Climate has an effect on determining the probability of outbreaks over time within provinces, but have less influence on whether provinces belong to the epidemic prone cluster. BRS found high agreement with other classification tools. CONCLUSIONS: Importation and urbanization drives the risk of outbreaks across regions strongly. In provinces estimated to have high epidemic persistence, more resource allocation to vector control should be applied to those localities as heightened transmission counts are likely to occur over a longer period of time. Clustering of epidemic and non-epidemic prone areas also highlights the need for prioritization of resource allocation for disease mitigation over provinces in Thailand.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Epidemias , Modelos Estatísticos , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Análise por Conglomerados , Dengue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Sorogrupo , Tailândia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Urbanização
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264315

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies in many countries have documented reductions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalizations with smokefree policies. However, evidence on the association of cigarette tax with AMI events is unclear. There have been no studies of the associations between these two policies and AMI hospitalizations in Thailand. METHODS: We used negative binomial time series analyses of AMI hospitalizations (ICD-10 codes I21.0-I21.9), stratified by sex and age groups, from October 2006 to September 2017 to determine whether there was a change in AMI hospitalizations as a result of the changes in cigarette prices and the implementation of a 100% smokefree law. RESULTS: Cigarette price increases were associated with a significant 4.7% drop in AMI hospitalizations among adults younger than 45 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.914-0.993; p = 0.021). Implementation of the 100% smokefree law was followed by a significant 13.1% drop in AMI hospitalizations among adults younger than 45 (IRR, 0.869; 95% CI, 0.801-0.993; P = 0.001). There were not significant associations in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Thai cigarette tax policy and the smokefree law were associated with reduced AMI hospitalizations among younger adults. To improve effectiveness of the policies, taxes should be high enough to increase cigarette price above inflation rates, making cigarettes less likely to be purchased; smokefree laws should be strictly enforced.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Política Antifumo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 948, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue patients develop different disease severity ranging from mild (dengue fever [DF]) to severe forms (dengue hemorrhagic fever [DHF] and the fatal dengue shock syndrome [DSS]). Host genetics are considered to be one factor responsible for the severity of dengue outcomes. To identify genes associated with dengue severity that have not been studied yet, we performed genetic association analyses of interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3), CD27, and human leukocyte antigen-DPB1 (HLA-DPB1) genes in Thai dengue patients. METHODS: A case-control association study was performed in 877 children (age ≤ 15 years) with dengue infection (DF, n = 386; DHF, n = 416; DSS, n = 75). A candidate single nucleotide polymorphism of each of IFNL3, CD27, and HLA-DPB1 was selected to be analyzed. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan real-time PCR assay, and the association with dengue severity was examined. RESULTS: The rs9277534 variant of HLA-DPB1 was weakly associated with DHF. The genotype GG and G allele conferred protection against DHF (p = 0.04, odds ratio 0.74 for GG genotype, p = 0.03, odds ratio 0.79 for G allele). The association became borderline significant after adjusting for confounders (p = 0.05, odds ratio 0.82). No association was detected for IFNL3 or CD27. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the weak association of the rs9277534 variant of HLA-DPB1 with protection against DHF. This variant is in the 3' untranslated region and affects HLA-DPB1 surface protein expression. Our finding suggests that HLA-DPB1 may be involved in DHF pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Interferons/genética , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Dengue Grave/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Dengue Grave/virologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 499-511, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202502

RESUMO

Echinostome metacercariae were investigated in freshwater snails from 26 districts in 7 provinces of upper northern Thailand. The species identification was carried out based on the morphologies of the metacercariae and adult flukes harvested from experimental hamsters, and on nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Twenty-four out of 26 districts were found to be infected with echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails with the prevalence of 40.4%. The metacercariae were found in all 6 species of snails, including Filopaludina martensi martensi (21.9%), Filopaludina doliaris (50.8%), F. sumatrensis polygramma (61.3%), Bithynia siamensis siamensis (14.5%), Bithynia pulchella (38.0%), and Anenthome helena (4.9%). The echinostome metacercariae found in these snails were identified as Echinostoma revolutum (37-collar-spined) and Echinostoma macrorchis (45-collar-spined) morphologically and molecularly. The 2-week-old adult flukes of E. revolutum revealed unique features of the cirrus sac extending to middle of the ventral sucker and smooth testes. E. macrorchis adults revealed the cirrus sac close to the right lateral margin of the ventral sucker and 2 large and elliptical testes with slight indentations and pointed posterior end of the posterior testis. The ITS2 and nad1 sequences confirmed the species identification of E. revolutum, and the sequences of E. macrorchis have been deposited for the first time in Gen-Bank. The presence of the life cycle of E. macrorchis is a new record in Thailand and the snail F. doliaris as their second intermediate host seems to be new among the literature.


Assuntos
Cricetinae/parasitologia , Echinostoma/anatomia & histologia , Echinostoma/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/parasitologia , Metacercárias/anatomia & histologia , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Echinostoma/genética , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Metacercárias/genética , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 527-535, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202504

RESUMO

To clarify the reinfection profile associated with risk factors of opisthorchiasis, we conducted an epidemiological study on the chemotherapeutic effects on reinfection with O. viverrini in the endemic areas of Northeastern Thailand for 3 years. A total of 3,674 fecal samples were collected from participants in villages of 5 provinces. They were examined microscopically using a modified technique of formalin ethyl-acetate concentration. Egg-positive residents were reexamined year (2018) by year (2019) after treatment with a single dose (40 mg/kg) of praziquantel. Health education was provided to the participants yearly. The egg-positive rate of O. viverrini was 14.3%, and was highest (22.2%) in the 20-30 year-old group in 2017. The egg positive rate was 15.3% in dogs and 11.4% cats. Human reinfection rate was 15.5% and 6.3% in next 2 years, and was highest (23.2%) among the fishermen. Relative risk factors of reinfection were significantly higher for males, over 40-year-old age, or working as fishermen or farmers, and eating uncooked fish within the preceding year. A significant difference resulting from a health education program was observed in the third year. Therefore, health education and sustainable surveillance for opisthorchiasis should be maintained to decrease the risk of reinfection.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/prevenção & controle , Opisthorchis , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Opistorquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Virol J ; 17(1): 177, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Performance characteristics of the rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test should be evaluated and compared with the gold standard real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for diagnosis of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test, Standard™ Q COVID-19 Ag kit (SD Biosensor®, Republic of Korea), was compared with the real-time RT-PCR test, Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene®, Korea) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens. Four hundred fifty-four respiratory samples (mainly nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were obtained from COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals, including pre-operative patients at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand during March-May 2020. RESULTS: Of 454 respiratory samples, 60 (13.2%) were positive, and 394 (86.8%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time RT-PCR assay. The duration from onset to laboratory test in COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals ranged from 0 to 14 days with a median of 3 days. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test's sensitivity and specificity were 98.33% (95% CI, 91.06-99.96%) and 98.73% (95% CI, 97.06-99.59%), respectively. One false negative test result was from a sample with a high real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), while five false positive test results were from specimens of pre-operative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid assay for SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection showed comparable sensitivity and specificity with the real-time RT-PCR assay. Thus, there is a potential use of this rapid and simple SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test as a screening assay.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , /imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 877, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report three cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) endophthalmitis following multiple ocular surgeries and to review previous literature in order to study the clinical profile, treatment modalities, and visual outcomes among patients with NTM endophthalmitis. METHODS: Clinical manifestation and management of patients with NTM endophthalmitis in the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand were described. In addition, a review of previously reported cases and case series from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL was performed. The clinical information and type of NTM from the previous studies and our cases were summarized. RESULTS: We reported three cases of NTM endophthalmitis caused by M. haemophilum, M. fortuitum and M. abscessus and a summarized review of 112 additional cases previously published. Of 115 patients, there were 101 exogenous endophthalmitis (87.8%) and 14 endogenous endophthalmitis (12.2%). The patients' age ranged from 13 to 89 years with mean of 60.5 ± 17.7 years with no gender predominance. Exogenous endophthalmitis occurred in both healthy and immunocompromised hosts, mainly caused by cataract surgery (67.3%). In contrast, almost all endogenous endophthalmitis patients were immunocompromised. Among all patients, previous history of tuberculosis infection was identified in 4 cases (3.5%). Rapid growing NTMs were responsible for exogenous endophthalmitis, while endogenous endophthalmitis were commonly caused by slow growers. Treatment regimens consisted of macrolides, fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides, which were continued for up to 12 months. Initial and final vision were generally worse than 6/60. CONCLUSIONS: NTM endophthalmitis is a serious intraocular infection that leads to irreversible loss of vision. The presentation can mimic a chronic recurrent or persistent intraocular inflammation. History of multiple intraocular surgeries or immune-deficiency in patient with chronic panuveitis should raise the practioner's suspicion of NTM endophthalmitis. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are important to optimize visual outcome.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endoftalmite/diagnóstico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Extração de Catarata/efeitos adversos , Endoftalmite/epidemiologia , Endoftalmite/microbiologia , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 36(6): 540-544, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203491

RESUMO

As COVID-19 ravages the world, many countries are faced with the grim reality of not having enough critical-care resources to go around. Knowing what could be in store, the Thai Ministry of Public Health called for the creation of an explicit protocol to determine how these resources are to be rationed in the situation of demand exceeding supply. This paper shares the experience of developing triage criteria and a mechanism for prioritizing intensive care unit resources in a middle-income country with the potential to be applied to other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) faced with a similar (if not more of a) challenge when responding to the global pandemic. To the best of our knowledge, this locally developed guideline would be among the first of its kind from an LMIC setting. In summary, the experience from the Thai protocol development highlights three important lessons. First, stakeholder consultation and public engagement are crucial steps to ensure the protocol reflects the priorities of society and to maintain public trust in the health system. Second, all bodies and actions proposed in the protocol must not conflict with existing laws to ensure smooth implementation and adherence by professionals. Last, all components of the protocol must be compatible with the local context including medical culture, physician-patient relationship, and religious and societal norms.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Triagem , Humanos , Pandemias , Tailândia/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253290

RESUMO

Detection of IgA antibody against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) glycopeptidolipid (GPL) has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease but has yet to be tested in disseminated Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. In this study, we address the diagnostic efficacies of an anti-GPL-core ELISA kit in disseminated lymphadenopathy patients positive for NTM culture and anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northeastern Thailand and patients with NTM, tuberculosis, melioidosis, and control subjects were enrolled. Plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) antibodies against GPL-core were detected in the subjects and the specificity and sensitivity of the assay was assessed. Anti-GPL-core IgA and IgG levels were significantly higher in NTM patients than other groups (p < 0.0001). Diagnostic efficacy for NTM patients using anti-GPL-core IgA cut-off value of 0.352 U/ml showed good sensitivity (91.18%) and intermediate specificity (70.15%). Using a cut-off value of 4.140 AU/ml for anti-GPL-core IgG showed the same sensitivity (91.18%) with increased specificity (89.55%) and an 81.58% positive predictive value. Most patients with moderate levels (4.140-7.955 AU/ml) of anti-GPL-core IgG had rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) infection. Taken together, the detection of anti-GPL-core antibodies could provide a novel option for the diagnosis and management of disseminated NTM infected patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/sangue , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/imunologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036260

RESUMO

Multiple studies indicate that PM2.5 is the most deleterious air pollutant for which there are ambient air quality standards. Daily concentrations of PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand, continuously exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Thai National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs). Bangkok has only recently begun to measure concentrations of PM2.5. To overcome this paucity of data, daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were generated over the period 2012-2018 to interpolate missing values. Concentration-response coefficients (ß values) for PM2.5 versus non-accidental, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortalities were derived from the literature. Values were also estimated and were found to be comparable to those reported in the literature for a Chinese population, but considerably lower than those reported in the literature from the United States. These findings strongly suggest that specific regional ß values should be used to accurately quantify the number of premature deaths attributable to PM2.5 in Asian populations. Health burden analysis using the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) showed that PM2.5 concentration in Bangkok contributes to 4240 non-accidental, 1317 cardiopulmonary, and 370 lung cancer mortalities annually. Further analysis showed that the attainment of PM2.5 levels to the NAAQSs and WHO guideline would reduce annual premature mortality in Bangkok by 33%and 75%, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado/análise , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003331

RESUMO

There has been concern about the effects of high levels of internet use on the mental well-being of young people. This has generally been phrased in terms of a displacement hypothesis, that the extent of internet use and mental well-being are directly proportional. This linear model has been contrasted with a Goldilocks Hypothesis, proposed by Przybylski and Weinstein. This supposes that moderate levels of internet use may be the least harmful, conforming to a curvilinear relationship. Here these hypotheses were tested on a sample of 1140 adolescents (42% boys, 58% girls) aged 12-18 years, in 12 schools from Southern Thailand. We first report levels of internet use, and of cybervictimization, taken as one important aspect of mental well-being. We then assess the relationship of four factors of internet use (frequency, time spent, number of places accessed, number of activities) with (a) being a victim of cyberbullying, and (b) being a frequent victim; taking these as indicators of mental well-being. For (a) there was limited evidence of a Goldilocks effect on two out of four measures. For (b) the evidence did support a Goldilocks effect for all four measures, but these were under-powered analyses and the findings did not reach statistical significance. If substantiated on larger samples, a curvilinear relationship between aspects of internet use and cyberbullying would suggest a 'safe zone' for adolescent internet use, bringing its benefits while minimizing risks of cyberbullying. In the future, similar research should use larger sample sizes or longitudinal measures when exploring nonlinear trends and include other aspects of mental well-being.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying , Tecnologia da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119645

RESUMO

Outdoor and early mosquito biters challenge the efficacy of bed-nets and indoor residual spraying on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquito species. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors in Kayin state, Myanmar. Outdoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin was carried out in two villages in December 2016 (beginning of the dry season) and two villages were used as a control. Malaria mosquitoes were captured at baseline and monthly for four months after the intervention using human-landing catch and cow-baited trap collection methods. The impact of outdoor residual spraying on human-biting rate was estimated with propensity score adjusted generalized linear mixed-effect regressions. At baseline, mean indoor and outdoor human-biting rate estimates ranged between 2.12 and 29.16 bites /person /night, and between 0.20 and 1.72 bites /person /night in the intervention and control villages respectively. Using model output, we estimated that human-biting rate was reduced by 91% (95%CI = 88-96, P <0.0001) immediately after outdoor residual spraying. Human-biting rate remained low in all sprayed villages for 3 months after the intervention. Malaria vector populations rose at month 4 in the intervention villages but not in the controls. This coincided with the expected end of insecticide mist residual effects, thereby suggesting that residual effects are important determinants of intervention outcome. We conclude that outdoor residual spraying with a capsule suspension of lambda-cyhalothrin rapidly reduced the biting rate malaria vectors in this area where pyrethroid resistance has been documented.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Projetos Piloto , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3675-3690, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001253

RESUMO

In 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan were conducted. Rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. Of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. Twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. Pterygodermatites tani was the most prevalent (36.2%); other encountered species included Raillietina celebensis, Hydatigera taeniaformis (metacestode in liver tissue), Gongylonema neoplasticum and Hymenolepis diminuta. Different helminth assemblages infected three different host taxa, i.e. synanthropic Rattus spp., Tupaia belangeri (Northern treeshrew) and Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew). Nine species of possible zoonotic helminths were identified. The focus on synanthropic rats influenced the findings of helminth diversity by either host intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A significant positive correlation was found between host body mass and helminth species richness. Greater helminth species richness was found in rats from public parks compared with animals from citified areas (e.g. inside buildings or offices). Also, helminth species richness was negatively correlated with the proportion of post-flooding/rain-fed land. These results provide essential information for assessing the incidence of potential zoonotic health threats in Bangkok and updating research in parasite ecology.


Assuntos
Biota , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Cidades , Inundações , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 385-390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128864

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is the common blood pathogen infected dogs in Thailand that significantly affect dog health and caused canine monocytic ehrlichiosis which leads to anaemia, high morbidity also mortality rates. This study was performed to analyse associated risk factors and evaluate the significance of haematological responses of dogs infected with E. canis in Phitsanulok province, the northern part of Thailand. Blood samples were collected from 94 dogs, 27 (28.7%) dogs have been confirmed E. canis infection by nested PCR method. Mostly of infected dogs had hypohemoglobinemia (<12.1 g/dl), leucocytosis (>15.5×103/µl), neutrophilia (>10.6×103/µl) and thrombocytopenia (<170×103/µl). However, only thrombocytopenia was statistically different between E. canis infected and non-infected groups. Additionally, no significant statistical relationship between E. canis infection rate and sex, age or breed apparent. These data supported that infection with E. canis is endemic in dogs and thrombocytopenia may highlight during infection which reliability to use in the clinical diagnosis of E. canis infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22889, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120835

RESUMO

To determine the surgical outcomes and prognostic factors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis-related retinal detachment (RD) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients following vitrectomy.A retrospective charts review was carried out on AIDS patients who were diagnosed with CMV retinitis-related RD and treated with vitrectomy between 2002 and 2016. The main outcome measures were the rates of primary anatomical success and final visual acuity (VA) success defined as postoperative VA ≥20/200. Kaplan-Meier curves on the time to retinal redetachment were performed. Multivariate logistic regression models based on a directed acyclic graph were used to identify independent factors associated with achieving VA success.Forty five AIDS patients (52 eyes) were included. Over a mean follow-up period of 41.7 months, primary anatomical success was achieved in 44 eyes (84.6%) and VA success was achieved in 34 eyes (65.4%). Receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to RD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.9, P = .043), better preoperative VA (aOR = 4.3, P = .006), undergoing vitrectomy within 3 months (aOR=6.7, P = .008), absence of optic atrophy (aOR=58.1, P < .001), and absence of retinal redetachment (aOR=38.1, P = .007) increased the odds of achieving final VA success.Vitrectomy provided favorable anatomical reattachment in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis-related RD. Majority of patients was able to retain functional vision postoperatively. The use of HAART and early vitrectomy increased the probability of achieving both anatomical and VA success.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citomegalovirus/genética , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Vitrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitrectomia/tendências
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008719, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119609

RESUMO

An estimated 105 million dengue infections occur per year across 120 countries, where traditional vector control is the primary control strategy to reduce contact between mosquito vectors and people. The ongoing sars-cov-2 pandemic has resulted in dramatic reductions in human mobility due to social distancing measures; the effects on vector-borne illnesses are not known. Here we examine the pre and post differences of dengue case counts in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and estimate the effects of social distancing as a treatment effect whilst adjusting for temporal confounders. We found that social distancing is expected to lead to 4.32 additional cases per 100,000 individuals in Thailand per month, which equates to 170 more cases per month in the Bangkok province (95% CI: 100-242) and 2008 cases in the country as a whole (95% CI: 1170-2846). Social distancing policy estimates for Thailand were also found to be robust to model misspecification, and variable addition and omission. Conversely, no significant impact on dengue transmission was found in Singapore or Malaysia. Across country disparities in social distancing policy effects on reported dengue cases are reasoned to be driven by differences in workplace-residence structure, with an increase in transmission risk of arboviruses from social distancing primarily through heightened exposure to vectors in elevated time spent at residences, demonstrating the need to understand the effects of location on dengue transmission risk under novel population mixing conditions such as those under social distancing policies.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Singapura/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008806, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064734

RESUMO

Clinical spectrum of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, especially with regard to the presence of pneumonia. We aimed to describe the clinical course and final outcomes of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the full spectrum of disease severity. We also aimed to identify potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective study among adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between January 8 and April 16, 2020. One-hundred-and-ninety-three patients were included. The median (IQR) age was 37.0 (29.0-53.0) years, and 58.5% were male. The median (IQR) incubation period was 5.5 (3.0-8.0) days. More than half (56%) of the patients were mild disease severity, 22% were moderate, 14% were severe, and 3% were critical. Asymptomatic infection was found in 5%. The final clinical outcomes in 189 (97.9%) were recovered and 4 (2.1%) were deceased. The incidence of pneumonia was 39%. The median (IQR) time from onset of illness to pneumonia detection was 7.0 (5.0-9.0) days. Bilateral pneumonia was more prevalent than unilateral pneumonia. In multivariable logistic regression, increasing age (OR 2.55 per 10-year increase from 30 years old; 95% CI, 1.67-3.90; p<0.001), obesity (OR 8.74; 95%CI, 2.06-37.18; p = 0.003), and higher temperature at presentation (OR 4.59 per 1°C increase from 37.2°C; 95% CI, 2.30-9.17; p<0.001) were potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. Across the spectrum of disease severities, most patients with COVID-19 in our cohort had good final clinical outcomes. COVID-19 pneumonia was found in one-third of them. Older age, obesity, and higher fever at presentation were independent predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081403

RESUMO

This study examines how experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) influences the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on international tourism demand for four Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and New Zealand, over the 1 January-30 April 2020 period. To proceed, panel regression models are first applied with a time-lag effect to estimate the general effects of COVID-19 on daily tourist arrivals. In turn, the data set is decomposed into two nation groups and fixed effects models are employed for addressing the comparison of the pandemic-tourism relationship between economies with and without experiences of the SARS epidemic. Specifically, Taiwan and Hong Kong are grouped as economies with SARS experiences, while Thailand and New Zealand are grouped as countries without experiences of SARS. The estimation result indicates that the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has a significant negative impact on tourism demand, in which a 1% COVID-19 case increase causes a 0.075% decline in tourist arrivals, which is a decline of approximately 110 arrivals for every additional person infected by the coronavirus. The negative impact of COVID-19 on tourist arrivals for Thailand and New Zealand is found much stronger than for Taiwan and Hong Kong. In particular, the number of tourist arrivals to Taiwan and Hong Kong decreased by 0.034% in response to a 1% increase in COVID-19 confirmed cases, while in Thailand and New Zealand, a 1% national confirmed cases increase caused a 0.103% reduction in tourism demand. Moreover, the effect of the number of domestic cases on international tourism is found lower than the effect caused by global COVID-19 mortality for the economies with SARS experiences. In contrast, tourist arrivals are majorly affected by the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Thailand and New Zealand. Finally, travel restriction in all cases is found to be the most influencing factor for the number of tourist arrivals. Besides contributing to the existing literature focusing on the knowledge regarding the nexus between tourism and COVID-19, the paper's findings also highlight the importance of risk perception and the need of transmission prevention and control of the epidemic for the tourism sector.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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